SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

The Use of Conducting Polymer Composites in Thermoplastics for Tuning Surface Resistivity
Sam J. Dahman, Jamshid Avlyanov, May 1999

It is often difficult to provide consistent surface resistivity in the effective static dissipative range (about 105 to 1010 ohms/square). Thermoplastics incorporating traditional conductive additives generally exhibit discontinuous electrical behavior in this range. Conducting polymer composites have been created through in-situ deposition of conducting polymers onto carbon black substrates. By utilizing the inherent flexibility of these conducting polymer composites, compounds have been developed with controlled surface resistivity.

Learning from History: A Key Part of the Development Process of Insite™ Technology
Kurt W. Swogger, May 1999

One of the very first principles used to develop INSITE™ Technology, a major revolution in the polymer industry, was that of learning from history. Analyzing and avoiding repetition of mistakes to do product development worked very much to Dow's advantage as the major piece of technology advanced. Too often not enough time is allotted for contemplation of how to do better based on our collective experiences and wisdom. Particularly in developing new products, experience really makes a huge impact on the speed and success rate.

Nylon 6 in Thin-Wall Housings
James F. Stevenson, Alan Dubin, May 1999

To meet the challenging processing and performance demands for thin-wall housings, plastic materials must satisfy basic requirements for flow, impact resistance, and modulus. In this paper, select mechanical and processing properties of nylon 6 materials are examined for thin-wall-molding applications and compared with those for amorphous blends.

Quality Improvement of Foamed Seals for the Automotive Industry
Annette Krusche, Edmund Haberstroh, May 1999

Automotive body seals are becoming increasingly complex. As there is still little knowledge about the manufacturing process, extensive investigations are done to analyze the influence of the rheological behavior of the materials, the parameters of the extrusion process and the foaming/vulcanization on the quality properties of the foamed seals. The evaluation allows a better process understanding which in combination with improved test methods leads to an increased product quality and reduced manufacturing costs.

Pearl Lustre Pigment Modification - Improving Handling Characteristics
Robin Hilder, Scott Aumann, Emil Aust, May 1999

Synthetic pearl lustre like other high aspect ratio pigments exhibit poor solid flow behaviour. In the extruder based manufacture of thermoplastic masterbatches this limits output, by restricting the conveying capacity of the feed zone. Proprietary wax encapsulation technology now allows four fold or greater improvements in the extruder output without changing the particle shape or size distribution of the pigment prior to the compounding process. The encapsulation process also leads to low dust characteristics.

Chemical Assessment of Automotive Clearcoat Weathering
R.O. Carter III, John L. Gerlock, Cindy A. Smith, May 1999

The top, clearcoat layer of an automotive paint job protects the under layers while maintaining a beautiful appearance for the life of a car. To determine clearcoat durability, effects of the weathering protocol, of the physical and chemical transformations and effects on the appearance must be considered. To this end, we will describe photoacoustic infrared (PAS-IR), and ultraviolet (UV) technologies and UV microspectroscopy to assay the changes in chemical composition produced in clearcoat paint systems by weathering.

A Thermo-Viscoelastic Model for the Modulus of Epoxy during Cure
Sindee L. Simon, Olivier Sindt, Gregory B. McKenna, May 1999

The cure kinetics for a commercial epoxy have been established and the influence of the degree of cure on the glass transition determined. Time-temperature and time-conversion superposition principles have been built into a model that successfully predicts the development of the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy during isothermal cure from gelation to vitrification

Contribution of Flow Deformation to the Shrinkage of Injection Molded PVC
E. Ray Harrell, Jr., Rabeh H. Elleithy, Coleen A. McFarland, James W. Summers, May 1999

The viscoelastic nature of PVC can not be ignored during the injection molding process. Strains imposed on the compound during the injection stage display recovery dynamics that are indicative of the temperature at which the strains were imposed. A mathematical model, employing approximate" time-temperature modulus relationships provided the basis for interpreting the shrinkage data. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures attained within the part during injection was determined."

Double Bubble Tubular Film Extrusion of Polybutylene Terephthalate-Polyethylene Terephthalate Blends
Kwangjin Song, James L. White, May 1999

A technology has been developed to produce biaxially oriented films of blends of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using double bubble tubular film extrusion. The mechanical instabilities and the mechanisms associated with their sources of occurrence are described. The films have been structurally characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction and optical techniques. The structure of the film is related to processing conditions.

Structure Development in Melt Processing Polypropylene, Polypropylene-EPM Blends and TPEs
Yishan Yu, James L. White, May 1999

Fibers have been melt spun from polypropylene and its blends with ethylene propylene rubber, as well as polypropylene based thermoplastic elastomers under various conditions. The spinline stresses as well as kinematics have been measured. The fibers have been structurally characterized using wide angle x-ray diffraction and birefringence and the results interpreted.

Transient Start-Up Flow in a Modular Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder
EungKyu Kim, James L. White, May 1999

A model for flow start-up of a Newtonian liquid in an initially empty modular co-rotating twin screw extruder is developed. The changes of length of fill in front of the die and kneading disc block elements and output flow rate with time were predicted for various modular screw configurations. Experiments were also carried out on a laboratory modular machine with windows to verify the predictions. Generally, good agreement with the flow analysis was found.

A Comparative Study of Fiber Breakage in a Buss Kneader, Modular Co-Rotating and Counter-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
Keungjin Shon, James L. White, May 1999

The breakage of glass fibers was measured for several different types of continuous mixers including (i) Buss Kneader (ii) modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder (iii) modular intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder. Comparisons are made using different screw configurations, loadings, different feeding ports and mixing elements. Downstream feeding of glass fibers and milder screw configuration favor less breakage of glass fibers.

Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge for Multi-Layer Plastic Fuel Tanks
Mark Nulman, George Mozurkewich, Boris Khaykin, May 1999

A newly developed instrument, the Echometer measures the thickness of a barrier layer in multilayer polyethylene fuel tanks. Measurement by conventional pulse-echo ultrasound fails for thin barriers due to the large and highly frequency-dependent attenuation in polyethylene. The present instrument instead uses tone-burst excitation. Echo arrival time determines barrier depth, and frequency of minimum amplitude determines barrier thickness. Similar techniques may be applied to other layered plastic structures.

Orientation Determination Using Birefringence and Spectroscopic Techniques
A. Ajji, K.C. Cole, H. Ben Dali, May 1999

Techniques for the measurement of orientation of biaxially oriented films, sheets, and shapes using birefringence measurements based on oblique incidence of a polarized multiwavelength beam and FTIR spectroscopy in both transmission and reflection modes are presented. It is shown that sufficiently precise values can be obtained for biaxial birefringences and orientation functions, and that these techniques can be used for monitoring orientation processes as well as to control the quality of oriented articles.

Photostabilization of Polycarbonate-Styrenic Blends
Stephen M. Andrews, May 1999

A new HALS technology has been developed which provides for improved light stabilization of pigmented PC-ABS blends. Significant improvements in color stability and impact strength retention have been observed for PC-ABS systems subjected to accelerated weathering xenon arc test conditions. The new HALS technology is non-interacting with the PC-styrenic blend during melt phase extrusion compounding, as observed by capillary rheometry measurements of the stabilized polymers.

Modeling of Rheological Behavior of Immiscible Polymer Blends Undergoing High Deformation Flows
Mokhtar Aouina, Mosto Bousmina, Robert Guénette, May 1999

Non linear rheology of a mixture of two immiscible viscoelastic fluids undergoing high deformation flow was considered. Using Grmela's approach of compatibility of dynamics with thermodynamics, we derived a set of highly non-linear governing equations that take into account particles breakup, coalescence and the time evolution of the complex interface between the two mixture components. The proposed model recovers previous models such as Doi-Otha, Grmela and Ait-Kadi and Lee and Park models.

Failure Analysis Case Studies, Part I: Effect of Processing Conditions and Part Design
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 1999

In this paper, some case studies are presented to illustrate the effect of processing/assembly conditions and part design on product failure. Fractography was intensely used in these investigations. Nevertheless, mechanical analysis was occasionally used. The first case illustrates the role of assembly conditions in product failure. The second case shows the effect of part design. The third case describes the combined contribution of processing/assembly conditions and part design in product failure.

Maintaining the Thermal Balance Core to Cavity: The Key to Cooling Efficiency
Paul Engelmann, Eric Dawkins, Michael Monfore, May 1999

Achieving parts with maximum dimensional stability coupled with minimum cycle times, is a goal of most molders. Previous studies have shown that a majority of heat contained in the molded part is removed through the core of a mold. Application of high strength, high thermal conductivity copper alloys to core, cavity, and gate areas, has led to some revelations. These data shed new light on the effect of change in temperature vs. change in thermal conductivity.

Mechanism of Organotin Stabilization of Poly(Vinyl Chloride). 4. PVC Stabilization by Alkyltin Alkyl Mercaptopropionates
Michael H. Fisch, Radu Bacaloglu, Thomas Dooley, May 1999

The stabilization effect of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates was studied by the measurement of color change on heating a PVC formulation.

The Development of a Resin Coated Sand Tooling Process for the Manufacture of Plastic Components
A.D. Venus, S.P. Soe, J.W. Elder, A.R. Wheatley, May 1999

This paper describes the application of foundry sand moulding technology to the development of a rapid and low cost injection-moulding tooling system. An assessment of the sand / binder foundry moulding processes is presented which considers the requirements of the injection moulding process. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is used to provide a master pattern for transferring the geometry to the tool. Suitable formulations of sand, binder, hardener and curing conditions for tooling application are then discussed.

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