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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
TTIR Welding of Aliphatic Polyketone
David A. Grewell, Wilma Nijenhuis, May 2000
This paper reviews the evaluation of through transmission infrared (TTIr) welding of aliphatic polyketone (Carilon Polymer). The paper reviews the effects of operating parameters, such as power density, weld time and pressure on weld strength. It was found that with proper operating conditions, parent material strength could be achieved. It was shown that thickness' as high as 6 mm were weldable using power densities in the range of 30 to 40 W/cm. Thickness' above 8 mm will be difficult to weld with TTIr (?=800-900 nm) due to surface heating and high power requirements (45W/cm). A transparent pressure foot may help remove heat and reduce marking.
Poly(phenylene ether) Engineering Thermoplastic Provides Creep Resistance, Toughness and Fire Resistance Required for High Performance Pallets
Adeyinka Adedeji, Bruce Torrey, Lorene Baccaro, Peter Zuber, George Diehl, Steven MacLean, John A. Jones, May 2000
The first all-plastic pallets to meet high mechanical performance standards, and satisfy Underwriters Laboratories fire requirements have been developed. The foam injection molded top and bottom decks of the assembled pallets are made of a low specific gravity, flame retarded high performance (Poly(2,6 dimethyl 1,4-phenylene ether)/high impact Polystyrene) blend, Noryl® engineering resin. The pallet comer posts are made of injection molded high performance (Polycarbonate/Poly(butylene terephthalate) blend, Xenoy® engineering resin. Both of the resins' intrinsic properties, molding (processing) method, and design geometry meet the requirements for Grocery Market Association pallets. The resulting pallet is an all-plastic pallet with exceptionally high mechanical performance and flame resistance that is rated equal to or better than comparable wooden pallets.
On-Line Viscosity Measurement during Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Extrusion
Richard Gendron, Pierre Sammut, Alberto Correa, Charles L. Rohn, May 2000
The effects of various processing parameters (temperature, pressure and drying time) during extrusion of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were examined using a commercial on-line process control rheometer mounted on a twin-screw extruder. Particular attention was addressed to the effect of the moisture content. Moisture left in the resin pellets due to an incomplete drying reacts with the polyester to break down the molecular weight, which is reflected by a significant decrease of the viscosity. Since the PET resin is highly hygroscopic, off-line melt viscosity characterization may yield erroneous estimates of the rheological behavior. As in-line drying is recommended to achieve optimal properties, on-line viscosity characterization is required to provide an unbiased viscosity measurement and a true estimate of the performance of the drying step.
Nondestructive Study of Temperature-Property Correlations during the Curing of Rubberized Fabric
Christina Chandler, Nancy Mathis, Lin Li, May 2000
During the production of waterproof fabric for use as convertible car roofs, fabric and rubber are co-extruded and cured. Temperature control and residence time in the curing oven are key to the final properties. The manufacturer desires a nondestructive instrumented technique to replace the current pressure test used for quality control. Thermal conductivity of these fabrics has been measured nondestructively to relate to the degree of cross-linking. Thermal behaviors and compositions of this material have been evaluated both DSC. Combining thermal analysis techniques with thermal conductivity correlation's, may be an appropriate quality check of such product.
Analytical Methodologies Employed in a Comprehensive FDA Food Contact Compliance Investigation: Analyses for Residual Monomers, Resin Oligomers, Additives and Modifiers in Several Food Simulating Solv
Jeffrey S. Eberhard, Melanie M. McCort-Tipton, May 2000
FDA mandates and product stewardship concerns have given rise to challenging analytical problems. This is evident when considering the potential migration of constituents of a polymer formulation intended for food contact applications. Residual monomers, resin oligomers, additives and modifiers must all be considered in the evaluation of potential human health impact. In this paper we present a series of analytical methodologies that address these concerns. Liquid and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy are used to quantitate the migration of a number of representative compounds from polymeric formulations intended for food contact applications.
Effect of Layered Silicates on Thermal Characteristics of Polycarbonate Nanocomposites
Geralda Severe, Alex J. Hsieh, Bryan E. Koene, May 2000
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the thermal properties of polycarbonate (PC)-layered silicate nanocomposites. The type of clays used in this study include phosphonium exchanged montmorillonites as well as synthetic clays which contained C18-alkyl side chains with or without additional tethering amino- or epoxy-groups. Effects of clay contents on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of PC were determined. DSC results indicated that synthetic clays had little effect on the Tg of PC; however, a very slight decrease in Tg was noted in those nanocomposites filled with phosphonium exchanged montmorillonites compared to that of the pure PC. In addition to Tg, an endotherm at about 50°C was also evident in DSC obtained for the synthetic clay filled nanocomposites. TGA results revealed that the presence of synthetic clays caused a significant reduction in the thermal stability of PC. Nanocomposites filled with 7.5 and 10 % of C18-synthetic clay also exhibited a two-step thermal degradation. The second step occurred at a temperature slightly higher than the onset degradation temperature observed in pure PC. Phosphonium exchanged montmorillonites provided better thermal stability for PC than the synthetic clays; a slight increase in the onset temperature of thermal degradation over that of the pure PC was evidenced.
Mechanical Performance of Polyamides with Influence of Moisture and Temperature-Accurate Evaluation and Better Understanding
Nanying Jia, Val A. Kagan, May 2000
The wide use of thermoplastics has put higher demands on designers to conduct more accurate and increasingly sophisticated analysis of materials in order to ensure the performance of the molded parts under the end-use conditions characterized by varying humidity, temperature, and dynamic load or deformation. One of the key aspects in thermoplastic analysis is to apply correct material property parameters obtained using standard testing procedures and under end-use conditions. Previously we reported to SPE (AnTec'97, AnTec'98, and RETEC/ASTM'99) the short- and long-term mechanical properties of polyamides (nylon) with time and temperature effects under dry-as-molded conditions. The current paper focuses on the two of the most influential factors on polyamides' properties and performance - moisture and temperature. The tensile properties of conditioned polyamides were obtained from -40°C to 150°C, and the moisture content in the sample was examined immediately after test to ensure that the change in material properties is accurately reflected. The results provided critical understanding on the impact of moisture and temperature on polyamides strength and ductility. The findings in this investigation will enable engineers and product developers to successfully design and evaluate the performance of injection molded nylon parts under end-use conditions.
Defect Analysis and High Density Polyethylene Pipe Durability
Shaofu Wu, Kalyan Sehanobish, Noor Jivraj, May 2000
Engineering thermoplastics, in particular polyolefins such as special grades of high density polyethylene, are gaining importance in high pressure pipe applications such as gas and water supply systems. To ensure proper performance of such pipes over the required lifetime, durability analyses are needed to adequately account for the effects of loading, time, temperature, and especially the occurrence of defect particles in the pipe, such as gel particles, contaminants, process residues etc. The objectives of this work are to characterize the defect particles in HDPE pipes, examine their origins, and correlate with the long-term performance of pipes. The results indicate that the lifetime of these pipes under hydrostatic test conditions may be more sensitive to the rigidity and interfacial adhesion of defect particles than purely the size of defect particles.
Automatic Cooling Channels Layout of Straight Cooling Pipes in Injection Molding
Hiroshi Koresawa, Hiroshi Suzuki, May 2000
This paper deals with method of automatically arranging cooling channels, which are composed of linear-shaped cooling pipes, in an injection mold. For this study, an autonomous design methodology to automatically arrange curved cooling pipes was suggested and its efficacy was confirmed. This method will be expanded in this paper so as to be applied to a cooling channel with a combination of straight cooling pipes. Then, the method will be examined through a series of numerical experiments. In this study, straight cooling pipes are expressed by arranging in a straight line, lengthwise, a plural number of heat-absorbing elements. A cooling channel is composed of a combination of those pipes. To achieve the desired temperature distribution on the mold cavity surface, the arrangement of the cooling channel is searched through autonomous movement of cooling pipes. This movement will be achieved through translational motion, and expansion/contraction to satisfy the two constraints, the straight shape of cooling pipes and the maintenance of their interconnected relationship.
Modelling of Bubble Formation in Rotational Molding
C.T. Bellehumeur, J.S. Tiang, May 2000
Polymer sintering and heat transfer are fundamental phenomena in rotational molding. In the heating stage of the molding cycle, the powder particles melt, adhere to each other and sinter. During this stage, pockets of air are entrapped between the particles and form bubbles. This work aims at determining the relative effects of material properties and molding temperature on the initial sintering and bubble formation in rotational molding. The molding temperature varies strongly with the oven temperature and molded part thickness, and is determined using a lumped parameters heat transfer model (Gogos et al., 1998). The initial sintering of powder is predicted using a two-particle sintering model (Pokluda et al, 1997). The sintering model is used together with the heat transfer model to predict the level of sintering reached when an additional powder layer adheres to the melt and thus entraps air pockets which in turn will form bubbles. Results show that the initial size of the bubbles formed does not vary significantly when changing molding conditions. The polymer rheological properties seem to dominate the bubble formation process. Further results will be compared with experimental work.
A Study of the Deterioration in the Mechanical Performance of Polymers Used in Multilayer Fuel Lines with Immersion in a Standard Automotive Test Fuel
M.P. McCourt, G.M. McNally, W.R. Murphy, T. McNally, May 2000
Many multilayer fuel line structures are currently being developed for use in fuel handling systems in an effort to comply with pending legislation regarding reduced vapor emissions. This study examines the changes in the mechanical properties and glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the polymers used in multilayer tubes such as conductive Nylons, barrier layer materials including Fluoropolymers, and tie layers with immersion in the standard test fuel Fuel C at 25°C. The changes in Tg, percentage mass uptake, swelling, mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact were determined for different immersion times. The results show that a significant deterioration in the mechanical performance of many of these polymers was recorded. A corresponding decrease in Tg with increasing immersion time in the test fuel was observed.
Pressure Build-Up in a Staggered Pin Compounding System
P.J. Bates, J. Kendall, D. Taylor, M. Cunningham, May 2000
Pultrusion compounding is a widely used technique for mixing polymer with continuous reinforcement. It often involves pulling glass roving over staggered pins immersed in a pool of liquid polymer. This causes polymer pressure to build-up in a wedge-shaped region located between the roving and pin. This pressure drives polymer into the roving. To study this pressure build-up, roving was pulled over an instrumented pin placed in a silicon oil pool. A hole in the pin allows pressure to be measured at various locations in the wedge as a function of pulling speed, oil viscosity, and inlet tension. These parameters are lumped together with the roving width to form a dimensionless group called the lubrication number. Initial studies using impermeable tape showed that for lubrication values above 0.0001, the maximum pressure was equal to its theoretical value of tension divided by the product of tape width and pin radius. For permeable roving the maximum pressure was significantly less than that value. Models for pulling force as a function of process parameters have also been developed and validated.
Optimizing Welding Temperature of Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics-Memory Effects of Nylon
Val A. Kagan, May 2000
Previously we reported*1 to SPE'99 on the basic principles for optimization of the vibration welding process and presented an analysis of the weld-melt temperature kinetics for linear vibration welding. For this investigation we used the advanced Thermovision 900® infrared measurement system*2 for comprehensive, real-time analysis and thermal imaging. Under optimized processing conditions for vibration (linear and orbital) and hot-plate welding technologies, the tensile strength of welded nylon 6 butt joints is equal to or 14% higher than the tensile strength of the base polymer (matrix). For optimized vibration welding conditions, the maximum temperatures of the weld-melt (in inter-phase) were significantly above (85 - 90 °C) the melt point of the welded nylon 6 and nylon 66 (Tm = 223 °C and 261 °C, respectively). For PP based plastics, J. Vetter and G. W. Ehrenstein observed*3 an increase in the maximum temperature in the weld-melt / in weld inter-phase of not more than 10 °C above the melting point ( Tmp ). In their report to SPE'99, the authors discussed the results of the physical modeling for semi-crystalline HDPE, showing the values of maximum temperatures in the weld inter-phase above 250 °C compared to melting point (Tmp = 126 °C). Ch. Bonten presented*4 to SPE'99 his analysis on the mechanisms active in weld interface of semi-crystalline thermoplastics (HDPE and cross-linked polyethylene PE-X). Mechanical performance of welded joints was affected by crystallization across the boundary layer and weld-melt temperature kinetics (above melting point Tmp). For a better understanding of the role and influence of the temperature of the melt (in injection molding) and weld-melt (in welding) on mechanical performance of semi-crystalline molded (welded) thermoplastics, we performed a comparative study for nylon 6 and nylon 66 (non-filled and fiber-glass reinforced) plastics. Mechanical performance of injection molded and welded nylon was evaluated using static (tens
Thermoforming Simulation and Experimental Validation on a Bass Boat Hull
D. Laroche, R. Connolly, C. Elie, M. Gundjian, May 2000
An integrated thermoforming simulation of a HDPE bass boat hull was performed. The part is fabricated by Pelican International. The sheet heating, forming and cooling stages were sequentially analysed in order to predict the sheet sag and temperature as well as the final part wall thickness distribution. Sheet heating includes radiation from the oven banks combined with air convection. The viscoelastic deformation of the polymer under gravity load was modelled in order to predict sheet sag in the oven. The effect of the sheet sag, for a long part (3 m), on the sheet deformation during the forming stage could then be predicted. The part thickness was measured with a magnetic sensor. These experimental values were then compared with the prediction. Good agreement between predicted and measured wall thickness distribution was found.
Engine Cooling Performance Optimization Using a CFD Guided Design Modification of a Centrifugal Plastic Fan
L. Reinhardt, E. Homsi, May 2000
Large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, typically consisting of 100 thousands of cells, are used in the design process of plastic components. Readily available hardware and software have made it possible to simulate a system as a whole and determine the contribution and effect of each component onto the overall performance. The CFD tools are used primarily to guide making modifications to achieve better performance and to execute smarter validation test, thus eliminating unnecessary preliminary models. This paper presents a CFD guided case study on performance optimization, conducted on a centrifugal fan used in the cooling of a tractor engine.
Application of Internet and Web Technologies for Management of Molding Know-How
Lih-Sheng Turng, John Lottey, Manjunath Mahishi, Nur Yildirim, Mandar N. Damle, Bharat Gupta, May 2000
This paper presents the latest development of a Web-based Knowledge Management System (KMS) for injection molding. This system is aimed at helping any knowledge-intensive organization in the molding industry to create, capture, manage, and share engineering data and know-how related to plastics part design and manufacturing (Molding Intelligence"). The KMS is implemented within the framework of the Internet and Web technologies to facilitate ease of use global and instant information access and dissemination and collaboration among geographically dispersed team members."
Blow and Injection Molding Process Set-Ups Play a Key Role in Stress Crack Resistance for PET Bottles for Carbonated Beverages
Stephen W. Zagarola, May 2000
This paper discusses the role of injection and blow molding set-up in reducing the bottles' vulnerability to stress cracking; an aspect often ignored in traditional training on stress crack prevention. Case studies, involving process optimization for stress crack resistance, illustrate typical key process variables affecting stress cracking including interactions with injection molding variables. Examples show how to strike a balance between the demands of stress cracking performance and performance of other key areas. It comments on the relationship between stress crack resistance and properties such as material distribution and base clearance (the gap between the injection gate and the bottom of the bottle).
Understanding the Effects of Weathering Variables on Plastics Using Fractional Factorial Experiments
Henry K. Hardcastle III, May 2000
Sophistication of experimental designs for weathering research testing continues to evolve. The majority of current weathering experiments utilize simple designs which change few variables at a time. These types of weathering experiments require more trials and result in more cost and less information than approaches using Fractional Factorials." Conducting "Fractional Factorial" experiments before using traditional approaches focuses weathering research on the significant and important variables effecting material performance. This paper presents a methodology for applying "Screening Fractional Factorial" approaches to material performance research. This paper includes a case study and examples of weathering data."
Edge Effects in Film Casting of Molten Polymers
Kathleen Canning, Albert Co, May 2000
In most analyses of the film casting process, edge effects such as necking in and edge beading are usually neglected. In this work, we investigated the significance of these effects and their dependence on the rheological properties of the melts, the draw ratio, and the extrusion rate. Two linear low-density polyethylene melts and a low-density polyethylene melt were considered. The rheological behaviors of these melts were characterized under shear and elongational flows. Streamlines from the die exit to the chill roll, velocity profiles, film tension, neck-in profiles, thickness profile of the solidified film, and edge bead thickness profile were examined.
Solution of Inverse Thermoforming Problems Using Finite Element Simulation
Chao-Hsin Wang, Herman F. Nied, May 2000
Finite element simulation of thermoforming can provide highly accurate predictions of final part thickness. The majority of these simulations have been for isothermal situations. Similar calculations can also be performed for non-isothermal processing conditions, provided suitable temperature dependent material properties are available for the polymer of interest. For these simulations, it is assumed that the initial sheet temperature is known and does not change significantly during forming. In this paper sample results are presented for the so-called inverse thermoforming problem, where an initial temperature distribution is sought that will result in a specific final thickness distribution. Thus, a finite element simulation is combined with an iterative algorithm to obtain inverse solutions for a simple axisymmetric thermoformed part. In this example, the required initial temperature distributions that result in a uniform final thickness, are determined for a deeply drawn part. It is shown that the calculated results are quite sensitive to perturbations in the specified initial temperature profile and thus the practical application of optimal temperature distributions may require high precision thermal sensors and controls.

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