SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Scratch Damage Mechanisms in Model Polymers
C. Xiang, H.-J. Sue, J. Chu, May 2000
Fundamental scratch damage behavior in polymers was studied through investigation of a series of polycarbonate and polystyrene samples with different molecular weights. The constant load scratch test, based on a spherical indenter, was employed. Scanning electron microscopy and transmitted optical microscopy were performed to examine surface and subsurface damage during scratch. The plastic flow scratch pattern and the fracture scratch pattern are the two typical scratch patterns found in polymers. It is shown that shear yielding is the main mechanism for the plastic flow scratch pattern, while tensile-tear induced fracture on the surface and shear-induced fracture on the subsurface are the main damage mechanisms found in the fracture scratch pattern. The relationship between scratch resistance and material property relationship in polymers is discussed.
Digital Color Communication for Supply Chain Management: The Latest Technological Advancements to Impact the Plastics Industry
Philip D. Ruggerio, May 2000
Everyone - color concentrate manufacturer, resin producer, compounder, molder, or extruder - understands delivering the right color the first time is crucial to customer satisfaction. Today, digital color communication technology ensures color specifications across approval points and within an increasingly complex cycle of tighter manufacturing tolerances and requirements, global competition, and just-in-time scheduling. By replacing physical sampling with digital, adjustments and approvals are made on screen, eliminating time, cost, and frustration among all points in the supply chain. This paper explores the profound implications this new technology has on the entire color cycle- from design to compounder to finished product.
Low Density Foaming of Poly(ethylene-co-octene) by Injection Molding
Pierre Moulinié, Louis E. Daigneault, Caroline Woelfle, Richard Gendron, May 2000
Low density poly(ethylene-co-octene) foams were produced by injection molding compounded formulations consisting of resin, chemical foaming agent, activators, cross-linking agent and nucleating agent. The effect of the formulation on the foam density and morphology was examined for one set of processing conditions. The concentration of cross-linking agent must be geared to the initial resin viscosity to allow proper bubble growth. The foam will otherwise collapse or show little expansion. The results show that an optimized formulation along with proper processing conditions yield fine-cell foam of low density.
Magnetic Materials Based on Polymers and Magnetical Fillers
O.S. Rodríguez-Fernandez, P. Sifuentes, L.F. Ramos de Valle, J. Matutes-Aquino, O. Ayala-Valenzuela, D. Rios-Jara, May 2000
In this paper the mechanical, magnetical and rheological properties are analyzed. The influence of different magnetic powders onto a plasticized polvinyl chloride) were studied. The magnetic characterization of isotropic plastic bonded magnets, based on strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride, as a function of composition was analyzed in a magnetometer at room temperature. In order to explain the dependence of the volumetric density and the saturation magnetization with composition, an additive model for these properties is considered. The intrinsic coercivity shows a decrease with increasing strontium ferrite content, which is due to the increasing interaction between the magnetic particles. The maximum energy product is lower than 1 MGOe and increases with the second power of the strontium ferrite content. The rheological properties were studied in a capillary rheometer; it was found that viscosity increased as the magnetic powder concentration increased in the composite.
Assessment of Metallocene Propylene Polymers for Cast Film Applications
Charlie Y. Lin, Michael C. Chen, Aspy K. Mehta, May 2000
The entry of metallocene-based products into polypropylene cast film is at a stage where potential in various markets is only now being assessed. The current thrust is to bring forward a set of differential properties to complement effectively Ziegler-Natta based poly-propylene cast film products. This study reviews the structure features of metallocene polymers and reports some potential benefits in cast film applications.
Prediction of Temperature Profiles across Coating and Substrate in the Nip
Yves Trouilhet, Barry A. Morris, May 2000
An unsteady-state, one-dimensional heat conduction model is used to calculate the temperature profiles in the melt and the substrate(s) when they come into contact in the nip of the extrusion coating or lamination process. The model helps answer such questions as: • Is the melt totally quenched in the nip? • Will the substrate(s) be exposed to temperatures above which shrinkage occurs? Will the temperatures promote post-crystallization? The answers to these questions aid in the understanding of adhesion, curling and optical problems in extrusion coating.
High Molecular Weight Flexibilizers in Low Smoke Flame Retardant PVC Compounds
E.R. Griffin, May 2000
Ethylene copolymer resin (ECR) modifiers play an important role in low smoke PVC. As high molecular weight flexibilizers these resins reduce smoke and add strength and low temperature flexibility. This combination allows compounders to increase the flame-retardant additives without compromising strength or flexibility or by adding liquids which increase smoke. This paper is presented to demonstrate these attributes versus liquid plasticizers used in PVC compounds.
Microstructure and Electrical Conductivity of BR/EPDM/Carbon Black Blends
Rigoberto Ibarra-Gómez, Oliverio S. Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis Francisco Ramos-Devalle, May 2000
Important appliances have arised from the study of polymer composites containing conductive particles (e.g., EMI shielding, antistatics, wire coatings for overcurrent prevention). The present work is concerned with dynamic properties related to the microstructural arrangements, as observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), in an elastomeric blend system consisting of Polybutadiene (BR), EPDM and Carbon Black (CB). Based on changes in the viscous component signals of BR and from micrographs of samples stained with osmium tetroxide it was found that the CB was located mainly in the BR phase. Final behavior of the conductivity was found to have great dependece on this fact.
Influence of Various Molding Conditions on the Uni-, Bi-, and Tri-Axial Impact Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Rabeh H. Elleithy, Amjad Abu-Ali, E. Ray Harrell, Jr., Jim Summers, May 2000
This study discusses the influence of molecular weight, melt temperature, mold temperature, and aging on the impact characteristics of molded PVC. Tensile impact (uni-axial), instrumented drop-dart impact (bi-axial), and Izod impact (tri-axial) methods were utilized to assess the impact properties of the material under investigation. It was found that the impact properties were affected by aging more than by the changes in the melt temperature or the mold temperature. Additionally, the molecular weight played a significant role in influencing the impact properties of PVC.
Incidence of Crosslinking Comonomer Composition in the Mechanical Properties of a Multilayer Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin
C.F.Jasso, F. Arreola, A.B. Valenzuela, U. Nahuatlato, I. Neri, R.J. Sanjuan, M.E. Hernández, May 2000
In this work an improvement in mechanical perfomance of a general purpose reinforced unsaturated polyester resin, is attempted by using two different types of crosslinking systems to make composite materials by compression molding. Three resin layers separated by two glass fiber mat pieces conform the composites to be tested. Styrene, divinyl benzene and butyl acrylate in different proportions were used to crosslink the resin. Important variations in two formulation composition zones were found for tensile strength, impact resistence and dynamic properties. A formulation may be chosen to achieve enhanced performance in particular properties.
Rapid Tooling: The Rapid-to-Market Advantage
Mel J. Janaes, James E. Folkestad, May 2000
Industrial Technology is a field of study designed to prepare technical and/or management oriented professionals for employment in business, industry, education, and government. As a young industrial technologist it is my responsibility to understand both the technical aspects of world class equipment and more importantly, strategic application of these technologies for maximum corporate impact. Rapid prototyping and rapid tooling are technologies that if coupled with appropriate management strategies should allow companies to get their products to the market faster. This paper presents how a team of graduate students is using rapid prototyping and rapid tooling to reduce product changes and associated costs and accelerate product development.
COF of LLDPE Films as a Function of Erucamide Surface Concentration
María X. Ramírez, Douglas E. Hirt, Bill Roberts, Marv Havens, Nate Miranda, May 2000
The surface of a polymer film can be modified by allowing additives within the film to diffuse to the surface and accumulate there. Some of the most commonly used surface-property modifiers are slip, antifogging and antistatic agents. Erucamide is a slip agent widely used to reduce coefficient of friction (COF) of polymer films. This research focused on quantifying the relationship between erucamide surface concentration and COF of LLDPE films. The surface concentration was measured using surface washing, and results showed that there were significant COF changes in the surface-concentration range of 0 to 0.5 ?g/cm2.
Comparison of Techniques to Measure Additive Diffusivity in Polymer Films
John P. McKibbin, Shilpa Y. Sankhe, Keisha A. Bishop, Douglas E. Hirt, May 2000
The surfaces of a polymer film can be modified by allowing additives within the film to diffuse to the surfaces and accumulate there. To model the diffusion/accumulation process, it is necessary to accurately measure the diffusion coefficient of the additive in the polymer. We have attempted to characterize the diffusivity of erucamide in LLDPE through several means: mass sorption (diffusion in") and surface washing and ATR-FTIR ("diffusion out"). Experiments demonstrate that surface washing can provide inconsistent results. Mass sorption and ATR-FTIR provide comparable results although emphasis is placed on the ATR-FTIR technique because the migration process more closely mimics the behavior of commercial films."
Study of Polypropylene Degradation in a Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder
Eric Tizon, David Bigio, Leo Kasehagen, May 2000
Screw design, injection site and operating conditions are critical parameters which influence peroxide injection efficiency during PP vis-breaking. A visual study in a clear barrel extruder was performed with water and corn-syrup to simulate the mixing of a low viscosity ratio system. Liquid injection of peroxide into PP was then performed in a 30 mm COTSE and compared to the normal pre-mixed peroxide method. Operating conditions were found to greatly influence degradation by shear and injection efficiency.
Evolution of the Anisotropic Structure of Poly(phenylene vinylene) Films with Stretching
Runqing Ou, Robert Samuels, Xingwu Wang, Richard Gregory, May 2000
The evolution of the anisotropic structure of PPV films with stretching was studied by three characterization techniques: three dimensional refractive indices using waveguide, infrared dichroism and flatplate x-ray photography. The results show that the cast PPV film without stretching has a highly planar structure. One way stretching converts the film to a uniaxial structure.
Extrusion Blow Molding Process-Development and Optimization
Karel Kouba, Petr Novotny, Peter Gust, May 2000
This paper presents the application of CAE tools for a Blow Molding process. A description of the underlying theory is provided. The predicted thickness distribution for an example part is shown to have a good correlation with experimental measurements. The approach to parison thickness optimization is also demonstrated.
Stress-Induced Crystallization
K.P. Palluch, A.I. Isayev, May 2000
The stress development during polymer processing of semi-crystalline polymers can cause stress-induced crystallization and changes in the crystallization kinetics. The integration of orientation entropy changes calculated by non-linear viscoelastic constitutive equations in crystallization thermodynamics gives us a proper physical model to describe the crystallization behavior in oriented polymer melts. Based on the model a new economic characterization procedure for stress-induced crystallization is put into application. The new model is used to simulate the stress-induced crystallization during the injection molding of isotactic polypropylenes. The results are compared with experimental data.
Interfacial Adhesion in Thermoplastic/LCP Blends
A.I. Isayev, N. Shah, May 2000
Knowledge about interfacial adhesion in thermoplastic/LCP blends is important for manufacturing self-reinforced composites with improved performance. Thus, in the present study, interfacial shear strength between different LCPs and thermoplastics was measured by using fiber pullout method. The LCPs employed were Vectra A - 950, Vectra B - 900, Ultrax KR - 4002 and Ultrax KR - 4003. The thermoplastics included were high density polyethylene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide/polystyrene alloy, polybutylene terephthalate, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthalate, polyetherimide and copolyester. Based on these measurements, the similarities and differences in interfacial behavior of various pairs have been found. In addition, ranking of various pairs of thermoplastic/LCP blends has been made concerning their interfacial shear strengths.
Rheology of Highly Interactive Polymer-Filler Mixtures
G. Havet, A.I. Isayev, May 2000
The dynamic properties of polystyrene (PS)/silica mixtures of various concentrations were investigated as a function of frequency and strain along with the flow curves. An abrupt change in the viscoelastic properties is noticed above 1% volume concentration. Observations by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate the creation of a 3D network through bridging of filler particles by adsorbed polymer. The rheological behavior is simulated utilizing a double network created by the entangled polymer matrix and the adsorbed polymer. Both networks are represented by a Giesekus viscoelastic constitutive equation. The dependence of rheological properties on filler concentration is taken into account through the density of polymer-filler interactions and a hydrodynamic reinforcement. The relative contribution of both networks is computed through the energy balance consistent with the thermodynamics of the chemical interactions and fluid mechanics. This self-consistent approach allows one to predict the major features of the rheological behavior of such systems.
Differential Scanning Calorimeters with Increased Sensitivity and Resolution
Vijay N. Reddy, Randy Byrne, Nobutaka Nakamura, Osamu Sakamoto, May 2000
Resolution and sensitivity are two of the most important properties of thermal analyzers. Resolution can be described as the ability to separate and observe two events, which occur close to one another and sensitivity is the ability to detect very small effects. The ability to significantly shorten the overall experimental time and increase throughput, yet obtain data with improved resolution and greater sensitivity are highly desirable. In many labs involving thermal analysis of polymers, today's instruments provide a similar choice. In this paper, improved sensor design and firmware in Differential Scanning Calorimeters (DSC) will be discussed using few application examples.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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