SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Shrinkage Behavior of Oriented Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
R. Mody, E.A. Lofgren, S.A. Jabarin, May 2000

The kinetics of thermal shrinkage of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films have been characterized and related to various parameters of the stretching process. Amorphous orientation functions and levels of crystallinity have been found to be of major importance to the shrinkage process. As film extension ratios increase, shrinkage behavior passes through five different regions. Shrinkage first increases with extension ratio, decreases with further extension to reach a minimum, and then increases again as extension is continued to higher levels. A schematic model has been proposed to describe molecular changes in polymer chain structures, within each of the shrinkage regions. Activation energies of shrinkage have been determined in addition to equilibrium shrinkage and shrinkage rate constants.

Filament Winding of Bicomponent Fibers Consisting of Polypropylene and a Liquid Crystalline Polymer
Jianhua Huang, Priya Rangarajan, Jay Sayre, Alfred C. Loos, Donald G. Baird, May 2000

Bicomponent fibers consisting of a sheath of polypropylene (PP) and a core of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) were used in filament winding to form tubes suitable for transporting liquid oxygen. As the first step, the TLCP/PP bicomponent fiber was spun and the mechanical properties of the fibers were determined as a function of temperature to establish the conditions suitable for filament winding. Under these conditions the tensile modulus and strength of the filaments can be maintained in the filament wound products.

An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Polymer Processing Additives (PPA) on the Melting and Gel Formation Mechanisms in a Single Screw Extruder
K.R. Slusarz, J.P. Christiano, Stephen E. Amos, May 2000

Much work has been published showing how the addition of a polymer processing aid (PPA) has improved the processing characteristics on the single screw extruder. This paper will give insight on how the PPA affects a single screw extruder. Solids conveying, melting, and melt conveying were experimentally studied to determine how the PPA affected these important processes during extrusion leading to improvements in the melt quality.

Effects of Varying Strand Length on Shielding Properties of Conductive Elastomers in Near-and Far-Field Experiments
Douglas Luther, May 2000

A new study examined the effects of varying the strand length of extruded conductive thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) pellets on the shielding efficacy of plaques molded of the material in both near- and far-field experiments. Results indicated that longer strand lengths yielded parts with higher shielding efficacy but at a cost of higher durometer and modulus. Data also indicated that far-field results were consistently higher than near-field values for the same materials and frequencies.

Measuring Frosted Glass Effects for Plastics: A Closer Look at One Frosting Agent
Tracy Phillips, May 2000

To produce consistent frosted plastic effects it is necessary to measure basic performance characteristics of the frosting agents. Frosted plastic, like frosted glass, serves a variety of aesthetic and functional needs. In testing, the most crucial characteristics are transmittance, haze, clarity and yellowness This paper examines two sets of data: 1. Comparative results of testing a series of frosting agents at differing loads 2. Specific, in-depth results of testing a single frosting agent at differing particle sizes.

Dependence of Draw Resonance on Extensional Rheological Properties of LLDPE
Michael J. Bortner, Donald G. Baird, May 2000

The effect of extensional rheology on draw resonance during fiber melt spinning is studied. Two linear low-density polyethylenes(PE's) synthesized using metallocene catalysts are compared. The LLDPE's appear to have different amounts of long chain branching, resulting in differences in extensional rheology. However, both materials behave almost identically in shear. During melt spinning, the PE's exhibit different critical draw ratios at which the onset of draw resonance occurs. Furthermore, the period of resonance changes with increasing draw down ratio for both PE's.

Heat Transfer in Extruder Screws
Stephen J. Derezinski, May 2000

In the study and modeling of the resin temperature in extruder channels, the screw is commonly assumed adiabatic. However, the resin begins as a cold solid and is melted and heated as it flows, which requires that the screw also be cold at the entrance and hot at the exit. Heat must, therefore, be conducted in the screw metal from the hot end of the screw to the cold end, which requires heat transfer with the melt. Also, the heat capacity, especially of larger extruders, can require significant time to attain steady-state operation. A model of transient heat conduction in the screw coupled to heat transfer with the resin feed, melting, and pumping is used to investigate these two phenomena.

Preventing Sink Marks of Injection Molded Parts Using CAE Analysis
Shijun Ni, May 2000

Sink marks on injection molded parts were caused mainly by part geometric design, mold design, and molding process conditions. This paper describes the dominant factors causing sink marks on injection molded part that can be predicted using CAE injection molding simulation programs. Sink marks on injection molded parts should be prevented for a new part design or solved for an existing one based on simulation results. In this study, a Bearing Bur, Laser printer part was chosen to illustrate how sink mark problems were solved using a commercial available C-MOLD® simulation program. The predicted sink marks of the Bearing Bur were compared to the measurements of an actual production part. Predictions were in good agreement with the actual injection molded part.

Apparent Viscosity Measurements for Determining Injection Molding Dimensional Variations
Gary L. Freiberg, May 2000

Injection molders presently use the Apparent Viscosity Curve" to determine the optimum fill time for a particular mold. Once the fill time has been determined the Viscosity Curve is set aside and the goal of the molder is to maintain the fill time. The motivation for my work is not only to determine fill time but also to quantify the melt viscosity using an injection molding machine/mold combination. The ability to determine the melt viscosity would assist the molder with "root cause" analysis when evaluating small dimensional shifts. The study will focus on determining if the derived viscosity using traditional rheological equations is of value when compared to dimensional or cosmetic changes."

A Transparent Barrel for Study of Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding
Furong Gao, Zhiming Jin, Xi Chen, May 2000

A transparent barrel system has been developed to assist in the understanding of polymer behavior in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine. This system allows the dynamic status of the polymer inside the injection barrel to be conveniently visualized though photography and video recording, and the corresponding material conditions can be measured via a computerized data acquisition system. Effects of different processing conditions on the melting behavior are analyzed. This system can not only assist in the understanding of the process but also can be used to quantitatively verify the modeling and optimization of injection molding system.

An On-Line Measurement Scheme of Melt-Front-Area during Injection Filling via a Soft-Sensor Implementation
Xi Chen, Furong Gao, May 2000

A constant melt-front velocity during the filling of an injection mold cavity is commonly believed to bring about more uniform part quality. To maintain a constant melt-front velocity, injection velocity can be set proportional to the melt-front-area which is, however, not directly measurable. An on-line soft-sensor scheme is developed through neural network to correlate on-line measurable process variables to the melt-front-area. Simulations indicate that the soft-sensor developed for the melt-front-area works reasonably well for some selected molds.

Improvement of the Molded Part Quality-Optimization of the Plastification Unit
S. Boelinger, W. Michaeli, May 2000

The three-zone plastification screws traditionally used in the injection molding process are nowadays limited in their efficiency. Reasons are increasing demands on the quality of the molded part and on the machine technology which is more and more adapted to the different process groups like packaging or optical parts. Therefore different types of screw geometry, e.g. barrier screws or multi-threaded screws, are used to investigate the influence of the dosing parameters and the screw geometry on the melting capacity and the homogeneity of the melt .

Carbon Dioxide Extrusion Foaming of Engineering Thermoplastics
Martin Gale, May 2000

Many engineering thermoplastics require extrusion temperatures which are too high for foaming with chemical blowing agents. Carbon dioxide foaming by direct super critical fluid injection has no such restrictions as well as offering economic benefits. This study describes preliminary work on a laboratory scale extrusion line using retrofitted parts to produce foams from a number of engineering polymers. Results of an evaluation of a very simple low cost method for measuring melt strength (an important polymer property with regard to foaming) is also included.

Effect of Nanosilica on Properties of Segmented Polyurethanes
Zoran S. Petrovi, Young-Jin Cho, Ivan Javni, Wei Zhang, May 2000

Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers having soft segment concentration (SSC) of 50% and 70% were synthesized in the presence of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The concentration of nanosilica was varied from 0% to 30% in both series. Nanosilica had not significant effect on glass transition of the soft segment but it increased tensile strength and particularly elongation at break. Tear strength of the series with 70% SSC was not affected by the presence of nanosilica while initial decrease was observed in the series with 50% SSC.

Characterization of Biaxial Orientation in Polyolefin Films
A. Ajj, K.C. Cole, May 2000

Among the most widely used orientation processes are those involving films; they include both film blowing (with a low level of orientation) and biaxial orientation or tentering (with a high level of orientation). Polyolefins (polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and their copolymers) represent a significant proportion of the polymers commonly used in these processes. The knowledge of the orientation developed in these films is critical for establishing the process conditions and the final properties of the films. In this study, we investigate the biaxial orientation developed in blown and biaxially oriented polyethylene films using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and birefringence. Biaxial orientation factors are determined for both crystalline and amorphous phases and discussed in relation with process conditions.

Measuring the Low Frequency Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Melts: Trials with PDMS Using Sphere-Plane Squeeze Flow and Interferometry
Edwin C. Cua, Montgomery T. Shaw, May 2000

The problem of measuring the linear viscoelastic (LVE) properties of polymers at low frequencies is a long-standing one, especially for polyolefins with broad relaxation times and small time-temperature shift factors. A squeeze flow apparatus utilizing Newton's interference rings has been devised to measure minute strains at very low stresses with a minimum resolution of ¼ wavelength of light. Its simplicity allows several samples to be run simultaneously under vacuum. This arrangment minimizes degradation, manhours and cost, all critical considerations for long experiments. The design and preliminary results for PDMS as measured by a prototype of the instrument will be discussed.

New Polypropylene for Differentiated Blown Films
W.D. Hoenig, C.P. Bosnyak, K. Sehanobish, W. Van Volkenburgh, C. Ruiz, L..M. Tau, May 2000

New polypropylene resins have been developed which allow for the commercialization of novel, air-quenched blown films. The new resins have been developed using molecular design principles and provide significantly enhanced properties. Key performance properties include stiffness, seal strength, and higher service temperature for many applications as well as flexibility and toughness for other applications. This new breadth in product offerings and performance ranges provides significant new opportunities for PP resins in blown films. This paper will highlight properties and processability of the new resins.

Physical Model of Polymer Pellets Melting in Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extrusion
Zhu Linjie, Geng Xiaozheng, May 2000

The melting of polymer in co-rotating twin-screw extruder depends not only on screw configurations and operational conditions, but on the properties of the polymer as well. The melting progressing is too various to be described by single melting model. Only in the past few years (1-9), some attention has been paid to the research of polymer melting in co-rotating twin-screw extrusion. In present study, based on experimental results, the conception of melting sub-stage was defined to describe the complex polymer melting progressing in co-rotating twin-screw extrusion. Ten melting sub-stages were concluded and defined. It was found that the complicate polymer melting progressing can be modeled by combining some of these ten melting sub-stages. It showed that the definition of melting sub-stages would provide an important way to the research of polymer melting in twin-screw extrusion.

Numerical Analysis on the Melt Conveying Properties of Wave Screw Element in Intermeshing Counter Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder
Zhou Fuping, Geng Xiaozheng, May 2000

In this paper, one new kind screw element, wave screw element in intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder, is designed. Three-dimensional Non-Newtonian model is established to investigate the melt conveying properties of this new screw elements. The model consists of all the gaps between the screws and the barrel such as the side gap, the calender gap, the flight gap, and the tetrahedron gap, which is in accordance with the true extrusion process. With the finite element software ANSYS, velocity, pressure and viscosity field are obtained respectively. Experiments are used to verify the results of simulation. It shows that the calculated results such as output is nearly the same as the experimental results.

Effect of Water Sorption on Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Dental Resin
A. Prasad, A. Karmaker, May 2000

Composites from different glass fibers reinforced in dimethacrylate based dental resins were prepared for flexural tests in accordance with ISO 10477. Tests were conducted on both dry specimens and on specimens stored in water for 7 days at 37°C. Depending on type and amount of fibers, the strengths were found to decrease from moderate to minor. Loss of strengths correlated with the constituents of fibers.

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