The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Studies of Plastic Boss Design and Methodology
Plastic bosses are fundamental components of many parts and assemblies. Due to the multiple functions and configurations, they can be difficult and time-consuming to properly design. Plastic type, size, and structural reinforcements are some of the design parameters that need to be determined. Current design methods follow set standards and produce inefficient designs for many applications. This paper explores the possibility of automating the boss design process given the needed clamping force, orientation, pullout force, torsion, and pressure configurations between the parts to be fastened.
Defect Cost Analysis
The defect cost analysis investigates the various contributions of conflicting quality objectives towards the total cost, using a probabilistic approach estimating the total effect of defects on product quality cost. Two cost drivers occur in every design, material cost and processing cost. The additional cost due to defect parts is usually seen only as one cost driver, however, it can be broken down towards the cost created by each defect type, based on the likelihood of the occurrence of those defects. By reducing those defect-related costs, a more robust design is achieved.
Transfer Function Development for the Injection Molding of Optical Media
The competitive nature of optical molding requires constant productivity improvements. In order to stay competitive, improvement in productivity through reduction in process cycle time and improved yield is required. Understanding how each input material and process parameter affects each quality output is the key to productivity and yield gains. This paper develops detailed and fundamental quantitative transfer functions that require only material and machine properties to provide specific processing conditions for optimal productivity and media quality.
Productivity Evaluation with a New Stiffness-Based Ejection Criterion of Injection Molding
In this paper a new stiffness-based ejection condition for injection molding is introduced and used for evaluation of different polymer materials. Comparison with industrial practice and other commonly used criteria, such as ejection temperature, indicates that this approach not only can be an alternative when the ejection temperature of the polymer part is unavailable, but also is more effective to help designer improve the design or reduce the cost by increasing the production rate while simultaneously ensuring injection molded part quality.
A Study of Cooling for Steady-State Injection Molding
Since many current CAE softwares assume the initial temperature condition of the mold to be constant, this research investigates how the initial temperature distribution condition of the mold affects the accuracy of the estimation of the cooling time. Two cases, a mold with uniform temperature and a mold with steady-state temperature distribution due to continuous molding, are analyzed, and indicate a 30% error in cycle time prediction. Finally, the effects of different insert materials on cooling time and the production cycle are discussed.
Polymer Alloys of Polyvinyl Butyral: A Viable Means of Recycling Windshield Interlayer
Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) sheet is used as the energy absorbing interlayer in most safety glass applications including automobile windshields. A large supply of industrial and post-consumer PVB scrap is currently being disposed of by burning and landfilling. Polymeric modifiers can be used to compatibilize blends of PVB with PVC and polyolefins. These alloys can have a wide range of useful properties ranging from super-tough thermoplastics to thermoplastic elastomers.
Applications of Successive Self-Nucleation and Annealing (SSA) in Polyolefin Blends Characterization
The technique of Successive Self-Nucleation and Annealing (SSA) has been applied to thermally fractionate two types of ethylene/ -olefin copolymers and their blends. The results demonstrate the usefulness of SSA to determine the distribution of lamellar thickness and short chain branching (SCB) in the neat polymers and the miscibility of their blends.
Design of a Data Acquisition System for Predictive Control of Melt Temperature
This paper presents the design of a data acquisition system for model predictive control of the injection molding process in particular, five zones of melt temperature. Factors influencing the selection of sensors, sensor failure modes and intelligence, and the data acquisition requirements are presented. The predictive control strategy for controlling these interactive zone temperatures with the energy input disturbance caused by screw recovery is discussed.
Study of the Characteristics of Cellular PVC and a Suitable Processing Aid
The morphology of cellular PVC and the results of model experiments compared with Polystyrene suggested that cellular PVC products contain a high ratio of open-cells, but PVC can retain foam-ability even after the cells are partly broken. This characteristic is enhanced by its high melt elasticity, which is strongly related to the molecular chain entanglement between PVC and Processing Aid dispersion. From this aspect, a suitable processing aid was designed and its remarkable foam-ability was confirmed.
Effect of Iron Compounds (Oxide, Salt or Complexes) on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Thermal and Photochemical Stability
Iron has always been known to have a detrimental effect on PVC aging but was never systematically studied when present as an impurity or as a component of the additives used in PVC formulations. A quick weathering test was designed to evaluate the effect of iron in PVC formulations and clearly demonstrated the correlation between iron content and PVC photo and thermodegradation. A threshold concentration of iron above which PVC degradation is catalyzed was determined and a specific look was given to color pigments containing iron.
Extrusion of Engineering Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
The results of extrusion trials on several single and barrier-flighted screws which highlight the importance of proper screw design for engineering thermoplastic polyurethanes are presented. Fundamental properties of the resins, including solid bulk density, coefficients of dynamic friction, melting rates and thermal properties are included to demonstrate their use in screw design.
Master Molding Technician Training Program at Lucent Technologies, Omaha, Nebraska
Growing" Production Technicians in an injection molding shop takes quite a bit of time. Even with a strong curriculum a company can be encumbered when after the training takes place employees are in a position to retire. In order to promote a continuous flow of talent a program was created jointly among management and union resulting in a "fast track" to higher paying jobs. Everyone benefits from the new Master Molding Technician Program- a 2 1/2 year curriculum based on the moldmaker apprenticeship idea."
Master Molding Technician Training Program at Lucent Technologies, Omaha, Nebraska
Growing" Production Technicians in an injection molding shop takes quite a bit of time. Even with a strong curriculum a company can be encumbered after the training takes place when employees are in a position to retire. In order to promote a continuous flow of talent a program was created jointly among management and unionresulting in a "fast track" to higher paying jobs. Everyone benefits from the new Master Molding Technician Program- a 2 1/2 year curriculum based on the moldmaker apprenticeship idea."
Laser Beam Welding of Plastic Micro Parts
By means of laser beam welding it is possible to join plastic parts in micro system technology. Based on existing macroscopic process variants for laser beam welding a appropriate process technology for the joining of plastic micro parts has been developed at IKV. For welding of plastic parts the influences of material and process parameters on the quality of the weld line have been investigated. Apart from this investigation high influence is expected by using filling materials like carbon black. Investigations of microscopic melt zones produced by the focused laser beam are presented.
Difference in Integral Aggregate Structure for Co-Neutralized Carboxylate Ionomers
The purpose of this study was to determine the arrangement of atoms inside ionic aggregates for ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers and ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymers neutralized with a combination of sodium and zinc. Significant qualitative differences were found as a function of sodium:zinc ratio. The implications of the differences in aggregate structure on the rheological behavior of these mixed-cation systems is discussed.
High Speed Toolholders
High Speed Milling requires many considerations for the toolholder. Cleanliness, Balance and Accuracy become even more important as the spindle RPM rises. With milling speeds rising through ten, thirty, and fifty thousand RPM, and with 100,000 RPM lurking on the horizon the ordinary toolholder and features may no longer be adequate. This paper deals with selecting the toolholder that will assure optimum performance.
Distribution of Material in an Injection-Molded Container
The distribution of material (weight) in an injection-molded container was quantified by cutting the container precisely into segments. Molding conditions were varied, and different polypropylene grades were used. The material distribution remained nearly uniform when increasing the packing pressure. Increasing the packing time above a certain limit, however, mainly packed material close to the gate. The material distribution was also affected by material parameters such as melt flow rate and nucleation. The shrinkage and the compressive strength of the container were related to the material distribution.
Flow Patterns in Special Twin Screw Mixing Elements
The flow behavior of a Newtonian fluid through special mixing enhancers in a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder has been examined. The mixing enhancers are slotted screws and gear mixing elements. In addition to pressure and drag flow characteristics, particular attention has been directed to residence time distribution in such devices. The data obtained are useful for guidance in the selection of appropriate mixing elements and the validation of flow simulation models for twin screw extruders.
Hygrothermal Effects on Physical Aging and Structural Recovery of an Epoxy Thermoset
We have investigated the hygrothermal effects on thin epoxy films (c.a. 60 µm thick) using mass uptake, swelling and uniaxial creep compliance measurements inside a dew formation-free transparent chamber capable of arbitrary relative humidity and temperature controls. We show that the physical aging behavior in humidity down-jumps in RH are the first demonstration of an asymmetry of approach induced by moisture changes in a material. Preliminary efforts to extend the TNM-KAHR models of structural recovery to account for moisture induced aging effects are presented.
Roll Design: A Review of the Basics
Over the years many advances have been made in the production of flat sheet in the areas of die design, screw design, and polymers. However the design of a critical part, the cooling roll, is often given little consideration by the processor. The intent of this paper is to review some of the parameters that the roll designer uses to determine the design of the roll. The basic equations for calculating PLI (pounds per linear inch), and deflection of the roll, the heat removal rate required, and a method for approximating the required flow rate through the roll are explained.
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