The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
The crystalline texture in selected high-density polyethylene (HDPE) blown films was studied using transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and infrared dichroism. An orthogonally oriented dual crystalline texture was found. This structure appears to consist of two superimposed uniaxial crystalline textures. In one texture the lamellae are stacked along the machine direction, while in the other, the lamellae are stacked along the transverse direction. The lamellar populations in the two textures are affected greatly by the neck height of the film blowing process. The mechanical properties of the HDPE films can be well correlated with the dual crystalline texture observed.
Local residence time and distributive mixing were measured in conveying sections and kneading blocks of a twin screw extruder. The residence time measurements were completed using carbon black as the tracer and an infrared temperature probe to detect the temperature decrease caused by the changing surface emissivity. A mixing limited interfacial reaction between polymer tracers was used to directly measure the distributive mixing. Possible relationships between mixing and residence time in the sections of the twin screw extruder were investigated by combining these two measurements.
Blends and copolyesters of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate), PET/PEN, have shown promise in high performance container applications. Both rheology and degradation kinetics of these blends have been studied as a function of material composition. Melt viscosity loss was measured as a function of time and temperature. Activation energies for degradation were calculated from experimental data. Results show that blends containing a minimum of 10% PEN by weight are as stable as PEN. Addition of low amounts of PEN to PET causes a depression in melt viscosity. A critical composition of 10% PEN by weight is required before we observe an increase in blend viscosity.
Thickness effect on impact parameters is studied and a model is developed for flat-ended drop weight impact testing of visco-elastic materials. The model represents a relationship of specimen thickness with impact force/stress and impact energy. A polymeric material, ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA), was used for experimental verification. Experimental results for a thickness range of 1 to 9 mm at impact energy levels of 0.42, 0.96 and 1.54 Joules have been found to be in good agreement with predictions based on the model.
The purpose of this paper is the physical modeling and numerical simulation of the interface and microstructure development during the multi-component injection molding process. A software has been developed based on the control volume finite element method to calculate the transient non-isothermal multi-phase flow of viscoelastic polymer melts and to predict the stress-induced crystallization within the semi-crystalline polymers. Based on the developed simulation software material selection and process optimization becomes possible.
Three-dimensional finite-element-calculations on spiral shear sections and faceted mixing sections have been applied to test the influence of geometry onto pressure-throughput and mixing performance. Well-chosen dimensionless numbers described the geometrie of the elements so a statement about the process development could be reached. Residence time and the Flow Number ? were utilized to evaluate the mixing effect and its information value.
The Paper discusses the bulkwise heat source melting mechanism, we have termed Plastic Energy Dissipation (PED). When solid particulates are deformed in the melting section of polymer processing equipment, where melting occurs in a dissipative mix melting mode, part of the applied mechanical energy to deform solid particulates dissipates into heat. The amount of heat dissipation is quite large for both amorphous and semicrystalline polymers. A number of PED experiments were conducted as functions of strain rate, strain and temperature and the iso-temperature rise plots were obtained in temperature-strain space for commercial amorphous and semicrystalline polymers. A method to estimate melting length for Co-TSE was also developed.
Blends of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate), PET/PEN, have exhibited properties that are of commercial interest to the packaging industry. Melt processing of PET with PEN results in transesterification reactions. The blend properties are controlled by the kinetics of these reactions and these have been widely studied. Modifications to the chemical kinetic equations have been made to predict a theoretical processing temperature for different compositions of the blends to achieve critical transesterification. These values were found to be in close agreement with the experimentally observed values when blends were processed in a twin screw extruder.
Brittle impact failures were observed at low temperature on blow molded parts made from a PP/PS alloy that is normally ductile for injection molded parts tested at same temperature. An investigation was launched to determine the cause of these failures. SEM analysis on the inside surface of the blowmolded part revealed the presence of micro-voids and large spherulites. Additionally, cross-sectional analysis of the inside surface showed coalescence of the impact modifier. These factors are believed to have contributed to the brittle failures. A test method was developed in an attempt to confirm these findings.
The kinetics of thermal shrinkage of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films have been characterized and related to various parameters of the stretching process. Amorphous orientation functions and levels of crystallinity have been found to be of major importance to the shrinkage process. As film extension ratios increase, shrinkage behavior passes through five different regions. Shrinkage first increases with extension ratio, decreases with further extension to reach a minimum, and then increases again as extension is continued to higher levels. A schematic model has been proposed to describe molecular changes in polymer chain structures, within each of the shrinkage regions. Activation energies of shrinkage have been determined in addition to equilibrium shrinkage and shrinkage rate constants.
Bicomponent fibers consisting of a sheath of polypropylene (PP) and a core of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) were used in filament winding to form tubes suitable for transporting liquid oxygen. As the first step, the TLCP/PP bicomponent fiber was spun and the mechanical properties of the fibers were determined as a function of temperature to establish the conditions suitable for filament winding. Under these conditions the tensile modulus and strength of the filaments can be maintained in the filament wound products.
The effect of extensional rheology on draw resonance during fiber melt spinning is studied. Two linear low-density polyethylenes(PE's) synthesized using metallocene catalysts are compared. The LLDPE's appear to have different amounts of long chain branching, resulting in differences in extensional rheology. However, both materials behave almost identically in shear. During melt spinning, the PE's exhibit different critical draw ratios at which the onset of draw resonance occurs. Furthermore, the period of resonance changes with increasing draw down ratio for both PE's.
Delivering good qualify mold on time is always a big issue for both mold maker and molder. Either of them could loss business if the tool is delayed and or in poor quality. How to avoid these? This paper starts with tooling flow chart and discusses tooling project management techniques. The problems encountered in tooling scheduling and manufacturing process are analyzed. Also, tooling qualification and cost reduction are discussed.
This paper concentrates on the measurement of melt orientation of polymer chains and welding residual stress using birefringence. PMMA specimens were welded using four techniques, hot plate welding, laser welding, hot gas welding and ultrasonic welding. Measurements of birefringence made in transverse sections showed that levels of polymer chain orientation and some components of residual stress could be measured. These measurements were used as a basis for the assessment of heterogeneities introduced into PMMA during welding by the four techniques.
We present results on foaming of a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using water as the physical blowing agent. The TPE is a blend of polypropylene and fully crosslinked EPDM rubber made by a dynamic vulcanization process. The influence of the blowing agent content, and the processing conditions on foam density, cell nucleation, and foam structure are discussed. A brief discussion about the similarities and the differences between foaming in homopolymers and in TPEs is also included.
In the study and modeling of the resin temperature in extruder channels, the screw is commonly assumed adiabatic. However, the resin begins as a cold solid and is melted and heated as it flows, which requires that the screw also be cold at the entrance and hot at the exit. Heat must, therefore, be conducted in the screw metal from the hot end of the screw to the cold end, which requires heat transfer with the melt. Also, the heat capacity, especially of larger extruders, can require significant time to attain steady-state operation. A model of transient heat conduction in the screw coupled to heat transfer with the resin feed, melting, and pumping is used to investigate these two phenomena.
Sink marks on injection molded parts were caused mainly by part geometric design, mold design, and molding process conditions. This paper describes the dominant factors causing sink marks on injection molded part that can be predicted using CAE injection molding simulation programs. Sink marks on injection molded parts should be prevented for a new part design or solved for an existing one based on simulation results. In this study, a Bearing Bur, Laser printer part was chosen to illustrate how sink mark problems were solved using a commercial available C-MOLD® simulation program. The predicted sink marks of the Bearing Bur were compared to the measurements of an actual production part. Predictions were in good agreement with the actual injection molded part.
Injection molders presently use the Apparent Viscosity Curve" to determine the optimum fill time for a particular mold. Once the fill time has been determined the Viscosity Curve is set aside and the goal of the molder is to maintain the fill time. The motivation for my work is not only to determine fill time but also to quantify the melt viscosity using an injection molding machine/mold combination. The ability to determine the melt viscosity would assist the molder with "root cause" analysis when evaluating small dimensional shifts. The study will focus on determining if the derived viscosity using traditional rheological equations is of value when compared to dimensional or cosmetic changes."
A transparent barrel system has been developed to assist in the understanding of polymer behavior in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine. This system allows the dynamic status of the polymer inside the injection barrel to be conveniently visualized though photography and video recording, and the corresponding material conditions can be measured via a computerized data acquisition system. Effects of different processing conditions on the melting behavior are analyzed. This system can not only assist in the understanding of the process but also can be used to quantitatively verify the modeling and optimization of injection molding system.
A constant melt-front velocity during the filling of an injection mold cavity is commonly believed to bring about more uniform part quality. To maintain a constant melt-front velocity, injection velocity can be set proportional to the melt-front-area which is, however, not directly measurable. An on-line soft-sensor scheme is developed through neural network to correlate on-line measurable process variables to the melt-front-area. Simulations indicate that the soft-sensor developed for the melt-front-area works reasonably well for some selected molds.
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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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