SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Plastic Part Design - Lessons Learned
Vikram Bhargava, May 1999
Five different parts and assemblies that seemed to have been designed well but failed to meet the functional requirements after production are analyzed for the reasons of the failure. These are compatibility of materials, long term stress cracking, and effect of tool design on the part properties. The theory behind the failures is discussed briefly. Finally the solution to alleviate these problems is discussed.
Metal-Polymer Interfaces in Polymer-Based Electronic Devices
M. Fahlman, A. Andersson, P. Bröms, Th. Kugler, M. Lögdlund, W.R. Salaneck, May 1999
A number of degradation mechanisms in polymer-based light emitting devices have been studied. It was found that interfacial chemistry occurs between indium tin oxide (ITO) and precursor poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPV) forming InCl3, which enhances the rate of conversion to PPV but leaves the polymer slightly p-doped. Electron flux on/through PPV films damages mainly the vinyl linkage, probably causing scission with subsequent cross-linking or bond formation with oxygen species.
Thermoplastic Elastomers, Four Decades of Innovation
Sabet Abdou-Sabet, May 1999
The successful commercialization of Polyurethane TPEs and elastic fibers in the late fifties initiated the move toward the establishment of thermoplastic elastomers as a new class of polymers. In the same decade the styrene block polymers were introduced and the dynamic vulcanization process was discovered. In the second decade, the copolyesters made their entry into the engineering resin applications and in the third decade the thermoplastic vulcanizates kicked this new class of polymers into reality.
Investigation of Cavity-To-Cavity Variations in Multi-Cavity Tools
V. Natarajan, C.H. Chien, F.S. Lai, May 1999
Cavity pressure is widely accepted as a sensitive indicator of the injection molding process and can be used as one of the process parameters that control the overall molding cycle. This paper presents the investigation of the role of cavity pressure in predicting part quality, effect of process parameters on part weight and cavity pressure, and the dependence of nozzle melt temperature on process parameters. In addition, the effect and the presence of different runner systems in a multi-cavity tool and its subsequent effect on the part quality and performance are also investigated.
Interfacial Free Volume Measurements of Epoxy on Aluminum by PALS
M.M. Madani, R.R. Miron, R.D. Granata, May 1999
Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy(PALS) characterizes free volume in polymers. Numerical integral transform methods(CONTIN program) extract continuous distributions of free volume cavities. An intermediate lifetime was found in epoxy films on chrome conversion coated (CCC) Al substrates and attributed to positron annihilation at the interface. Analogous lifetimes were identified for epoxy polymer/SrCrO4 particles and epoxy films/CCC substrate specimens. Applications include studies of permeant interactions at polymer interfaces.
Novel Oil Resistant Thermoplastic Vulcanizates
Tonson Abraham, Sabet Abdou-Sabet, Norman Barber, May 1999
The hydrocarbon oil resistant thermoplastic elastomers that are at present commercially available are not suitable substitutes for oil resistant thermoset rubbers such as nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The properties of a thermoplastic vulcanizate produced by the dynamic vulcanization of NBR in a polyester thermoplastic are shown to be comparable to those of an equivalent hardness thermoset NBR.
Integration of Models to Predict Phase Behavior in Polymer-Polymer Systems
Kal R. Sharma, May 1999
The Phase Computer software package is designed to predict the phase behavior of polymer-polymer systems and can run on a Personal Computer. The vertical integration and adaptive dynamic programming techniques with a rule based expert system was used in the development. RDBMS principles were used in the design of the databases for the binary interaction parameters, atomic parameters and molecular parameters. The mathematical models included are the binary interaction parameters, atomic parameters and molecular parameters.
Fluidized Bed Degasification for Removing Unreacted Monomers in Continuous Mass Polymerization
Kal R. Sharma, May 1999
The feasibility of a fluidized bed degasifier design where removal of polymer residuals to low levels as expected by the regulatory agencies is evaluated. Mass transfer models are needed to quantiate the devolatilization efficiency. The relative importance of the diffusive and convective transport mechanism varies as a function of the flow physics in the fluidized bed degasifier. The conditions of operation suggested are sub glass transition temperature of the polymer and subatmospheric vacuum pressures.
Spreadsheets and Simulation in Polymer-Polymer Phase Diagrams
Kal R. Sharma, May 1999
The compositional window of miscibility of two terpolymers can be calculated using a spreadsheet. The results are presented as a function of the compositional mismatch. The @RAND key was used to demark the miscible regions from the immiscible ones in the entire compositional range (n x m x k x 1 or n4) of the terpolymer. The computations were completed in cN or n time. The spinodal for miscible systems can be constructed and the LCST and UCST behavior captured.
Failure Analysis Models for Polyacetyl Molded Fittings in Plumbing Systems
L.J. Broutman, D.B. Edwards, P.K. So, May 1999
Plumbing fittings molded from polyacetal resins have been studied after removal from service. Methods of failure analysis will be reviewed and failures will be correlated with time in service and water chemistry. The progression of failure will be described and related to the calculated stresses in the fittings.
New Twin Screw Element Design for Elastomer Compounding
Frederick R. Burbank, Steven M. Jackson, May 1999
A new mixing element design reduces the shear heat buildup normally seen with elastomer based compounds. This enables mixing these formulations at rates not achievable with standard design elements. The geometry of this element retains the general self-wiping characteristics usually found with fully intermeshing, co-rotating twin screw compounders, yet reduces the maximum pressure seen in the apex area. Process examples demonstrate the different responses seen with these mixing elements versus standard design elements.
Analysis of Halo Effects on Injection Molded Parts
Amit Dharia, May 1999
The problem of a specific type of surface defect called tiger stripes" or "halos" on the injection molded parts of the thermoplastic olefin blend is investigated. First the method to reproduce such defects on the small parts is described and then the results of a rheological method to predict materials prone to producing tiger stripes are presented. Results indicate that both the molecular weight and relaxation behavior are critical determinants. Materials with large molecular weights as predicted by very high melt viscosity at zero shear rate and short relaxation time tend to form less tiger stripes."
Analysis of Halo Effects on Injection Molded Parts
Amit Dharia, May 1999
The problem of a specific type of surface defect called tiger stripes" or "halos" on the injection molded parts of the thermoplastic olefin blend is investigated. First the method to reproduce such defects on the small parts is described and then the results of a rheological method to predict materials prone to producing tiger stripes are presented. Results indicate that both the molecular weight and relaxation behavior are critical determinants. Materials with large molecular weights as predicted by very high melt viscosity at zero shear rate and short relaxation time tend to form less tiger stripes."
Processing Variables and the Scaling Parameters in Blown Film Extrusion
Tae H. Kwack, May 1999
Five critical blown film extrusion variables to the formation of morphology of blown film and thus, mechanical/physical properties were identified. For the identified critical processing variables, mathematical expressions of scaling parameters were derived in terms of scaling factors. The scaling factors ?, ?, q, and z are the ratios of die radii, die gaps, output rates, and frost line heights, respectively, of two different blown film extrusion lines. It was found that the scaling parameters should satisfy the following conditions to ensure a proper scaling from one film extrusion line to another.
Synchrotron Studies of Polymers: An Industrial Perspective
J.D. Londono, R.V. Davidson, R.A. Leach, R. Barton Jr., May 1999
The advantages inherent in synchrotron radiation from an insertion device for studies of oriented polymers are discussed. The relevance of these capabilities for industrially related R&D studies is examined. Increased intensity over lab sources makes possible real-time studies under conditions similar to those encountered during processing. Applications resulting from the highly collimated radiation include mapping spatial variations of structure in films or injection molded plaques. Control over the incident energy provides further advantages. Some illustrative examples are provided.
Electrical Properties of Carbon Black(CB)-Filled Polypropylene/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composites
Jiyun Feng, Chi-Ming Chan, May 1999
Carbon black(CB)-filled polypropylene(PP) /ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composites were prepared by the conventional melt-mixing method. The electrical resistivity, positive temperature coefficient(PTC) effect, and morphology of the composites were elucidated in detail. CB particles were found to be selectively localized at the interface between PP matrix and UHMWPE particles or in the PP matrix due to the extremely high viscosity of UHMWPE. Double-PTC effects were also observed and discussed.
Solid State FTIR Analysis of Hydrogen-Bonded Domains in Synthetic Biopolymer Hybrid Silk-Like Materials
D.Y. Sogah, R.C. Claussen, M.J. Winningham, O. Rathore, May 1999
Novel silk-like hybrid-peptide polymers containing either parallel or anti-parallel ?-sheets templated by either phenoxathiin or xanthene derivatives have been prepared. Solid state FTIR spectroscopic studies confirm the presence of ?-sheets in the polymers. Building blocks that do not contain the rigid templates do not readily form the sheet structures.
J.C.M. de Bruijn, May 1999
Glass mat thermoplastics (GMT) are currently state-of-the-art materials for compression molding, with still hugh potentials. In Europe their unique position is attacked through the use of Long fibre thermoplastic (LFT) materials which are processed through the use of extrusion compression molding. Although raw and semi-finished product producers are fighting a media battle, it will be discussed how both materials can nicely exist alongside from the viewpoint of a finished product producer.
Time Dependent Crack Growth in Polyethylene with Emphasis on Environmental Attack
Paul B. Wells, Walter L. Bradley, Dave Register, Mark Lamborn, May 1999
This research seeks to determine the effect of chlorinated hot water on slow crack growth resistance in polyethylene using a test methodology that is quick and inexpensive. This will be done through the use of three point bend tests on specimens completely immersed in a bath of chlorinated hot water. The results will then be compared with results from the same test run without chlorinated hot water. Comparative data will be used to determine chlorine's effect.
Crystallization Behavior and Crystal Morphology of HDPE-Molecular Weight Dependence
Fang-Chyou Chiu, Qiang Fu, May 1999
A series of high density polyethylene (HDPE) fractions with molecular weight ranges from 1,600 to 325,000 g/mol have been investigated. The results of overall crystallization kinetics study by DSC indicate that the crystallization rate and the Avrami exponent (n) vary with molecular weight and undercooling (?T). Basically, the fraction with a lower molecular weight shows a higher crystallization rate. PLM, TEM and x-ray scattering technique were used to study the crystal morphology under different ?T's. Typical spherulites, axialites and asymmetrically shaped single crystals were observed.

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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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