SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Surface Analysis of Polymeric Materials: Roughness Exponent
Edgar Reyes, Carlos Guerrero, Moisés Hinojosa, Virgilio González, May 2000

The self-affine behavior of fracture surfaces of polypropylene, PP, and polystyrene, PS, were analyzed applying the variable bandwidth method to the height profiles generated with an atomic force microscope, AFM. The roughness exponent, ?, obtained with this method was 0.788-0.008 for PP samples and V=0.81-0.023 for PS. These results are in very good agreement with the claimed universal value of V=0.8 reported in the literature for other non-polymeric materials. Melted PP was crystallized following two different cooling rates and the crystalline surfaces were also analyzed, obtaining similar roughness exponents. This fact probably means that, for this case, the self-affine behavior could be independent of the crystallization rate.

Morphology and Thermal Loading in Laser Welding of Thermoplastics
Jörg Vetter, Fabienne Duriau-Montagne, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, Dirk Hänsch, May 2000

Laser welding, an innovative, flexible technology for joining of thermoplastics, now starts to make its way from scientific laboratories into industrial series production. There has been intense research on weld strength de-pending on polymer, butt design, fillers and absorption behavior. Nevertheless, a considerable lack of knowledge concerning the fundamental relationship between the process and its influence on thermal loading of the weld plane and resulting morphology still exists. Actual results of laser transmission welding experiments - including thermal and microscopic analysis of the weld plane - could contribute to a better understanding of the process itself and to success in practical applications.

Temperature Calculation of Plastic Gears
Peter Faatz, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, May 2000

Plastic cog-wheels may run completely without lubricants. When using plastic cog-wheels a service life dependent on the application is to be guaranteed. Because the service life of the cog-wheel is limited by the wear of the flank of the cog-wheel, the specification of the wear is required for dimensioning plastic gears. Caused by frictional processes at the surface of the cog, heat is produced. Like the mechanical properties of plastics, the wear also strongly depends on temperature. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the temperature of the cog. Plastic gears are tested and the cog temperature is measured by means of a thermal camera. Polyacetal cogwheels with a modulus of 1 mm are examined. It will be shown, that the cog temperature can be calculated on the basis of heat balances with a known coefficient of friction.

On-Line Material Characterization during Extrusion of Recyclates
Thomas Schubert, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, May 2000

Unknown properties of recycles are the problem in the field of recycling thermoplastics. The off-line determination of selected properties (basicpolymer, colour and mechanical properties) is not sufficient to qualify recyclates. Important for the characterization is an almost complete knowledge of the material properties when producing recyclates that are supposed to be competitive as construction materials. Therefore the implementation of tools for the detection and assurance of material properties on-line during extrusion is a promising conception. This presentation shows and discusses the basic ideas of on-line property determination, the achieved results of material determination, and the resulting process control.

The Effects of Stress Hardening on the Crystallization and Density of Polypropylene
Desiree A. Nichols, May 2000

When polymers undergo stress hardening, their crystallinities and densities are affected. Polypropylene was the material tested in this experiment. It was put under various levels of strain by using a tensile tester. Each sample was pulled to a predetermined strain, allowed to relax for a period of time, and measured for crystallinity using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Stress-hardened and original samples were used to compare the change in crystallinity. The density of each sample was also determined using the Density Gradient Column.

Comparison of Aluminum, Wood, and Epoxy as Thermoforming Mold Materials
Danell Oliver, May 2000

There are many different types of materials used in the thermoforming industry for the molds used to form plastic products. The most commonly used are aluminum-alloys, soft and hard woods, and epoxy. Each of these materials has distinct characteristics that make them useful under certain design conditions and manufacturing production processes. The following addresses the qualifying factors for each of the commonly used materials based on their characteristics and manufacturing requirements.

Effects of Processing Parameter on Pinch-Off Designs
Chad Weller, Matt Marlowe, May 2000

This study examines the effects of process changes on weld line strength using different pinch-off designs. Mold closing speed and melt temperature were varied with four different pinch-offs. To determine the effect of these process changes on weld line strength, 4 D.O.E.'s were used. Five specimens were taken from each D.O.E. run and tested for tensile strength at the weld.

Shearing of Plastic in Runners Causes Property Differences in Parts
Richard H. Bishop, May 2000

This paper presents a study of the effect of shear variations, developed in a runner of a multi-cavity mold, on the impact properties of molded parts. The study has found that impact strength can vary by as much as 2:1. The effect of runner designs are also presented.

Evaluation of the Interfacial Tension between a Low Molar Mass Liquid Crystal and Solid Polymers
Renato Norio Shimizu, Nicole Raymonde Demarquette, May 2000

The surface tension of a low molar mass liquid crystal (LMMLC) was measured as a function of temperature (56.0°C to 79.5°C), using the pendant drop method. The surface tension presented a behavior described by two distinct curves for the different phases (isotropic and nematic). Also the contact angles of LMMLC on plates of PS and of a liquid crystal polymer were measured at different temperatures (from 62.4°C to 89.0°C). The angle presented a discontinuity nearby the nematic to isotropic transition temperature when measured on PS, whereas it remained constant on the LCP. The interfacial tension between the LMMLC and the polymers were estimated.

Influence of Process Parameters on the Phenomenon of Stress Cracking during Hot Plate Welding
H. Potente, J. Schnieders, May 2000

Heating experiments were carried out in order to investigate the significance of the different process parameters on susceptibility to stress cracking. With the help of wetting tests, different crack lengths were generated in the heated sheet and subsequently compared with the various process parameters by means of multiple regression analysis. Another focal point is the estimation of the normal stress difference (?x – ?y) at each point of the specimen by means of 2D photoelastic stress analysis. In both cases the marked correlations between the process parameters and the phenomenon of stress cracking are recognisable, and the results can be used to minimise stress cracking.

Structure-Property Relationship in Poly(phenylene sulfide)(PPS)/Polyethylene Blends-Effect of Metallocene Catalyzed Polyethylene
Bo Sun Lee, Byoung Chul Chun, May 2000

In this investigation, blends of poly(phenylene sulfide)(PPS) with two types of polyethylene such as linear low density polyethylene(LLDPE) and metallocene catalyzed polyethylene(MPE) were prepared by melt blending. First, rheological behavior was determined using a capillary rheometer. The melt viscosity of PPS/LLDPE and PPS/MPE blends was low when PE was a dispersed phase. However, when PPS was a dispersed phase, increased melt viscosity was observed. This tendency was similarly observed in mechanical properties such as percent strain at break and notched Izod impact strength. Also, the mechanical behavior of PPS/LLDPE and PPS/MPE blends showed negative deviation from the rule of mixtures relationship when PE was a dispersed phase. But the negative deviation for PPS/MPE blend was less than that for PPS/LLDPE blend. Also, the dispersed phase morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscope(SEM).

Factors Influencing the Sorting Efficiency of Commingled Post-Consumer Bottles Using an Automated Sorting System
Robert Dvorak, Edward Kosior, Pio Iovenitti, Syed Masood, May 2000

This paper examines the effects of high throughput rates in a spectroscopic bottle sorting system, on the purity of PET and HDPE end-products as well as other key factors such as an increase in material loss, decrease in % material yield and the need for extra manual sorting staff at higher throughput rates. Increasing the throughput rate of a wide belt bottle sorting system from 1,000 kg/hr to 2,000 kg/hr decreased the purity of HDPE by 17% and that of PET by 2%. Material loss had more then doubled for PET from 12% to 32% and for HDPE increased from 8% to 9%. The end-product yields for HDPE and PET had decreased by 3% and 8% respectively. One of the key improvements to the sorting operation was the development of an automated sensor cleaning system, which uses an automated film rotating mechanism.

The Development of Weld Line Strength in Injection-Molded Poly(methyl methacrylate)
Anne K. O’Brien-Soucy, Carol M.F. Barry, Ross G. Stacer, May 2000

An experimental investigation has been conducted to evaluate various approaches to modeling weld line development during the injection molding of amorphous plastics. A series of poly(methyl methacrylates) (PMMA) representing several different molecular weights were molded both with and without weld lines over a range of processing parameters. Results were compared with the predictions of several previously proposed isothermal models. These were found to be insufficient to explain all the phenomena observed. A non-isothermal model is developed to provide an improved predictive capability. This non-isothermal approach combined with fracture mechanics leads to a new physical interpretation of weld line morphology and its contribution to the resultant strength of the welded part.

The Effects of Pulse Cooling on The Molding Cycle and Part Variation
Andrew S. Lamont, Corey J. Linden, May 2000

A design of experiments study was performed that analyzed the effect of pulsed heating and cooling on warpage of an injection molded part. The study involved the following factors: inlet water temperature, melt temperature, mold temperature, and cooling time. The critical dimension was measured by an optical coordinate measuring scope with a repeatable process determined by an R&R study. The gathered data determined that, within the range of the factors study, the inlet water temperature was the only one that did not effect warpage.

Characterizing Scrap Vinyl Flooring to Determine Feasible Reuse Options
Andrew Lawrence, May 2000

The manufacturing waste generated during the production of vinyl floor tiles is typically sent to landfills, rather than recycled, because of a lack of reuse options for this material. This waste is typically PVC loaded with approximately 80% limestone. The goals of this research are to characterize this material to determine the feasibility of reprocessing it and to measure the mechanical properties of the processed material. This study will also attempt to suggest an injection molding or extrusion application for the mixture.

A Method to Characterize the Impact Properties of Hand Tools
John Stanko, John Kennerknecht, May 2000

There does not currently exist a method for the characterization of the impact properties of hand tools, specifically screwdrivers. Without a scientific method of collecting data for various designs, it is difficult for manufacturers to determine the effect of material or design changes on the impact properties of the product. The most demanding application for these hand tools can often be a hammer blow to the handle of the product, and therefore this abuse must be strongly considered in the design criteria.

Rheological Characteristics of Polymer Blends
Roberto Guimarães Pereira, Alexandre Alves Costa Oliveira, May 2000

This work presents an experimental observation of the rheological characteristics of the TPE/SB blend (Thermoplastic Elastomer / Styrene-Butadiene) used in the plastic transformation industry for medical applications. The flow curves (shear viscosity x shear rate) of the blend were investigated at different temperatures and in a wide range of shear rates. During the extrusion, the instability phenomenon (melt fracture) and its relation with the shear rate and temperature parameters was also investigated. All the experiments, the flow curves and melt fracture observation, were performed in a Capillary Rheometer ( a Rosand Rh-2100 capillary rheometer) working with a 1 x 16 mm rod capillary die.

Evaluation of Liquid Gas-Assisted Injection Molding
Doyoung Moon, Seungwook Lee, Donghak Kim, May 2000

Gas-Assisted injection molding has been applied successfully in plastic industry within last 10 years. Liquid gas-assisted injection molding (LGAI) is a good alternative of conventional gas-assisted injection molding process. In LGAI process, a liquid is injected under low pressure into the melt stream. The liquid vaporizes and pushes the melt downstream and creates hollow channels within part. HELGA® patents this process originally. We had evaluated this process with different-type molds and liquid nozzles that we develope. Finally, we compared the LGAI process to the conventional gas-assisted injection molding process.

Surface Enrichment in Polymer Blends Involving Hydrogen Bonding
Yuzhi Duan, Eli M. Pearce, May 2000

Poly(4'-hydroxyl-4-ethylphenylsiloxane)(PHEPS) has been synthesized via hydrosilylation followed by hydrolysis. This polymer, hydrogen bonding donor, was blended with three kinds of hydrogen bonding acceptors that include poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVPy), poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) and poly(ethylmethyacylate) (PEMA). The surface enrichment with PHEPS, which has lower surface energy, was characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of the strength of hydrogen bonding interaction on the surface compositions of the blends was studied. The results showed that surface enrichment in miscible polymer blends was responded to the balance between the differential in the surface energy of the constituents and the bulk enthalpic interactions.

The Effect of Chemical Blowing Agent Dosage on the Properties of Extruded Expanded Polypropylene
Dorian Dixon, P.J. Martin, E. Harkin-Jones, May 2000

This paper investigates the influence of CBA (chemical blowing agent) concentration on the properties of extruded EPP (expanded polypropylene) rod samples. A design of experiment methodology was adopted to quantify the effect of CBA (endothermic type) dosage on EPP properties. Foam characteristics measured, were density, cell structure, tensile properties, premature foaming, and extrusion parameters (melt temperature and pressure). The research revealed that an optimal blowing agent concentration of 0.5% exists in terms of obtaining the finest cell morphology and most efficient material savings/density reduction.

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