The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Product Demonstrations via Desktop Video
New PC-based software and peripherals are now available that allow the creation of a broadcast-quality animation and live-action video studio for under $2000. This opens up a valuable means for engineering and marketing to communicate design intent and performance via the readily accepted medium of video tape very early in the development cycle. These tools allow CAD data to be further leveraged through photorealistic computer animations of intended product usage. This paper surveys currently available software and hardware, including rendering and animation, video capture, video compositing, and video output, and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. Sample product demonstration videos will also be shown. The uses of desktop video are limited only by the imagination. However some of the more obvious possibilities include: • Animated fly-by • Product usage • Assembly procedure • Marketing and engineering evaluation • Corporate promotional video
Analysis of Mixing Inco-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders through Numerical Simulation
Nowadays, many materials, pigments, additives, gas or reactants, are mixed to create new products combining the characteristics of different raw materials to obtain a specific product properties. The quality of the mixing, i.e. the uniformity of the mixture, is a key issue that will determine the morphology and the properties of the resulting compound [1, 2]. An insight into those features can now be obtained through the numerical simulation of flow in extruder components. 3-D transient numerical simulations of two twin screw extruder (TSE) sections are presented and their behavior compared. A new technique, the mesh superposition method (MST), accurately determines the part of the computational domain which is occupied by the fluid with respect to the current screws position; the Navier-Stokes equations are then solved without involving any remeshing. Through the calculation of trajectories of material points, statistical information (of the RTD, deformations, dispersion, etc.) can be obtained to compare both configurations in a synthetic and quantitative way.
Numerical Simulation and Process Window Design of Injection/Compression Molding
The injection/compression molding process is a better choice than traditional injection molding process when large, thin or precision parts are produced. However, by introducing an independent press control to the polymer injection control, it becomes more difficult to find proper process conditions. In this paper two tools are discussed. The first tool is CAE software that has been developed to simulate injection/compression molding process. Second, a process window also has been developed to help the design of process conditions. This paper will show that both tools provide useful insight into the process that helps engineers make rational judgements.
The Effect of Rapid Prototype Tooling on Final Product Properties
Rapid tooling has allowed manufacturers to produce plastic injection-molded prototypes quickly and inexpensively. However, the mechanical properties of parts differ between rapid and conventional tools. The tensile and flexural properties of injection-molded parts produced in geometrically identical steel and composite molds were compared using atactic and syndiotactic polystyrene. When molded in the composite mold, both isomers exhibited an average of 17% lower ultimate tensile strength, similar Young's modulus, and 20% lower ultimate elongation than parts produced in the steel mold. The tensile stress-strain data for both isomers were found to be correlated. In flexural testing, both isomers molded in the composite mold exhibited an average of 19% higher flexural strength, 39% higher flexural modulus, and 27% lower ultimate flexural elongation than parts produced in the steel mold.
Higher Conductivity Composite Tooling
High conductivity carbon fiber was used to produce reinforced epoxy tools with unique thermal properties. When compared to epoxy and alloy backfilled stereolithography (SL) tools in identical heat conduction experiments, the fiber-reinforced epoxy tool showed an average of 17% greater conduction through the tool and 31% greater conduction across the tool's surface. These anisotropic thermal properties were speculated to be the result of preferential fiber orientation on the surface of the fiber-reinforced epoxy tool. Additionally, the fiber-reinforced epoxy tool exhibited 81% less total injection molding cycle time and 229% less production time than its backfilled SL counterpart.
A New Dispersive and Distributive Static Mixer for the Compounding of Highly Viscous Materials
In the compounding of polymers, static mixers are commonly used for distributive mixing. However, successful compounding generally requires both distributive and dispersive mixing; where the most difficult mixing involves the dispersion of materials having widely different viscosities. The best method to accomplish successful dispersive mixing is to expose the material to extensional flow. Furthermore, in terms of power consumption, extensional flows are far superior to the shear-type flows found in most mixing systems. This paper presents a new dispersive and distributive static mixer (DDSM), which exposes the fluid element to continual extensional flow for enhanced mixing.
Polymerization in a Twin Screw Extruder - Effect of Screw Configuration on MWD and Copolymer Content
A counter-rotating nonintermeshing twin screw extruder specifically designed to provide extensive backmixing was used to investigate the molecular weight distribution (MWD) occurring in the polymerization of Butyl Acrylate and the MWD and drift of copolymer content occurring in the copolymerizations of Butyl Acrylate/Styrene and Butyl Acrylate/Butyl Methacrylate. In contrast to almost plug flow characteristics observed in conventional single screw and twin screw extruders, this backmixed extruder has a residence time distribution comparable to a continuous stirred tank reactor, yet provides a positive drag flow regime for high viscosity fluids not available in stirred pots. The polydispersity (Mw/Mn) of chain addition polymerizations carried out in the backmixed extruder was cut in half when compared to those obtained in a conventional (plug flow) extruder, thus producing a more monodisperse polymer, and approached the theoretical value for a micromixed CSTR. The copolymer content of chain addition copolymerizations carried out in the backmixed extruder was demonstrated to be constant as a function of position in the reactor, whereas drift was observed in the conventional (plug flow) extruder. Acrylate/Styrene and Butyl Acrylate/Butyl Methacrylate produced in the backmixed reactor is contrasted with that from a conventional twin screw extruder, which exhibits virtual plug flow behavior. The copolymer composition is also contrasted at various locations in the extruder.
System Modelling for the Control of the Rotational Molding Process
In recent years the rotational molding process for plastics has become more sophisticated in terms of equipment design and the complexity of the molded parts. One of the weaknesses that remain is the lack of precise control of the process variables. Molders can now monitor in real time the temperatures inside the mould but there is a lack of a model relating machine controls and the key temperatures in the process. This paper presents for the first time the use of neural network methods to develop models to assist in the design of control systems. In this first phase of the work, deterministic step changes were used to derive a model relating oven temperature and the mold internal air temperature.
The Blending and Coextrusion of Metallocene Catalysed Polyethylene in Blown Film Applications
As Metallocene Catalysed Polyethylenes ( mPE's ) become more commercially available they are finding ever increasing application in the blown film industry. However, it is becoming apparent that no two mPE resins behave in exactly the same manner. This paper examines the rheological properties of a range of mPE's with different densities and MFI's. These resins were then blended with a conventional low density polyethylene ( LDPE ) to form monolayer films. The mechanical properties of these films were compared to three layer coextruded films of A:B:A structure, where A is LDPE and B is mPE.
Finite Element Analysis of Plastic Plumbing Assemblies
The long term performance of household plumbing assemblies is influenced by several factors including design, installation, and field service conditions. With plastic components, different factors interact to complicate the situation. Stresses in the body of plastic components and at the interface of components (pressure) strongly affect the chemical resistance, stress cracking and leak proofing of joints. A finite element stress analysis of plastic fittings has been carried out using a special contact algorithm. This algorithm permitted free relative movements of materials in contact and thereby allowed an accurate determination of assembly stresses. Many other FEA softwares on the market impose stronger constraints on relative movements that may introduce significant errors. The long-term performance has been predicted using creep analysis. FEA results compare favorably with experimental measurements.
Analysis of Polymer Flow near Glass Transition Temperature
In many polymer manufacturing operations, the material is processed near the glass transition or melting temperature. Examples are plastic welding, thermoforming, blow molding, film blowing, forging, and de-airing in safety glass lamination. In these processes, some of the solid-like behavior like strain hardening and yield stress may play important roles. They make material flow (or deformation) substantially different from that of a polymer melt. In order to understand the flow behavior near the glass transition temperature, polyvinyl butyral (PVB), a polymer used in safety glass lamination, was studied in this work. The material properties of the polymer were characterized by using the Rheometrics Mechanical Spectrometer (RMS) and the Rheometrics Solids Analyzer (RSA). The measured flow properties were modeled by a viscoplastic model. A finite element code, DEFORM, was applied to compare the simulation results with a compression molding experiment.
The Effect of Flight Radii Size on the Performance of Single-Screw Extruders
The size of flight radii on the screw channel is important for the proper performance of a single-screw extruder. SPI guidelines state that the root radii should not be less than half the depth of the channel. Improper design or fabrication, however, often results in radii that are less than half that for the metering and transition sections, leading to regions with long residence time and material degradation. For optimal solids conveying, however, the effect of flight radii is considerably more complicated. This paper will present experimental and numerical data that indicate how to specify the flight radii for all sections of the screw.
Portals to the Millenium: Internet '99
Portals have replaced Push as the hot Internet buzzword of the moment. A Portal Site is one that provides a variety of services to surfers, including a search engine, discussion groups, and editorial content. They also host extensive corporate advertising. By providing a one-stop entry point portals aim to maximize hits and make it more attractive to advertisers. While portals are typically associated with ‘mega-sites’ like Yahoo and Infoseek, industry-specific portals are springing up. Internal intranet portals are also becoming popular in larger companies. This paper reviews the portal concept and looks at how it fits into a marketing plan on all three levels: mega, industry-specific, and internal.
The Development of Polyolefin Based Oriented Glass Fiber Building Materials
In 1994, Rutgers University’s Plastics and Composites Group, formerly the Center for Plastics Recycling Research, was grant funded by the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology to develop and test composite railroad ties made from recycled plastic. Since the inception of this project, the major participants have been Rutgers University, US Plastic Lumber Corporation (formerly Earth Care Products, Inc.), Conrail, Norfolk Southern, Washington and Lee University, and the US Army Corps of Engineers. Though the main goal of this research was to produce plastic lumber with properties required of railroad ties for substitution with creosote treated oak, the project participants knew that many other applications could utilize this material as a direct substitute for wood. A direct result of this research was the discovery of a way to orient a high percentage of short, random length glass fibers along the axis of flow in a mold. U.S. Patent 5,789,477 was granted August 4, 1998 for this discovery, and we are sharing the information here.
Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Butyl Acrylate-Co-Styrene)/PMMA with Gradient Composition
Formerly, gradient polymers made by sequential polymerization have been studied for systems having a rigid matrix. There, the gradient structure has raised performance compared to material of global equivalent composition with homogeneous structure. In this work, a converse material was synthesized, preparing a Butyl acrylate (54 mol %) - Styrene photocopolymer to use it as matrix. MMA was then diffused at low temperatures and photopolymerized in situ to obtain a certain composition with homogeneous or gradient structure. Chemical composition throughout the slabs was established by IR. Stress - Strain and dynamic mechanical properties showed the performance superiority of the gradient materials.
Mechanical Behavior of Fabric-Film Laminates
Inflatable structures are gaining wide support in planetary scientific missions as well as commercial applications. For such applications a new class of materials made of laminating thin homogenous films to lightweight fabrics are being considered as structural gas envelops. The emerging composite materials are a result of recent advances in the manufacturing of lightweight, high strength fibers, fabrics and scrims. The lamination of these load-carrying members with the proper gas barrier film results in a wide range of materials suitable for various loading and environmental conditions. Polyesterbased woven fabrics laminated to thin homogenous film of polyester (Mylar) are an example of this class. This fabric/film laminate is being considered for the development of a material suitable for building large gas envelopes for use in the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon Program (ULDB). Compared to commercial homogenous films, the material provides relatively high strength to weight ratio as well as better resistance to crack and tear propagation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the mechanical behavior of this class of multi-layers composite and to highlight some of the concerns observed during the characterization of these laminate composites.
Eliminating Density and Heat Capacity Requirements in Transient Thermal Conductivity Measurements
Transient thermal conductivity methods have benefited from the rapid nature of the testing. The drawback has been the need to measure density (?) and heat capacity (cp) for the materials in order to calculate thermal conductivity. For speed, nominal values of ? and cp have been used, producing questionable thermal conductivity results. If ? and cp are measured, the increase in time reduced the benefit of the transient measurement. This difficulty has now been removed. A new technique has successfully been demonstrated which produces thermal conductivity directly. The only additional parameter that is necessary is material thickness. This new technique uses existing instrumentation without the need for hardware modification.
Stress Relaxation of Poly(Ethylene Naphthalate): Isothermal, Isochromal and Isostructural Responses
The physical aging response of polymers is generally examined in isothermal conditions by following the viscoelastic behavior as a function of aging time. It is then often asked if time-aging time superposition applies at a single temperature. If so, it can then be ascertained if time-temperature superposition applies to the aging time reduced curves obtained at different temperatures. In prior work from this laboratory we showed that isothermal time-aging time superposition did not apply to amorphous PEN. In this work we describe the surprising result that samples aged at 100 °C and then tested at 30 °C, 50 °C, 70 ° and 90 °C, that is iso-structurally (constant fictive temperature) seem to follow time-temperature superposition.
Low-Temperature Toughening Behavior of Polyolefin Blends and Composites
The low temperature impact properties of glass fiber reinforced Polypropylene and polyolefin blends with two different rubbers are investigated. Our results reveal that the impact strength increases with decreasing temperatures when glass fibers are highly loaded. The thermomechanical analysis over a wide range of temperatures is employed to elucidate the possible cause of the pronounced temperature dependence of the impact strength. It is found that the average thermal expansion coefficient of the highly filled composites significantly deviates from the linearity of a simple mixing rule. This significant reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient caused by the addition of glass fibers can provide a useful strengthening of the bond between fiber and matrix by increasing the compressive pressure exerted on the fibers by the matrix at low temperature. Meanwhile, the increase in the impact strength of polyolefin blends with some rubbers was also observed below room temperature. The examination of fractured surfaces of these blends clearly demonstrates the different toughening behaviors at low temperatures. We suspect that the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between rubber and matrix possibly causes the increase in the interfacial stress between rubber and matrix at low temperature.
Membrane-Inflation Rheometry - A New Way of Measuring Biaxial Deformation Behaviour at Process-Relevant Conditions
In blow-moulding, film production and other processes, polymers are biaxially stretched. For the layout of those processes, for Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) and for raw material development, the mechanical material behaviour of the polymer materials must be known. Therefore, the stress/strain behaviour of the material at forming temperatures and high strain rates is investigated in this paper. A new measurement device is described called the Membrane-Inflation Rheometer. It is capable to measure stress/strain behaviour of polymers under equibiaxial deformation and process relevant conditions concerning temperature and strain rate. The algorithm for data evaluation is explained. Some results for different polymer materials are presented.
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