SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
A Computational Study Of Necking And Drawing Of Plastic-Rubber Laminates
Rahul Gopalan Ramachandran, March 2019
Semi-crystalline polymers undergo necking followed by stable drawing under tensile forces. Whereas, a rubber extends many times its original length uniformly under tension. The necking and drawing behavior of the semicrystalline material can be modified by the addition of a rubber layer. Finite element simulation of plastic-rubberplastic tri-layers suggest that the applied stretch at which the neck develops, and the natural draw ratio can be controlled by varying the thickness of the rubber.
Heat Treated Bamboo Fiber For Sustainable Polymer Blends
Curtis Covelli, March 2019
This study evaluated polymer composites produced from recycled PA6 and PP blend with bamboo fiber. Blends of bamboo fiber were used as received, as well as heat treated. It was observed that heat treatment at 160ºC/180ºC improved the tensile and impact properties of the composite compared to untreated fiber composite. The goal of the study was to produce a thermally stable, lightweight composite suitable for under-hood applications.
A New Versatile Masterbatch Additive For Polypropylene Compounds
Daniel Calimente, March 2019
In this paper we discuss the composition and performance characteristics of a new polypropylene masterbatch which incorporates an ultrahigh molecular weight (uhmw) silicone gum in a PP carrier. In general, surface effects can be obtained when employing different amides, or even fatty acids, however an ultra-high molecular weight silicone gum does not migrate or bloom to the surface, while providing very good scratch and mar resistance in polypropylene-based compounds. The material is supplied in pellet form, as well as microgranules, to better fit the end applications.
On-Line Processability Characterization Of Thermoplastic Formulations During Injection Molding
Christopher Thurber, March 2019
Processability is a critical performance parameter when developing thermoplastic formulations for injection molding applications. This paper describes various on-line methods for quantifying processability and compares the results with off-line rheological methods.
Developing Scratch-Resistant Clear Coating For Automotive By Using Molecular Necklace Cross-Linker
Moon sung wook, March 2019
Surfaces of the automobile are damaged in various forms due to external forces. The most common damage is scratch. It is not only a physical damage but also a fatal failure in an aesthetic point of view. Scratch damages are often observed on the clearcoat, which is the top layer of the automotive paint. In this study, scratch tests were conducted to evaluate the scratch resistances of various types of clearcoat layers. ASTM D7027 standard was modified to observe scratch damage more clearly.
Chromatic Effects For Sensitive Plastics Applications
Aaron Hollman, March 2019
This paper highlights the use of organic pigments, pearlescent effects and metallic pigments in the design of decorative materials for sensitive plastics applications. Examples of sensitive applications include food packaging and toys, as well as, cosmetic packaging, pharmaceutical applications and medical devices.
Plastic Design Pitfalls
Pavan Valavala | Paul Tres, March 2019
This paper will review a number of plastic part design pitfalls which came to a head when a little boy was badly burned after his digital watch caught fire and partially burned. The product was designed in the US and mass produced in China. The design of the product was improper, however the tool design and execution made it worse.
Melt Index And Extensional Rheology Combined
tim haake, March 2019
Using two established measurements, the combination thereof rolled into one instrument and one measurement, is herewith covered. A Melt Indexer and an Elongation Tester put together, greatly enhance the usefulness of each test result by itself, while saving much time compared to running tests individually. GOETTFERT has many years of experience with both individual tests and developed the D-MELT in close cooperation with a customer, who has many years of experience with a similar design mix. Introduction
Two-Tiered Approach To Extending Food Life
Wylie Royce, March 2019
There are several approaches to extending food life including but not limited to; Oxygen Scavengers, Anti-Microbials, UV Blockers and Absorbers, as well as Multi-Layer Films. No single additive has been found that will effectively address the various food products and by-product from rotting food and extending the life and taste of food. We Utilize two products which in combination slow the degradation of food and the spoilage cycle.
Biopolyesters For Agriculture: Permeation And Degradation For Controlling Chemical Release
Margaret J Sobkowicz, March 2019
Biobased and biodegradable polymers are well suited to agricultural applications where hey can be left in the field to degrade into innocuous byproducts. These polymers are lso widely used for biomedical controlled release. However, the properties and egradation rates are not necessarily suitable for the environmental conditions and utrient demand of plants. In this work, two different biodegradable polyesters are repared and contrasted in terms of their diffusion and degradation rates.
Modelling Laser Light Transmission In Thermoplastic Composites Using Monte-Carlo Simulation
Philip Bates, March 2019
The distribution and quantity of laser energy reaching the weld interface are both important for predicting the quality of a laser-transmission weld. A Monte-Carlo model for simulating the path of laser light through light-scattering plastic parts has been developed and validated. The model accounts for absorption, scattering, and reflection in the transparent polymer. The model outputs include the transmittance of the inputted laser light as well as the energy density distribution at the weld interface.
Case Study: Synergy Of Industrial Design And Plastics Engineering Applied To The Design Of A Hyperspectral Imaging Camera
Michael Paloian, March 2019
Innovative products are recognized by designs which have creatively applied a new technology or when a common utilitarian product is been reinvented to reenergize its market appeal. This case study will describe the development of a unique medical device based on the interdependency of industrial design and plastics engineering to yield an award-winning design that could only be attained by a comprehensive integration of these two disciplines.
Effect Of Long Chain Branching On The Rheology And Flame Properties In Polycarbonate Resins
Himanshu Asthana, March 2019
It is known from literature [1, 2] that the rheological properties of polymer melts are influenced by the degree of long chain branching (LCB). Therefore, it is very important to understand the influence of LCB on the solid-state properties to help improve material design for unique applications. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the use of extensional rheology as a tool to understand FR performance pertaining to dripping. Further, we also demonstrate the synergistic role of LCB in polycarbonate resins for improving FR performance.
The Effect Of Boundary Conditions, Material Parameters, And Rotational Flow On Center Layer Thickness And Stability In Tri-Layer Annular Flow
Tyler Schneider, March 2019
A tri-layer simulation study utilizing ANSYS Polyflow was conducted in an attempt to understand the effect of the material parameters, namely viscosity and elasticity ratios, on center layer thickness and stability under annular flow. During the study, it was determined that inflow boundary conditions also had a considerable impact on the thickness trends observed. Results of two different inflow boundaries and four material parameter conditions are presented and discussed within.
Thermoplastic Elastomers: An Overview
Anil Bhowmick, March 2019
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) can be defined as a class of special type of polymers, which exhibit hybrid behavior of thermoplastics and rubbers [1-3]. They can be processed like thermoplastics and at the same time can perform like rubber over a broad use temperature range. The thermoplastic elastomers’ sector has expanded at a compound annual growth rate of 5.4% since 2012 to reach 4.24 million tonnes in 2017. Even though TPEs are an increasingly mature market, Smithers-RAPRA research shows that this growth would continue at a rate of 5.5% across the next five years to hit 5.53 million tonnes in 2022 [4].
Strain-Hardening Behavior In Transient Elongational Viscosity For PP Containing LDPE
Masayuki Yamaguchi, March 2019
Transient uniaxial elongational viscosity for binary blends composed of conventional isotactic polypropylene with linear structure (PP) and low-density polyethylene produced in an autoclave reactor (LDPE) was evaluated. The blends were prepared by melt-mixing to make PP as the continuous phase. Although LDPE exists as dispersed droplets, it was found that the LDPE addition provides the strain-hardening in transient elongational viscosity for PP. During elongational flow, LDPE droplets dispersed in the PP matrix were deformed in the flow direction because the viscosity of LDPE used is lower than that of PP. As increasing the strain, however, the deformed LDPE droplets act as rigid fibers due to its strain-hardening behavior. Consequently, the PP matrix located between the fibrous LDPE droplets is deformed greatly during elongational flow. This excess localized deformation is responsible for the strain-hardening in the transient elongational viscosity for the blends.
Environmental Stress Cracking Failure Of Amorphous Polymer Materials
Chris Lyons, March 2019
Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is a common failure mechanism in a variety of polymeric materials. Despite this, the relationship between ESC agent concentration, applied stress, temperature, and polymer composition has not been thoroughly established for many commodity plastics. In this study, three common thermoplastic polymers (PC, ABS, and PMMA) were exposed to an environmental stress agent under different conditions (variable strain, temperature, or concentration). A process for acquiring critical strain curves for materials under these conditions is presented, providing a methodology for systematically assessing factors governing ESC failure of polymers. Additionally, fractographic and chemical analysis of polymer samples exposed to an environmental stress agent are reported.
A Studey Of The Thermo-Oxidative Degradation Of Glass-Fiber Sizings At Composite Processing Temperatures
Jim Thomason, March 2019
Although not fully understood it is well recognized that optimal working of glass fiber sizings is necessary to maximize the performance of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. However, test results indicate that the performance of polypropylene compatible glass fiber sizing can be significantly compromised by thermooxidative degradation at normal composite processing temperatures. Results obtained using TGA, DSC, microbond adhesion measurement and composite mechanical testing indicate that a significant reduction in composite performance is directly related to a loss of fiber-matrix adhesion caused by thermal degradation of some of the principal sizing components.
Pellet Heat Transfer Model With Crystallization Kinetics Using Finite Element Method
Vinod Kumar Konaganti, March 2019
An advanced Finite Element Method (FEM) based transient pellet heat transfer model with crystallization kinetics is developed to better understand the cooling requirements for a clean pellet cut during polyethylene manufacturing. This model considers conduction/convective heat transfer in and around a polymer pellet with enthalpy changes, considering a pellet of spheroid shape surrounded by a cooling water off constant temperature. The model further accounts for the changes in stiffness or elastic modulus obtained from rheological measurements using multi-wave oscillatory test during cooling/crystallization stages of the polymer. A series of simulations were performed to understand the effects of several parameters such as resin architecture/formulation, crystallization kinetics, initial molten pellet temperature, water inlet temperature, water to pellet ratio (i.e., water flow rate) and pellet dimensions. It was found that for resins of similar Melt Index (MI) and density, the differences in structural characteristics can significantly affect the pelletization process and pellet cut. This model may serve as a strong tool for efficient design, operation and troubleshooting of downstream equipment (e.g. pelletizer, cutter, Pellet Conveying Water (PCW) system, stripper etc.) through understanding of the effects of molecular architecture of the resins and/or optimization of various processing and operating conditions.
Novel Flame Retardants Based On Ionic Liquids For Pmma, Pc And Tpu Plastics
Yanjie "Jeff" Xu, March 2019
Efforts are reported herein to develop new generation flame retardants based on ionic liquids. It is believed that they can replace and expand the applications of traditional flame retardants with high “green chemistry” qualities, superior performance and enhanced properties. High clear flame retarding PMMA, UL V0@ 0.4mm with its transparency intact, was developed, which is the world’s first and only case. High clear flame retarding PC, UL V0 @0.4mm with its transparency intact, was also developed, while it is difficult to develop high clear thin (less than 1.6mm) flame retarding PC plastic products using traditional flame retardants. Finally, we’ve also developed highly effective flame retardant for TPU, which can afford TPU at only 3% or 4%, almost one tenth of traditional flame retardant loading level. These novel flame retardants based on ionic liquids show great potential in many applications.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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