SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Analysis of Halo Effects on Injection Molded Parts
Amit Dharia, May 1999
The problem of a specific type of surface defect called tiger stripes" or "halos" on the injection molded parts of the thermoplastic olefin blend is investigated. First the method to reproduce such defects on the small parts is described and then the results of a rheological method to predict materials prone to producing tiger stripes are presented. Results indicate that both the molecular weight and relaxation behavior are critical determinants. Materials with large molecular weights as predicted by very high melt viscosity at zero shear rate and short relaxation time tend to form less tiger stripes."
Analysis of Halo Effects on Injection Molded Parts
Amit Dharia, May 1999
The problem of a specific type of surface defect called tiger stripes" or "halos" on the injection molded parts of the thermoplastic olefin blend is investigated. First the method to reproduce such defects on the small parts is described and then the results of a rheological method to predict materials prone to producing tiger stripes are presented. Results indicate that both the molecular weight and relaxation behavior are critical determinants. Materials with large molecular weights as predicted by very high melt viscosity at zero shear rate and short relaxation time tend to form less tiger stripes."
Processing Variables and the Scaling Parameters in Blown Film Extrusion
Tae H. Kwack, May 1999
Five critical blown film extrusion variables to the formation of morphology of blown film and thus, mechanical/physical properties were identified. For the identified critical processing variables, mathematical expressions of scaling parameters were derived in terms of scaling factors. The scaling factors ?, ?, q, and z are the ratios of die radii, die gaps, output rates, and frost line heights, respectively, of two different blown film extrusion lines. It was found that the scaling parameters should satisfy the following conditions to ensure a proper scaling from one film extrusion line to another.
Synchrotron Studies of Polymers: An Industrial Perspective
J.D. Londono, R.V. Davidson, R.A. Leach, R. Barton Jr., May 1999
The advantages inherent in synchrotron radiation from an insertion device for studies of oriented polymers are discussed. The relevance of these capabilities for industrially related R&D studies is examined. Increased intensity over lab sources makes possible real-time studies under conditions similar to those encountered during processing. Applications resulting from the highly collimated radiation include mapping spatial variations of structure in films or injection molded plaques. Control over the incident energy provides further advantages. Some illustrative examples are provided.
Electrical Properties of Carbon Black(CB)-Filled Polypropylene/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composites
Jiyun Feng, Chi-Ming Chan, May 1999
Carbon black(CB)-filled polypropylene(PP) /ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composites were prepared by the conventional melt-mixing method. The electrical resistivity, positive temperature coefficient(PTC) effect, and morphology of the composites were elucidated in detail. CB particles were found to be selectively localized at the interface between PP matrix and UHMWPE particles or in the PP matrix due to the extremely high viscosity of UHMWPE. Double-PTC effects were also observed and discussed.
Solid State FTIR Analysis of Hydrogen-Bonded Domains in Synthetic Biopolymer Hybrid Silk-Like Materials
D.Y. Sogah, R.C. Claussen, M.J. Winningham, O. Rathore, May 1999
Novel silk-like hybrid-peptide polymers containing either parallel or anti-parallel ?-sheets templated by either phenoxathiin or xanthene derivatives have been prepared. Solid state FTIR spectroscopic studies confirm the presence of ?-sheets in the polymers. Building blocks that do not contain the rigid templates do not readily form the sheet structures.
J.C.M. de Bruijn, May 1999
Glass mat thermoplastics (GMT) are currently state-of-the-art materials for compression molding, with still hugh potentials. In Europe their unique position is attacked through the use of Long fibre thermoplastic (LFT) materials which are processed through the use of extrusion compression molding. Although raw and semi-finished product producers are fighting a media battle, it will be discussed how both materials can nicely exist alongside from the viewpoint of a finished product producer.
Time Dependent Crack Growth in Polyethylene with Emphasis on Environmental Attack
Paul B. Wells, Walter L. Bradley, Dave Register, Mark Lamborn, May 1999
This research seeks to determine the effect of chlorinated hot water on slow crack growth resistance in polyethylene using a test methodology that is quick and inexpensive. This will be done through the use of three point bend tests on specimens completely immersed in a bath of chlorinated hot water. The results will then be compared with results from the same test run without chlorinated hot water. Comparative data will be used to determine chlorine's effect.
Crystallization Behavior and Crystal Morphology of HDPE-Molecular Weight Dependence
Fang-Chyou Chiu, Qiang Fu, May 1999
A series of high density polyethylene (HDPE) fractions with molecular weight ranges from 1,600 to 325,000 g/mol have been investigated. The results of overall crystallization kinetics study by DSC indicate that the crystallization rate and the Avrami exponent (n) vary with molecular weight and undercooling (?T). Basically, the fraction with a lower molecular weight shows a higher crystallization rate. PLM, TEM and x-ray scattering technique were used to study the crystal morphology under different ?T's. Typical spherulites, axialites and asymmetrically shaped single crystals were observed.
Fatigue Stress-Life Characterization Approach for Continuous Glass Fiber/Thermoplastic Composites
M.N. Bureau, J. Denault, May 1999
The long-term mechanical behavior of continuous glass fiber/thermoplastic composites has been addressed in terms of flexural fatigue stress - life curves. Contrary to other engineering materials submitted to cyclic loading, generally showing a significant stiffness reduction near the end of their fatigue life, the fatigue response of continuous glass fiber/polypropylene (PP) composites shows a progressive damage accumulation that must be considered when fatigue stress - life curves are reported. A fatigue life characterization methodology is proposed.
Vibration Molding of Thermoplastic Composites
Robert P. Fried, May 1999
VIM (Vibrational Microlamination) is a new technology in the physical sciences. In VIM development, the physical, the chemical, and engineering technologies have been combined to contribute effective new knowledge.
Effects of Molecular Structure on Macroscopic Mechanical Properties of an Advanced Polymer (LARC™-SI)
Lee M. Nicholson, Jeffrey A. Hinkley, Karen S. Whitley, Thomas S. Gates, May 1999
Mechanical testing of an advanced polymer resin with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The elastic properties, inelastic elongation behavior, and notched tensile strength all as a function of molecular weight and test temperature were determined. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature.
Structure-Mechanical & Dynamic Mechanical Properties Relationship in Polyamide Based Thermoplastic Elastomeric Blends and Blocks
Anil K. Bhowmick, S. Ghosh, A. Jha, May 1999
Dynamic mechanical and mechanical properties of segmented polyamides composed of polyether and polyamide structural units of varying block lengths and thermoplastic elastomeric reactive blends of polyamide and acrylic rubber of varying interactions have been studied. The results are explained on the basis of the chemical structure and morphology of the systems.
Choosing a New Future - A Look at the Current Polystyrene Industry from Global and Market Perspectives and Opportunities for Stronger Growth
Kevin J. McQuade, May 1999
In a highly uncertain international business environment, the polystyrene industry still has attractive opportunities and needs to plan now to take advantage of the next turnaround when economic conditions improve. The industry has the power to choose its future by taking the right steps now to prepare for the opportunities that will emerge with the upturn.
Prediction of Complex Dynamic Behavior from Simple Deformations
Mohan Gounder, Alan Letton, May 1999
Many researchers have noted that characterizations based on sinusoidal tests alone provide misleading information regarding materials used in non-sinusoidal periodic applications. However, availability of commercial instruments that can evaluate materials in complex periodic deformations is rare. To address this problem, various nonsinusoidal periodic deformations are applied to a nitrile elastomer using a torsional rheometer and suitable modeling is employed to predict the behavior. Also it is shown that complex dynamic behavior can be predicted from simple deformations.
Capturing PVT Behavior of Injection-Molded Parts Using Hybrid Methods
Hubert Lobo, Twylene Bethard, May 1999
Polymer crystallization is the primary mechanism for shrinkage in semi-crystalline molded parts. Injection molding CAE utilizes PVT data to provide information about crystallization. Conventional PVT measurements do not reflect the true shrinkage behavior of the plastic because they do not subject the polymer to the same kind of thermal history as seen in the actual molding process. We introduce a novel hybrid technique to characterize the PVT relationship of molded parts, which accounts for cooling rate effects.
Structure Property Correlations in a New Rigid Rod Luminescent Conjugated Polymer, Polypyridine
A.P. Monkman, L.E. Horsburgh, M.E. Vaschetto, P.D. Hatton, H.D. Burrows, W. Brown, L. Pettersson, May 1999
Poly(2,5-pyridine diyl) is found to be a unique conjugated polymer in that it is a truly rigid rod polymer whilst being solution processible. It is a highly crystalline polymer with strong interchain interaction, yet is also highly luminescent. The structural properties of this most interesting material are presented together with the physical properties that ensue
Crystallization and Morphology of Propylene/Pentene Random Copolymers
P. Juhász, K. Belina, May 1999
Crystallization and melting behavior of propulene/1-pentene random copolymers were studied. WAXD and d.s.c. measurements of isothermal crystallized samples confirm that the copolymers contain the ? crystal form in large quantity. The content of ? form increases with increasing pentene content and crystallization temperature. We found a limitation in the relative ? content around 60-65%. The efficiency of pentene comonomer is much higher than of ethylene. The equilibrium melting point decreases with pentene content in a non-linear fashion and the values are much lower than the theoretical ones.
A New High-Performance LLDPE for Blown Film Applications
Harry Mavridis, May 1999
Conventional Ziegler-Natta catalyzed LLDPEs combine good mechanical properties with moderate processability. Efforts to enhance LLDPE properties further, through metallocene catalysts for example, generally result in a processability penalty. The present work describes a new development in LLDPE technology which produces resins with significant improvement in mechanical properties without sacrificing processability. Detailed blown film results show the performance improvement achieved by the new resins, compared to conventional LLDPEs, and the downgauging potential offered by the property improvement.
The Effects of Slip and Antiblock Additives on the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Highly Permeable Polyolefin Plastomer Films
Jeffrey J. Wooster, May 1999
Slip and antiblock additives were determined to reduce significantly the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor transmission rates for highly permeable blown films made from polyolefin plastomers. At typical usage levels of 2500 ppm erucamide slip and 5000 ppm SiO2 antiblock, for example, oxygen transmission through a 0.8965 g/cm3 plastomer film is approximately 25% less than through a film containing no slip or antiblock additives.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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