SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
In-process Monitoring of Recycled Polyethylene for Catalyst and Regulated Metals Using Novel Applications in X-ray Technologies
Keith Vorst, February 2018
Sustainability Metrics and Characterization - Paper: Commercially available virgin and post - consumer recycled (PCR) polyethylene was characterized fo r catalyst (Ti, Pb, Al, Cr, Fe) during sheet extrusion of varying levels of PCR content (0, 30, 40, 90, 95 and 100%). An energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) detection system was installed in the extrusion line directly after the die. The X-ray spectra and raw counts were obtain ed every 45 seconds and reported with sample time and sheet location within the roll. Data were uploaded every 45 seconds to a secured custom web-based software platform. Process samples were compared to bench top analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasm a Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Our results indicate the potential use of XRF for in-process catalyst and regulated monitoring for polymer performance, safety and traceability in recycled plastics before and during conversion. More research is needed for validation of in-process monitoring systems for conversion processes and feedstock sources.
In-process Monitoring of Recycled Polyethylene for Catalyst and Regulated Metals Using Novel Applications in X-ray Technologies
Keith Vorst, February 2018
Sustainability Metrics and Characterization - Presentation: Commercially available virgin and post - consumer recycled (PCR) polyethylene was characterized fo r catalyst (Ti, Pb, Al, Cr, Fe) during sheet extrusion of varying levels of PCR content (0, 30, 40, 90, 95 and 100%). An energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) detection system was installed in the extrusion line directly after the die. The X-ray spectra and raw counts were obtain ed every 45 seconds and reported with sample time and sheet location within the roll. Data were uploaded every 45 seconds to a secured custom web-based software platform. Process samples were compared to bench top analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasm a Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Our results indicate the potential use of XRF for in-process catalyst and regulated monitoring for polymer performance, safety and traceability in recycled plastics before and during conversion. More research is needed for validation of in-process monitoring systems for conversion processes and feedstock sources.
Influence of Post-Consumer Recycled Content (PCR) and Pigments in Polyethylene Properties
Emily Hurban, February 2018
Sustainability Metrics and Characterization - Paper: Commercially recycled linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) pellets containing pigments were blended individually by weight then extruded with varying levels of recycled content. Either calcium carbonate only (white) or a mixture of white and carbon black pigment were blended with recycled polymer at virgin/recycled ratios of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% wt/wt. Each blend was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Linear relationships were investigated for statistical significance of PCR content and pigment on extruded sheet properties. Extractions in n-hexane were carried out in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, B, Part 177.1520 to determine compliance for uses with direct food contact. Results of thermal and spectrophotometric analysis did show potential for PCR marker identification. All extractives were below allowable threshold of 5% per CFR suggesting the potential use of recycled polyethylene for direct food contact applications. More research is needed to evaluate the use of various feedstock sources of recycled polyethylene for direct food contact application.
Influence of Post-Consumer Recycled Content (PCR) and Pigments in Polyethylene Properties
Emily Hurban, February 2018
Sustainability Metrics and Characterization - Presentation: Commercially recycled linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) pellets containing pigments were blended individually by weight then extruded with varying levels of recycled content. Either calcium carbonate only (white) or a mixture of white and carbon black pigment were blended with recycled polymer at virgin/recycled ratios of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% wt/wt. Each blend was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Linear relationships were investigated for statistical significance of PCR content and pigment on extruded sheet properties. Extractions in n-hexane were carried out in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, B, Part 177.1520 to determine compliance for uses with direct food contact. Results of thermal and spectrophotometric analysis did show potential for PCR marker identification. All extractives were below allowable threshold of 5% per CFR suggesting the potential use of recycled polyethylene for direct food contact applications. More research is needed to evaluate the use of various feedstock sources of recycled polyethylene for direct food contact application.
Model Validation for Composite Railroad Ties Using Micro-Mechanics Modelling and Experimental Four-Point Bend Testing Made from Recycled Polyolefins
Daniel Pulipati, February 2018
Sustainability Metrics and Characterization - Paper: The purpose of this research is to model the deflection behavior of railroad ties fabricated from recycled polyolefin post-consumer/post-industrial waste composed of HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene) and PP/FG (Poly Propylene/Fiber Glass). A technical challenge in predicting the final part performance is a limited understanding of the impact of microstructural variations due to processing variability on the final produced part's spatially varying material properties. The ties fabricated using extrusion molding techniques have a solid shell region on the outer surface and an inner foamed core. The foamed core region has cells of differing dimensions and the resulting effective material properties will vary as a function of the cell size and density. The shell and the foamed core regions are an alyzed using micromechanics models for the prediction of the stiffness. The stiffness of the foamed core is calculated using the Monte Carlo method to investigate the macroscopic sensitivity to microstructural variations. The elastic moduli obtained from micromechanics is used for the shell and foam regions in a Finite Element model, and the computational results are compared to those obtained from experimental four point bend test results with a difference between the model and experiment being less than 2% for the predicted effective stiffness.
Model Validation for Composite Railroad Ties Using Micro-Mechanics Modelling and Experimental Four-Point Bend Testing Made from Recycled Polyolefins
Daniel Pulipati, February 2018
Sustainability Metrics and Characterization - Presentation: The purpose of this research is to model the deflection behavior of railroad ties fabricated from recycled polyolefin post-consumer/post-industrial waste composed of HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene) and PP/FG (Poly Propylene/Fiber Glass). A technical challenge in predicting the final part performance is a limited understanding of the impact of microstructural variations due to processing variability on the final produced part's spatially varying material properties. The ties fabricated using extrusion molding techniques have a solid shell region on the outer surface and an inner foamed core. The foamed core region has cells of differing dimensions and the resulting effective material properties will vary as a function of the cell size and density. The shell and the foamed core regions are an alyzed using micromechanics models for the prediction of the stiffness. The stiffness of the foamed core is calculated using the Monte Carlo method to investigate the macroscopic sensitivity to microstructural variations. The elastic moduli obtained from micromechanics is used for the shell and foam regions in a Finite Element model, and the computational results are compared to those obtained from experimental four point bend test results with a difference between the model and experiment being less than 2% for the predicted effective stiffness.
New Methods Of Metal 3D Printing
Ben arnold, May 2018
Abstract is uploaded
Mechanical Properties Of Reinforced Compounds For Large Format Additive Manufacturing (Lfam)
Rabeh Elleithy, May 2018
This is a technical marketing presentation about "Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Compounds for Large Format Additive Manufacturing (LFAM)"
Best Practices For Design Of Plastic 3D Printed Parts
Ashley Eckhoff, May 2018
When designing plastic parts that are to be 3D printed, the designer must consider certain unique characteristics of the plastic printing process. These characteristics imply that different techniques must be used during design of 3D printed plastic parts than what might be used during design of injection molded plastic parts and design of 3D printed metal parts. This session will discuss some of the unique aspects of designing plastic parts for 3D printing as well as unique aspects of the preparation for printing these parts.
Processing Considerations: Cellulose Nanocrystal Thermoplastic Urethane Filament Production
Jacob Fallon, May 2018
Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) thermoplastic urethane (TPU) nanocomposites offer a wide range of unique thermal and mechanical properties. This paper focuses on solution mixing and melt processing considerations for producing cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) thermoplastic urethane nanocomposite filaments which can subsequently be printed using a fused filament fabrication (FFF) machine.
Case Study: The Hp Printer That Prints Itself
David Tucker, May 2018
The case study will provide the roadmap as to how HP’s MJF technology will be used to manufacture components for manufacturing. This case study will go through the different phases of the process that enabled 3d Printed content for the next series of MJF 3d Printers. Including the steps of Assessment, Design, Economics, and manufacturing.
Hp Multi Jet Fusion For Manufacturing
David Tucker, May 2018
Multi Jet Fusion is new to the additive manufacturing industry, but the capabilities enable the process to be used in the manufacture of production quality components. This technical session will present a deep dive into the technology and illustrate how it achieves the value proposition and how to unlock value with the technology. Additionally, applications that are enables by Multi Jet Fusion will be discussed.
Dimensional Accuracy And Design Tips For Composite Parts Made By The Fdm Process”
Vittorio Jaker, May 2018
Fiber orientation can create layers with oriented fibers that behave as pseudo-plies, analogous to more conventional continuous fiber or fabric reinforced composites. Warp and distortion of several part geometries produced from carbon fiber composites made on a Stratasys FORTUS 450mc printer are analyzed as a function of the pseudo layup and structures used to fabricate the parts. Practical solutions for mitigating warping and balancing physical properties are proposed.
Semiconductive LLDPE Power Cable Insulation Shield
Jason Zhang, May 2018
The application of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) in semiconductive medium voltage power cable strippable insulation shield (IS) is investigated in this work. Carbon black is mixed in the LLDPE alone and LLDPE/EVA blend in IS compounds for study. The critical performances of the IS compound, such as compatibility of carbon black, mechanical properties, strippable force to XLPE, electrical property, are briefly evaluated initially for the feasibility of LLDPE in such application. The results meet the basic requirement and indicate such possibility with cost benefit.
Nylon 12/PMMA/San Alloys For Translucent Medical Catheters
Timothy Largier, May 2018
A Nylon 12 (PA12) alloy with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), and styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) was optimized to increase flexural modulus while maintaining translucency. It was found that the optimal PMMA/SAN ratio to reduce haze in PA12 is 68.5/31.5. This allowed for the blend system to maintain translucency at all loadings of PA12. Mechanical testing was performed revealing that the flexural modulus was improved from the base resin from 154,915psi to 301,658 psi. Tubing samples that were produced as prototype catheters are robust, translucent, and flexible.
Influence Of Oscillating Surfaces On The Rheological Behavior Of Thermoplastic Melt
Julius Geis, May 2018
This paper deals with the behavior of thermoplastic melt, which is excited by oscillations via piezoelectric actuators. The experimental setup is designed to transmit vibrations directly into the melt. The result of this procedure is a reduced viscosity for two different thermoplastic resins of up to 23 %. Amplitude and melt temperature have little to no effect on viscosity reduction during oscillation.
Rheology As A Tool To Understand Anti-Drip Properties In Flame Retardant Polycarbonate Resins
Manojkumar Chellamuthu, May 2018
We have investigated the flame retardant (anti-dripping properties) of a polycarbonate resin by using a dynamic mechanical analysis. A UV curable polycarbonate resin showed a strong rubbery plateau as a function of UV dosage and the amount of UV active end group. The average storage modulus is defined in the rubbery plateau region from 160 to 190°C with average storage modulus of 9 MPa being a threshold value to achieve optimum flame rating.
Root Cause Analysis Of Polyolefin-Based Wire And Cable Formulation Die Build-Up
Kurt Koppi, May 2018
Die build-up negatively impacted the capacity of a compounding line for the production of a polyolefin-based wire and cable formulation. This paper discusses a root cause analysis performed on the die build-up defect, the identified solution, and the resulting economic impact.
DMA – The Other Side Of Rheology
Kevin Menard, May 2018
While dynamic testing in torsional rheometers is a well known method, the use of axial or solid state DMA is often considered more of a thermal rather than a rheological technique. DMAs like the Mettler DMA 1+ allow the testing of materials from the solid state into the melt and from the uncured liquid state to a solid. This allows a fuller range of temperatures to be covered in one scan using the shear fixtures. Examples and applications will be discussed.
Innovations In Automotive Plastics “Materials And Processes"
Suresh Shah, May 2018
This presentation will discuss Innovations in Automotive Plastics “Materials and Processes/Enabling Technologies based on recent 2017 automotive innovations awards finalists and winners as well as recent innovations not submitted for awards.


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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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