The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
A range of medium density, metallocene catalysed polyethylenes (mPEs), and conventional polyethylenes (PEs) were injection moulded using different mould cooling conditions. The results for the metallocene polyethylenes show significant improvements in impact and tensile performance. Increases of over 200% in tensile elongation for metallocene PE resins over the conventional PE resins were recorded. D.S.C. analysis shows the metallocene PE resins to be more crystalline in nature than the conventional polyethylenes.
In plastic materials published data, moisture absorption is almost always expressed in terms of percent weight gain. While this information is important for comparison purposes, it doesn't truly relate to the design engineers' application and use of these materials. This study will quantify and compare the relative dimensional changes which occur in parts as they are exposed to a humid environment and move from the dry-as-molded state toward saturation using nylon types 6, 66 and 46.
During the last few years, there has been a rapid growth of electronic equipments within industrial, commercial and domestic environments. This has led to a need to control the problem of static build-up and discharge during the manufacture, distribution and usage of products containing microprocessors. In addition, often it is necessary to contain electromagnetic radiation (EMI), which can inhibit normal operation of microprocessor containing devices. The issue of static control and discharge is also important in areas such as prevention of ignition of flammable fluids and handling of powder (to prevent dust explosion). Commercial plastic materials are insulators and hence, are often modified using conductive materials like carbon fibers to provide static dissipation and EMI shielding. This paper describes highly efficient ESD / inherently shielding engineering thermoplastic resins which can be used in a broad variety of applications. A binder was identified in this study that enhanced shielding effectiveness and reduced resisitivty of resin systems with which it was incompatible.
The effect of crystallinity on barrier properties of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS) was studied. The crystallinity was induced in s-PS by cold crystallization and crystallization from the melt. Two thermally induced crystalline forms ? and ? were observed in all crystallized samples as well as the presence of ?-mesomorphic phase in the samples cold crystallized at lower temperatures. The oxygen permeability and diffusion occurred at finite rates in the loose a hexagonal crystalline phase while it was negligible in better-packed ? orthorhombic phase. The permeability and diffusion of oxygen increased with an increase of the amount of a ordered phase while the solubility decreased, remaining, however, still soluble for oxygen even at 100%.
Polyethylene (PE) injection molded rigid containers are widely used for food packaging and promotional drink cups. Molders of these containers have well-defined processing needs and molded part requirements. Likewise, the polymer manufacturer has well-defined manufacturing and analytical methods for characterizing resin properties. This paper presents a predictive model that was developed from molded part testing versus PE resin physical properties. Utilizing this information, the resin producer and the injection molder can work together to improve molded part performance.
Recycled polymers are currently being used in the design of commercial products for the maritime structure industry. Marine pilings, pier fenders, and pier support elements are just some of the products being designed with recycled polymers. Understanding the effect of submersion in salt and fresh water on the mechanical properties of the material used in these products is important. This study will examine the tensile creep behavior of recycled HDPE in ocean water, fresh water from Lake Erie, distilled water, and air. A specially designed apparatus for aqueous creep testing was utilized to obtain the data for this study.
A 2-D transient finite element model of two-layer coextrusion has been developed with the Criminale-Erikson- Filbey (CEF) constitutive equation to study the problem of interfacial instability. Experiments were done with LDPE 132I™ (Dow Chemical Co.) in a coat-hanger die using two extruders, under well controlled temperature and flow conditions, where stable and unstable interface profiles were observed. Cross-sections of the frozen heel were taken and compared to transient simulations by quantitatively examining the position of the interface between the two layers.
For welding of plastics, various procedures of heat transfer are presently in use. Non-contact heating by radiation allows heating e.g. without contamination of a heated tool and makes heating faster by volume-absorption of the material. Presently infra-red lamps and infra-red laser beams are in use for welding of plastics. This paper wants to give an introduction into the physical principles of heating by infra-red radiation, wants to divide between surface and volume absorption of different materials and wants to give a survey about the advantages and disadvantages of infra-red lamps and lasers.
It has long been recognized that the predictive ability of the rule of mixtures for coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is less than desired. It ignores the elastic interaction and restraint between the matrix and the filler, hence yielding values that are too high. The predictive ability of the rule of mixtures and three other theories are compared to actual measured CTE values of over 90 particulate filled epoxy formulations. It has been found that the Kerner theory can predict the CTE within 8 ppm/°C at the 95% confidence interval for the epoxy systems evaluated.
Polymers, as well as glasses, exhibit physical 'aging' which leads to embrittlement. Impact modifier additives counteract this embrittlement. In clear polymer systems, such as amorphous polyethylene terephthalate [APET], blends with typical commercial impact modifiers show a significant loss of optical clarity. The work presented here, based on a new impact modifier additive, shows that embrittlement of APET can be counteracted without significant loss of optical clarity.
Fractograpy of different types of ABS has been studied in static and cyclic loading at different ambient temperature. The effects of repeated loading, notch, grades, loading level and ambient temperature on the fracture surfaces have been discussed on the basis of the phenomena of striations, tear lines, fracture origin and stress whitening patterns.
In the 1940's when rotational moulding of plastics was first developed, open flames were used to heat the mould. In the 1950's there was a switch to hot air ovens as a cleaner method to heat biaxially rotating moulds. Today hot air ovens dominate the market due to the convenience that they offer the user, although it is widely recognised that they are relatively inefficient as a means of heating. This paper presents results from an experimental investigation to assess the relative merits of open flame and hot air oven rotational moulding machines. Polyethylene mouldings of varying thickness were produced on both types of machine and cycle times were compared by using ROTOLOG to record mould internal air temperatures. It is shown that significant cost savings are possible using the open flame heating method. These savings arise from both lower energy consumption and reduced cycle times.
We have studied material degradation and durability in a broad based program in selecting medical materials. In addition, the specific requirement that medical devices and packaging must have specified shelf-lives supported by real time data also prompted for quantitative evaluation. A large number of PP types and samples were studied under diverse conditions. These included high temperature oxidative stability by oxidation induction time (OIT), high oxygen pressure OIT, oven aging, aging and oxidative stability after ionizing radiation and real time ambient storage. The activation energies from the surface embrittlement processes were also found to have a striking similarity to the thermal processes. To overcome the difficulties in generating long term ( greater than 10 years) data, well characterized historic samples of up to 23 years in age were included in this study. When all data were combined, a striking feature was apparen very few data points at higher temperatures could allow a reasonable determination of the shift factor and quite accurate estimates for lower temperature durability. This methodologyt: that for PP, a self-similarity existed among all systems examined. This allows a simple vertical shift of data to construct a master curve" similar to rheological master curves. The implication being if the master curve can be constructed when supported by further studies could lead to broader applications and deeper understandings on polymer degradation"
Medical devices industry differs from other polymer applications in one major aspect: that the products frequently need to be sterilized. Recently, sterilization by ionizing radiation has become increasingly popular, due to simplicity and cost effectiveness. In particular, the beta or electron beam (E-beam) irradiation has been adopted along with the traditional gamma radiation from radioactive Cobalt or Cesium sources. Of course, the ionizing radiation that disrupts bio-macromolecular structures in bio-burdens can and also frequently do damage polymer chains. We have conducted a study on material degradation due to E-Beam irradiation and compared with treatment with gamma. Similarity of the two processes as well as significant differences will be presented.
One of the critical factors controlling the long-term performance and durability of composites in structural applications is the interfacial shear strength (IFSS). The single fiber composite (SFC) test has been viewed by many as the best test for determining this parameter. Although the SFC test has been extensively researched, the micro-mechanics models used to obtained IFSS values are based on simplifying assumptions that are not realized under experimental conditions. Thus, results from this test often violate the known strength of the constituent materials. Therefore, a new methodology is presented that utilizes realistic assumptions.
For years decisions have been made about the acceptability of a molded part based upon subjective assessment of attributes such as sink marks. The mechanisms that cause sink are well documented. Yet sink marks continue to be a leading cause of rejected products. This research focused on developing a repeatable measurement technique for objectively quantifying the depth of sink marks. Following preliminary investigation, a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was employed.
This paper discusses the steps taken to develop an ultrasonic horn from concept through final design. Finite element modeling was used to discover the optimum geometry, which in turn resulted in superior welding results.
The extrusion of molten poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) was studied using in-line fiber optic Raman spectroscopy. The properties monitored were the content of vinyl acetate (VA) in the random copolymer and the melt index of various grades. Results are presented for independent multivariate regression of VA content and melt index values. This study presents an important development of in-line monitoring techniques that have evolved from off-line bench top measurements.
An investigation of the extrusion performance of ethylene/styrene Interpolymers was performed. These Interpolymers are pseudo-random copolymers of ethylene and styrene synthesized via INSITE* Technology, Dow's proprietary, single-site, constrained-geometry catalyst technology (1,2). Extrusion characteristics such as output rate, specific energy consumption, and extrudate temperature were measured as a function of screw design and processing conditions.
Medical devices differ from other polymer applications in one major aspect: that the product frequently needs to be sterilized. Due to simplicity and cost effectiveness, sterilization by ionizing radiation has become increasingly popular. Of course, the ionizing radiation that disrupts biological macromolecular structures (bio-burden) can and frequently does damage synthetic polymer chains. We have examined several polypropylenes (PP) subjected to long term ambient storage for up to 18 years after gamma irradiation at different doses. Many of the samples in thin film form have completely disintegrated. However, in many cases the degradation reaction was not homogeneous, with an apparent distinct skin-core structure and very different properties. These results and interpretations with an oxygen diffusion limited degradation reaction model will be presented.
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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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