SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
TLCP Droplet Dynamics and Their Role Inviscosity Reduction
C. Whitehouse, P. Gao, May 1999
Blends of polyethylene (PE) with very low TLCP concentrations have viscosity ratios of 10-6 to 10-4, and viscosity reductions > 90% are observed. This viscosity reduction is generated by a number of mechanisms in sequence, wall slip being only one. The others are droplet coalescence, deformation and fibril formation, plus effects associated with the TLCP's ability to self-order and align when under shear, leading to a phase transition in the nematic-isotropic biphase. Intercomponent adhesion and interfacial tension also influence the droplet dynamics.
Continuous Polymer Melt Filtration
Milton U. Gaul, Jr., May 1999
Filtration is required of nearly every flowing polymer process. Most processes utilize filter elements that must be removed periodically for replacement or cleaning. The gradual pressure buildup that accompanies filter blinding results in an unwanted temperature rise with consequent loss in dimensional control of the product and sometimes with a reduction in output. A continuous filter that would continuously replace itself or that would clean itself automatically has been sought by industry. This paper describes the original device of this sort and reveals how it operates.
Effect of Dispersed Phase Structure on High Speed Impact Test of Multicomponent PP Systems
Paula Pieroni, Daniel Ercoli, Graciela Goizueta, Numa Capiati, May 1999
This work presents results obtained for ternary blends of polypropylene (PP), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and ethylene-norborene terpolymers (EPDM). The effect of the addition of LLDPE on the state of dispersion of different EPDM is studied. Morphological features of injection molded samples and their influence on the impact properties are analyzed. The dispersive effect of LLDPE produces higher increments in impact strength when the EPDM is homogeneously distributed in the whole specimen.
Durability of High-Performance Adhesive Joints
Rachel K. Giunta, Ronald G. Kander, May 1999
Adhesive specimens were prepared from Ti-6Al-4V and a commercial polyimide adhesive. Specimens were aged for up to 90 days in air at 177°C. The notched coating adhesion (NCA) test was used to characterize the adhesive performance. Interfacial degradation due to elevated temperature aging is accelerated in the NCA specimens due to a shortened diffusion path. The adhesive at the interphase appears to be weakened after elevated temperature aging in air.
Empirical Equations for Predicting Sink Mark Depth in a Rib-Reinforced Plastic Part
Linhuo Shi, Mahesh Gupta, May 1999
Two empirical equations for predicting sink mark depth on the surface opposite to a reinforcing rib in an injection-molded plastic part are presented. Extra thermal mass and effective packing time near a rib base are used as the two determining parameters for calculating the sink mark depth. A normalized geometric sink mark index is used as a measure of the extra thermal mass near the rib base, whereas, the time from the end of filling to the time required for the pressure to vanish near the rib base is used as the effective packing time.
Three-Dimensional Simulation of Plastic Molding Processes
Ruihua Han, Mahesh Gupta, May 1999
Finite element method is used for a three-dimensional simulation of moving boundaries in an inertia-free, incompressible flow. A control volume scheme with a fixed finite element mesh is employed to predict the fluid front advancement. The predicted fluid front advancement and pressure variation in a flow domain similar to the mold cavity used for microchip encapsulation are compared with the corresponding experimental results. Flow simulation for a more complex mold cavity is also presented.
Entrance Flow Simulation Using Elongational Properties of Plastics
Mahesh Gupta, May 1999
A finite element simulation of the flow in a channel with an abrupt contraction is presented. Effects of shear and elongational viscosities of a polymer on the entrance flow is analyzed. The shear and elongational viscosities are represented by the truncated power-law model. The power-law index for the elongational viscosity is independent of the value of the power-law index for the shear viscosity. It is confirmed that Trouton ratio is important in determining the recirculating vortex and the extra pressure loss in entrance flow.
Effect of Elongational Viscosity on Die Design for Plastic Extrusion
Mahesh Gupta, May 1999
A finite element simulation of the flow in a rectangular die with an abrupt contraction is presented. Effect of shear and elongational viscosities of a polymer on the flow in the die is analyzed. The shear and elongational viscosities are represented by a truncated power-law model. The power-law indices for the planar and axisymmetric elongational viscosities are found to have significant effect on the pres-sure and velocity fields in the die.
Characterizing Co-Continuous Polyethylene/Polystyrene Blends
Jianming Li, Basil D. Favis, May 1999
Co-continuous blends of high density polyethylene/polystyrene (PS/PE) have been studied. The influence of a triblock copolymer, styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene (SEBS) was also investigated. The surface area, pore diameter and pore size distribution of the blend system after solvent extraction of one of the phases has been measured using a BET nitrogen adsorption technique and mercury porosimetry. Using this technique, it was also possible to generate an emulsification curve, demonstrating the region of interfacial saturation for this complex system.
Orientation Studies of Microbial Polyesters at the Air-Water Interface
Geoffrey A.R. Nobes, William J. Orts, Gregory M. Glenn, May 1999
The orientation of organic thin films of natural polymers of microbial origin was studied with the aid of LangmuirBlodgett films and x-ray reflectivity. The polymer system studied included a number of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters which include both thermoplastic and elastomeric materials and which have previously been shown to form stable monolayers at the air-water interface. The spreading behavior of each polymer was studied and the orientation of the polymer following transfer to a substrate was determined using x-ray reflectivity.
The Design of Flat Extrusion Dies and Feedblocks
W.A. Gifford, May 1999
Efficient three-dimensional algorithms are now being used routinely in the design of flat extrusion dies and coextrusion feedblocks. The usual assumptions made in 1-D and 2-D analyses (i.e., lubrication approximation, hydraulic radii, geometry shape factors, etc.) are no longer necessary when full 3-D flow equations are solved everywhere in the die or feedblock. How these algorithms are being used to design flat dies (both with or without deflection) and feedblocks is demonstrated through actual examples.
Optical Sensing of Thermoplastics Solidification in an Injection Molding Machine
E. Ramírez Domínguez, W. Ian Patterson, Musa R. Kamal, May 1999
An optical technique for monitoring the solidification of thermoplastics was implemented and studied. A He-Ne laser illuminated the mold cavity through an optical window and a photomultiplier measured the intensity of reflected light during the molding cycle. The light measured is a complex composite of reflection and refraction from crystallites, the mold wall and as many as six interfaces. Polystyrene, polypropylene and high-density polyethylene were used. Further work is required to use this technique for process control purposes.
Property/Processing Enhancement via Improved Low-Temperature Fusion for Rigid PVC Construction Products
Steven R. Rapacki, May 1999
Impact property development in RPVC construction products is highly dependent on the type of impact modifier used and its contribution to processing. With increasing attention being paid to all aspects of production, particularly machine utilization and cost effectiveness of raw materials, maintaining performance properties remains critical. This study discusses how impact modifier selection can influence processing and the levels of other ingredients, and through these effects, influence the performance properties of articles like siding and window profile.
The Effect of Scale-Up on the Processing Behavior of a Blend Exhibiting Phase Inversion during Compounding
Ram Ratnagiri, Chi-Kai Shih, Chris E. Scott, May 1999
Phase inversion during compounding of low-viscosity ratio polystyrene/polyethylene blends was studied in two different batch mixers. Using a constant maximum-shear-rate as the scale-up criterion, longer mixing times were required in the large mixer due to its lower specific area. A new triangular element blade design was used to obtain different batch sizes in the same mixer. On scale-up with these blades, a constant specific area was maintained and equal mixing times to phase inversion were observed.
Design and Optimization of Three Dimensional Extrusion Dies Using Adaptive Finite Element Method
Mahender P. Reddy, Edward G. Schaub, Louis G. Reifschneider, Harold L. Thomas, May 1999
A numerical algorithm to automatically design polymer extrusion dies is developed. The method uses an adaptive finite element model and shape optimization methodology to define the transition section and the land lengths of a profile die. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a simulation tool that could be used by extrusion die designers which functions like the CAD-integrated simulation tools available for injection mold designers today.
Processing Effects on Hinge Life of Injection Molded Styrene-Butadiene Copolymers
Vergil H. Rhodes, May 1999
A Designed Experiment was conducted to determine the effects of injection molding processing parameters on hinge life of a styrene-butadiene copolymer. Resin melt temperature, mold temperature, 1st stage velocity, and 2nd stage pressure were varied and mathematically related to the number of flexes required to cause hinge failure. Best hinge life was observed using high melt temperature, high mold temperature, high 1st stage velocity, and low 2nd stage pressure. Some variation in this trend was observed at low melt and mold temperatures.
A Numerical Approach for Optical Characteristics of Injection-Molded Lens
S.Y. Kim, M.H. Rim, W.S. Lim, W.Y. Kim, May 1999
Birefringence distribution of an injection-molded lens is numerically calculated. A simplified numerical approach is proposed that can be used for studying the effect of key molding parameters and evaluating optical property of the lens. Numerical results showed that the melt temperature and holding pressure have significant effects on the optical property of the lens. It also suggested that the holding pressure should be determined with special care to obtain lenses with satisfactory optical characteristics.
Stress Relaxation in Polycarbonate Parts Subjected to Non-Uniform Tensile Stress
Christian Smialek, Amad Tayebi, May 1999
Short-term stress relaxation of polycarbonate parts, with non-uniform tensile stress, is compared to that under uniform tensile stress. The non-uniformity in stress distribution is induced by drilling small holes in the test specimens. The data obtained provide helpful design considerations in pin-type fastening assemblies.
Crack Development around Drilled Holes in Polycarbonate Parts Subjected to Flexural Deformation
Christian Smialek, Amad Tayebi, May 1999
Injection molded polycarbonate parts, with and without small drilled holes, were subjected to a three-point flexural deformation. A special bending test set-up was designed to maximize the exterior fiber tensile strain in the drilled hole zone. The data show a significant change in behavior of polycarbonate under flexural deformation and brittle-like fracture in the drilled hole zone.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulations as a Tool to Examine Multiphase Flow Problems for Polymer Processing Applications
Alexander J. Wagner, Chris E. Scott, May 1999
In this article we give a brief introduction to lattice Boltzmann methods, show why they are a particularly useful tool for the examination of complex multiphase systems and point out their advantages over traditional CFD methods. We present an overview of the method that allows simulation of viscoelastic two component systems, as well as some application of the method to simple model systems.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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