SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Development Of A Temperature Displacement Law For Viscosity Fluctuations Integrated Into The Control Setup Of The Injection Molding Process
Hanna Dornebusch, March 2019
Modern injection molding machine technology is able to reproduce machine parameters, such as the movement of the axes, with high accuracy. Nevertheless, different boundary conditions, such as fluctuations in material properties or changes in ambient conditions, influence the quality of injection molded parts. Innovative control concepts can enable a production with a constant part quality despite changing and non-optimal boundary conditions. But these concepts do not take viscosity fluctuation into account although it changes the pressure distribution and thus the shrinkage behavior of the molded parts. Within this paper, a temperature control setup of the hot runner for compensating different melt viscosities is introduced and implemented. Therefore, a temperature displacement law that regulates the temperature of the hot runner is developed and used to control the injection molding process. Its influence on the process and the part quality are investigated.
Simulative And Experimental Validation Of An Inversed Cooling Channel Design For Injection Molds
Torben Fischer, March 2019
Thermal mold design is an important phase during mold construction and determines strongly the resulting part quality and cycle time. Nowadays, part geometries become more complex as well as cycle time becomes an increasingly important requirement. To support the mold designer in generating an efficient cooling channel design with less iteration loops, a methodology is under development to indicate the location of the cooling channels. Based on the local cooling demand of the part, this methodology proposes an inverse approach where an optimal thermal state of the mold is calculated and a corresponding cooling channel design is derived. A objective function is used to calculate and evaluate the cooling quality of the resulting design. In a process simulation, the developed cooling channel design shows a reduction in part warpage of up to 75 % compared to a conventional thermal mold design.
Specialty Discharge Methods For Continuous Compounders
Amanda Erickson, March 2019
A brief overview of discharge methods for continuous compounders is presented covering single-screw extruders, melt pumps, centrifugal pelletizers, pressure vessels, counter-rotating twin-screws, along with the B&P Littleford XLT twin-screw mechanism and Rotofeed System. These seven systems are critical subsystems of the entire extrusion process. Discharge methods for specialty processes, if designed correctly, can provide a constant pressure great enough for profile extrusion, continue mixing and/or reacting, cool, or pelletize the product. The correct subsystem can mean the success or failure of the entire process and is highly dependent on material properties.
Process Monitoring Of Induction-Based Adhesively Bonded Lap-Joints
Rajendra Prasath Palanisamy, March 2019
Adhesively bonded joints are an excellent replacement of traditional mechanical joints in the automobile industry. In comparison to mechanical joints, adhesively bonded joints are lightweight and cost-effective in fabrication. Induction-based bonding is gaining popularity as they are relatively quicker than conventional oven techniques. However, the temperature distribution, phase change, and cure time are not as straightforward as conventional oven prepared joints. Thus, it is necessary to understand these parameters in an induction based heating method to produce better joints. In this research work, stress waves are transmitted between adherents that pass through the adhesive interface. The changes in transmission coefficient and Time of Flight (TOF) of guided waves (GW) helps in understanding joint conditions properties such as adhesive phase transition and time of cure during fabrication. A qualitative analysis is reported in this paper to prove the application of guided waves in process monitoring.
Two Concepts For Extending The 3D-Simulation Technique Of Melting Processes In High-Speed-Extrusion Based On A Custom Material Model
Mirco Janben, March 2019
This paper investigates the potential of two concepts to extend an existing technique for simulating the melting process in high-speed-extrusion operations. The first concept is based on the so called Enthalpy- Porosity-Technique. A momentum sink will be implemented in the momentum equations to influence the velocity of the solid and umolten phase. The second concept deals with an adjustment of the current computation of the dissipated energy during phase change from solid to liquid. It is based on the idea that in a partially molten cell only the melt is exposed to shearing. A comparison of simulation results and microtom cut views from real experiment is carried out.
Advanced Additive Manufacturing Of Functionally Gradient Multi Material Polymer Components With Single Extrusion Head: Melt Rheology Analysis
Alaauldeen Duhduh, March 2019
Additive manufacturing (AM) has revolutionized the way in which products are designed and manufactured, where parts are built from the ground up, layer upon layer. For polymer based additive manufacturing, we have improved upon that by applying an innovative strategy that allows for functionally gradient multi material printing with single extrusion head. The innovation incorporates a rotating nozzle that introduces a controllable shear rate of the polymer melt, altering the melt rheology. 3-D printing a couple of materials that have different melting temperatures into a single part is challenging, since the temperature of the nozzle has to be tuned constantly to match the melt temperature of the material being extruded to achieve a desired performance. Otherwise, over extrusion or under extrusion will occur due to the different viscosities of the materials. In this study, a 3-D printer with single extrusion head that can print different materials into one part without changing the temperature of the melt is proposed. The proposed technique also allows extrusion based 3D printing to precisely optimize products performance by mixing different materials. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, Multi material printing, PLA.
Polyester Fibers And Their Mass Coloration For Automotive Applications
Fang Wang, March 2019
Polyester is the single largest fiber product globally. Owing to its physical properties, price, recyclability, and versatility, which offer a unique set of advantages unmatched by any other fiber like nylon and polypropylene, polyester BCF and staple fiber has become the fiber of choice in wide variety of applications, including in automotive applications. This market segment is projected to continue its growth at a faster pace in the next five years. We will review the key drivers, polymer and fiber process and product requirements, followed by test methods used for colorant selection and qualification. In the end, we will highlight colorants that are suitable and recommended for solution dyed polyester applications.
3D Printing Of Biodegradable Polymeric Blend By Fused Filament Fabrication (Fff): Processing & Characterization
Mawath Qahtani, March 2019
The target of this research was to fabricate and optimize a new 3D printable biobased material that can be used for biomedical applications that require biodegradability, biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. This research was successful in preparing a biobased filament made of 70% Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and 30% Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and 3D printing this filament using Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The rheological properties were investigated prior to 3D printing and the 3D printed specimens’ mechanical properties were compared to control specimen processed with injection molding method. The V-notched Izod impact testing of the 3D specimens showed about 30% higher impact toughness in comparison to the injection molded specimens.
Evaluation Of Methodoligies Utilized To Determine The Ideal Fill Speed For An Injection Molding Process
David Hoffman, March 2019
Fill time has long been regarded as the primary parameter to monitor and control during first stage filling of the injection molding process. Fill time is the result of a given first stage mold volume (shot volume) that is to be filled at a given volumetric flow rate. The most common industry method for evaluating the recommended fill time on the molding floor is known as the Rheology Curve or Relative Viscosity vs. Relative Shear Rate Curve (RV Curve). The RV Curve is one of the main principles taught worldwide in scientific molding courses in the injection molding industry. A company’s processing policies and procedures often reference the RV Curve as the method of choice for establishing an ideal volumetric flow rate and resulting fill time. Other methods may include the utilization of mold filling simulation software, personal experience based on similar parts and molds, or comprehensive Design of Experiments (DOE). This study focuses on the RV Curve and calls the method into question from a mathematical standpoint based on the formulas used to derive the RV curve. The study also discusses an alternative method as a potential replacement to the RV Curve.
Chemical Modification Of Polybutene-1 Resins Through Reactive Processing
Costas Tzoganakis, March 2019
A commodity polybutene-1 (PB-1) resin has been chemically modified through reactive processing. Samples produced by using various amounts of peroxide have been analyzed in terms of their molecular and rheological properties. Molecular weight distributions (MWD) as determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicate that polydispersity (PDI) remains constant but weight-average molecular weight (Mw) decreases with increasing peroxide amount. Linear viscoelastic measurements indicate that the modified samples are thermo-rheologically simple, zero-shear viscosity decreases with increasing peroxide concentration and flow activation energy remains constant.
Comparison Of The Conventional And The Disperse Melting Model Regarding Different Process Parameters
Marius Dörner, March 2019
The melting behaviour in the single-screw extruder has to date been thoroughly researched, starting with MADDOCK, for example, who was already involved with this topic experimentally in the 1950s. The subsequent modelling of TADMOR in the 1960s also brought the melting to a mathematical background. The model considered was based on conventional melting, in which a solid bed and a melt eddy are formed. Another melting model is disperse melting, in which the solid particles are evenly distributed in the melt. This can be caused, for example, by high screw speeds or special screw geometries. However, the mathematical treatment of this model is not yet fully developed. Nevertheless, a higher melting capacity is predicted for the disperse melting model. Whether this statement is also independent of the extruder size will be investigated in the following, using an analytical mathematical comparison. For this purpose, the models of PAPE and POTENTE are used.
M Gulcur | B. R. Whiteside | P. D. Coates, March 2019
Ultrasonic microinjection moulding technology uses ultrasound energy for melting the standard pellet-shaped polymer feedstock used in the plastics industry to facilitate melting of the material prior to the flow into the mould cavity. During the melting phase, the pellets are compressed against the sonotrode surface by using appropriate forces applied by an injection plunger. The pellets act as conductors of the acoustic energy and the contact points between the pellets act as initiators of the melting due to an interfacial friction heating mechanism. Both the pellet geometries and contact areas vary from shot to shot (due to variations in the pellet manufacturing process and the random distribution of pellets as they fall into the melting chamber) which causes process variation and a lack of repeatability of final product quality.  In order to overcome these issues, a more regular feedstock geometry was adopted. Identical disc shaped preforms were used in an ultrasonic micromolding process and compared with the process using standard pellets. The temperature distribution within the material was monitored for each feedstock geometry using a high-speed infrared camera. Characteristic features of the temperature profiles were analyzed and compared together with the final part quality. Results suggest that the initial contact interfaces of the polymer feedstock play a significant role in ultrasonic micromolding for micro-feature replication. 
Intellectual Property (IP) - An Integral Part of Your Business
Ng Chong Yuan, August 2019
What is Intellectual Property (IP)? IP commonly refers to creations of the human mind: New discoveries, New product designs, Original pieces of art, music, drama and literary work (including software codes) and Recognizable brands. When IP is protected by law, it gives rise to IP rights and IP assets: IP rights give IP owners control over the use of their IP: (i) for themselves and their licensees; and (ii) for a specific period of time.
Plasticizer Migration Assessment in Medical Applications
Jezz Lim, August 2019
Migration of Plasticizer: Diffusion rate = diffusion coefficient .concentration gradient; Diffusion coefficient –molecular weight, property of the diffusing medium (density, crystallinity, glass transition temperature), plasticizer -diffusing medium interaction, temperature, pressure etc.; Plasticizer migration can compromise the mechanical strength and aesthetic appearance of plastics.
ZEISS Microscopy Solutions for Polymers and Chemicals Research
Sky Xie, August 2019
Improve performance of polymers and chemicals. Image beam sensitive materials. In situ solutions for polymers and chemicals. Multi modal microscopy. Correlative microscopy. Advanced microscopy in 3D
Circular Meterials for Single-Use Flexible Packaging
Yap Chin Chong | Leong Yew Wei, August 2019
Chemical solutions for a circular economy: Mechanical recycling (Re-use: PET/PP/PE); Plastic waste to fuel (Conversion: PP/PE); Plastic waste to fine chemical (PS); Dynamic reversible crosslinker; Self-immolative, polymers; Fully recycle monomer-polymer-monomer; Bioplastics
Design for Additive Manufacturing - Autodesk Generative Design
Leong Kok Heng, August 2019
Autodesk Generative Design: Multiple methods of Manufacturability (Additive, Subtractive, Formative); Multiple materials; Combinations of Loads; No defined Volume; Part Consolidation
XRF Analysis of Polymer
Bruker Corp., August 2019
What is XRF?A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the elemental composition by excitation of atoms and detection of their characteristic X-rays. Polymer analysis with XRF, how does it work? Minerals: Calcite CaCO3; XRF provide elemental information; Stoichiometry by calculation or user input (CaO or CaCO3); Evaluation based on 100% known matrix, i.e everything is measured; Polymer: matrix is balance (100-X) as {CxHyOz}.
An Extreme World Needs Extreme Materials
Wenda Chen, August 2019
6 research platforms dedecated to sustainable development: New energies; Biosourced materials; Water treatment; Home efficiency and insulation; Lightweight materials; Consumer electronics.
Aerogel from Food Waste
Zhang Xiwen, August 2019
What is Aerogel? Lightest but strong solid material with extreme low densities of 3 to 40 mg/cm3. Highly porous materials (> 99% of air) with large surface area. Objectives of the using coffee for aerogel: Repurpose food wastes into something useful while keeping environmental impacts to a minimum; Design a FULLY BIODEGRADABLE aerogel for various applications; Sustainable processing development for designed coffee aerogels; Functionalize the aerogels towards certain applications.

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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
Available: www.4spe.org.

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