SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

New Routes to Market in the 21st Century
Roger F. Jones, May 2000

The plastics industry is hurtling toward the 21st century while undergoing remarkable changes that are completely reshaping the way business has been done previously. Restructuring, consolidations, portfolio swapping and joint ventures are taking place on an unprecedented scale and pace. E-commerce has added to globalized competition and new routes to market are emerging as old business models fade away. How will polymer manufacturers sell their goods in the future? Has the use of distributors peaked? Is the Internet the future? These changes will be analyzed and their impact on people and companies in the industry projected.

Molecular Orientation of Crosslinked Polyethylene
Tony Josefsson, Mats Delin, May 2000

To achieve improved mechanical properties, crosslinked polyethylene was uniaxially stretched above the crystalline melting point, (Tm). The material was stretched at different draw temperatures, draw speeds and to different draw ratios (?). The effect of different gel contents was also examined. For the molecular oriented samples tensile strength was shown to increase with increasing gel content. Tensile stress at yield (?y) was found to decrease at ?<1.5 and to increase for ?>1.5 while tensile stress at break (?B) was found to increase linearly with increasing ?. A lower draw temperature was shown to have an increasing effect on the tensile strength.

Melt-Flow Instabilities in Metallocene Based Polyethylenes
A. Muñoz-Escalona, P. Lafuente, M. Fernández, A. Santamaría, P. Muñoz-Escalona, May 2000

In capillary flow surface distortion of the extrudates, know as shark-skin" has been intensively investigated for decades especially in conventional polyethylene. Few papers however have been published using metallocene catalyzed polyethylenes although this instability represents currently one of the most serious limitation for the commercial application of these new polymers. In this contribution we present dynamic viscoelastic and extrusion capillary results of a series of polyethylenes and copolymers with 1-hexene (SCB) produced by single-site catalysts. Several of the samples analyzed content also small amounts of long chain branching (LCB). We investigate the effect of the molecular weight and the molecular architecture on the appearance of shark-skin and novel methods are discussed to overcome this limitation. A new type of distortion which we call "splitting" is described."

Properties of Polylactic Acid Optical Copolymers Achieved through Stress Induced Crystallization
J. Randall, K. McCarthy, J. Krueger, P. Smith, J. Spruiell, May 2000

The use of polylactic acid for common thermoplastic applications has grown substantially in recent years. The stereo structure of polylactic acid can be varied by polymerizing controlled ratios of the D- and L- isomers of lactic acid. Cargill Dow Polymers, LLC has developed a unique manufacturing process for polylactic acid, whereby lactide, one of the intermediates of the process, can be separated by optical composition, and then polymerized with controlled stereo composition. In turn the level of crystallinity can be varied from highly crystalline to amorphous, resulting in a wide range of properties that can be optimized for many applications. Fabrication processes using stress-induced crystallization take full advantage of the semi-crystalline nature of polylactic acid. The strain hardening and shrinkage properties of various optical copolymers of polylactic acid made by stress induced crystallization have been studied.

Innovative Compounding with the RingExtruder
Markus Blach, Frank Vorberg, May 2000

Current development of Twin Screw Extruders ends at the absolute physical limits of mechanical strength and process technology. Rather than pursue conventional attempts to increase speed and torque, the RingExtruder increases the number of screws. It utilizes twelve co-rotating, closely intermeshing screws, arranged in a stationary ring. This unique design creates new possibilities, especially for products requiring degassing, dispersion, and low degradation. This technology has been successfully demonstrated. The unique action of the geometrically arranged screws provides high product quality with very low degradation of the polymer as indicated in trials with polypropylene (1). The increased surface area of multiple screws, combined with a divided process section, permits exceptional degassing of polystyrene (2).

Benefits of Coextruded LLDPE/LDPE Film versus Blended LLDPE/LDPE Film
Joe Taylor, Jae Jin Baik, May 2000

The benefits of three-layer coextrusion versus a mono-layer blend of the same resins are explored. Good design considerations of the coextruded structure can allow a processor to take advantage of the performance characteristics of the resins and the equipment. These performance characteristics can be compromised in a mono-layer blend of the same materials. Expected benefits of coextrusion can be improved physical properties and reduction in additives required for good processing. These are accomplished by eliminating blends of LDPE and LLDPE, reducing the draw-down ratio and taking advantage of the rheological differences between LDPE and LLDPE.

Blown Film Bubble Instability Induced by Fabrication Conditions
Thomas I. Butler, May 2000

Bubble instabilities in the blown film process can take several forms. Each type of instability places limits on the maximum production rate. This paper considers process variables such as melt temperature, frost line height (FLH), blow-up-ratio (BUR), and film thickness to determine the influence of bubble stability on maximum output rate. A linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) polymer produced three types of blown film bubble instability: 1. Periodic variations in the bubble layflat 2. Oscillation of the FLH 3. Molten bubble surface contacting the air ring Methods to monitor the on-set of bubble instability included film thickness variation, internal bubble pressure variation, bubble temperature profile, and bubble edge weave to determine the maximum output rate.

Permeation Processes in Barriers and Membranes: Complementary Differences
W.J. Koros, May 2000

Permeation through polymer matrices and structures constructed from polymers determines the efficacy of both barrier packaging and membrane separation devices. Of course, membranes and barrier packaging materials typically are at opposite ends of the transport spectrum. The packaging engineer generally seeks to suppress permeation, while the membrane engineer seeks to promote it selectively. Nevertheless, barriers involving modified atmosphere packaging" are effectively permselective membranes so distinctions between barriers and membranes become blurred. In this presentation emphasis will be placed on a physical understanding of the issues that impact diffusion processes in and through glassy and rubbery polymers. The capabilities and limitations of molecular structure tailoring to achieve desired properties as compared to combination of multiple material types into higher order structures will be considered."

The Influence of Polymer Processing Additives (PPAS) on the Surface and Optical Properties of Polyolefin Plastomer Blown Film
Susan S. Woods, Alphonsus V. Pocius, May 2000

Polyolefin Plastomer films formulated with slip and antiblock were blown on a wide die gap with and without two Dynamar™ polymer processing additives (PPAs). A wide die gap was used so that melt fracture-free film could be obtained with no PPA present for comparison purposes. The films were analyzed for the following properties: surface tension (on treated films), gloss, haze, clarity, transmittance, hot tack, heat seal, COF and block. In addition, the surface of films was examined using ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) and SSIMS (Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) to determine the surface chemical composition.

Experimental Determination of Optimized Vibration-Assisted Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Atactic Polystyrene
Alan M. Tom, Akihisa Kikuchi, John P. Coulter, May 2000

The current experimental study focused on determining optimal vibration assisted molding conditions for Polystyrene thermoplastic material. Although previous attempts at understanding the connection between applied oscillatory or vibrational motion to an injection molding process and it's affect on final product morphology has shown positive quantitative advantages to final product properties, there still exists a void in the scientific explanation on a molecular level linking these effects. Therefore, in an attempt to contribute to the development of this novel injection molding process, optimal control and mechanical vibrational molding conditions were obtained experimentally for Polystyrene.

Alignment of People to Business Goals in the INSITE Technology Development Process
Kurt W. Swogger, May 2000

Over the past several years, Dow's Polyolefin R&D department has used a philosophy called Speed Based R&D to launch several products such as ELITE™ enhanced polyethylene resins, AFFINITY™ polyolefin plastomers, ENGAGE* polyolefin elastomers, NORDEL IP* elastomers, and recently INDEX™ interpolymers in best-in-class development time. One of the important aspects of this development philosophy is the close alignment of people's goals and development to business strategy and research goals. Unlike many other aspects of Speed" this alignment is very regimented monitored and enforced. It involves employees supervisors and management links pay to performance of goals helps set development objectives and links people's goals to visible department goals."

A Knowledge-Based Tuning Method
Dongzhe Yang, David Kazmer, Kourosh Danai, May 2000

Complexity of manufacturing processes has hindered methodical specification of machine setpoints for improving productivity. Traditionally in injection molding, the machine setpoints are assigned either by trial and error. based on heuristic knowledge of an experienced operator, or according to an empirical model between the inputs and part quality attributes obtained from statistical design experiments (DOE). In this paper, a Knowledge-Based Tuning (KBT) Method is presented which takes advantage of the 'a priori' knowledge of the process in the form of a qualitative model to reduce the demand for experimentation. The KBT Method is designed to also provide an estimate of the process feasible region (process window) as the basis of finding the optimal setpoints. Since tuning will result in new input-output data that can be used for training, the qualitative model is refined on-line to better represent the data obtained from tuning.

Prototype vs. Production Tooling in Rapid Product Development
Julio C. Castañeda, May 2000

In the course of mechanical product development, the main purpose of prototyping is to verify the integrity of the proposed design. The design engineer wants to validate the entire design and its performance prior to committing resources to production tools. In order to provide useful and meaningful results, a prototype unit needs to simulate a production unit so that the test results are valid. If a design fails during the prototype stage, the design engineer is left to determine if the failure was due to a faulty design or a prototype part" shortcoming. In the case of plastic parts the most important mechanical properties are dimensional accuracy and material performance."

Pressurization and Energy Characteristics of ZSK40 Twin Screw Elements: The Power of Spreadsheet and Good Experiments vs. CFD?
Arash Kiani, Marian Mours, Jürgen Hofmann, Ralf Kuehn, May 2000

A complete study of pressurization and energy characteristics of various elements of ZSK40 with two grades of PS are presented. This work builds upon previous works [1,2,3] and identifies the differences between screw and kneading blocks and shows by appropriate factors, most of these differences can be displayed by dimensionless curves. The work compares the experimental results with CFD results developed independently by BASF and Krupp Werner & Pfleiderer researchers. In this work, we try to show that the myth created around kneading blocks (wide disc or narrow discs) and their efficient use can be answered by understanding the conveying nature of these elements.

Training Program for Troubleshooting Injection Molded Defects
Daniel Bloom, Christopher Gorman, May 2000

The objective of this project was to develop a systematic program for teaching plastics technicians and engineers how to enhance their troubleshooting skills for solving injection molded part problems and defects. A prioritized troubleshooting procedure was first developed for 12 of the most common molding defects and their major manifestations. For each defect classification, real life molding scenarios were developed for use as the core of the hands-on practitioner training. Each of the defects had to be generated through a series of molding trials to find a combination of mold, material, and processing conditions that would create a distinct defect and appropriate case study problem for use in the training program. Below are four common defects that yielded positive case studies.

Interactive Training in SPC in Injection Molding
Chris Rauwendaal, May 1999

Even though statistical process control, SPC, has been around for over half a century, many injection molding companies still do not use it effectively, if at all. A major barrier to the implementation of SPC is unfamiliarity with basic SPC tools and how to apply those tools to injection molding operations. Successful implementation of SPC requires effective training not only in SPC, but also in injection molding process technology. SPC can identify process problems, but cannot solve them. Operating personnel can only solve process problems effectively if they have a thorough understanding of the injection molding process. Training continues to be a challenge for many injection molding companies. The traditional method of on-the-job-training is often ineffective, time consuming, and frequently results in less than optimum performance. Another option is sending people to off-site seminars. This is costly in terms of travel and registration as well as time away from the job. Recently, a new option for training in extrusion has become available, Computer Based Training, CBT, using interactive, multi-media programs. Interactive CBT offers several advantages, such as: cost effective, self paced, less time away from the job, better understanding and retention of the material, training test results available to training administrator, etc. This paper describes a new training program in statistical process control in injection molding that is delivered on CD-ROMs. The program not only shows slides and video with full narration, it also makes extensive use of 2D and 3D animation to show parts of the injection molding process that cannot be observed on actual machines. For instance, the program shows a detailed animation of flow of the plastic in the plasticating unit, the nozzle, and the mold. The program also shows the reciprocating action of the screw in the plasticating unit and the movement of the check valve at the end of the screw. The program also contains a simulati

The NMR Spectra of Lead Stabilizers
Richard F. Grossman, May 1999

High resolution proton and 13C NMR spectra of lead-based heat stabilizers and their reaction products, obtained using the magic angle spinning technique, support structural assignments inferred from IR spectra. These demonstrate that lead stabilizers are unique compounds, rather than the double salts of lead oxide found in textbooks.

Customer Service for Engineers and Engineering Managers
John R. Szymankiewicz, May 1999

Engineering is a service. Often in dealing with facts, figures, and information we forget that ours is a customer driven business. We all have customers, internal or outside of our company. There are ways to remind ourselves of our real goal in engineering: Customer Satisfaction with Our Work Product. This presentation will address and present a few of these ways to help us keep our focus on our customers.

Erasure below the Glass Transition Temperature of the Effect of Isothermal Physical Aging in a Fully Cured Epoxy/Amine Thermosetting System
Jong Keun Lee, John K. Gillham, May 1999

Erasure below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the effect of isothermal physical aging (at temperature Ta) in a fully cured epoxy/amine thermosetting system is investigated. The results show that physical aging and deaging below Tg account for subtle but measurable changes in moduli over wide ranges of temperature.

Synergistic Flame-Retardance of Polypropylene
Prashant J. Trivedi, Rudolph D. Deanin, Stephen A. Orroth, Raymond F. Dunn, May 1999

In burning of polypropylene, addition of decabromo diphenyl oxide plus antimony trioxide greatly improved oxygen index, but seriously increased smoke density. Addition of hydrated basic magnesium calcium carbonate only improved oxygen index slightly, but dramatically reduced smoke density.

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