SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Structure Versus Rheological Properties of Soft Plastics: The Case of Ep(D)M Polymers
Emmanuel G. Kontos, May 1999

In the world of polymers, EP(D)M's are considered as rubbers capable to become excellent elastomers upon vulcanization. This paper presents EP(D)M's as unique soft plastics and provides some basic relationships between molecular structure of EP(D)M and rheological properties as measured by dynamic mechanical spectrometers. The rheological properties discussed, primarily tan delta, affects greatly the processability of rubbers as well as of plastics which are not rubbers.

The Effects of Ultrahigh Shear Rates on Mechanical Properties
Derek Vargason, Daniel Fritts, May 1999

The industry has yet to determine the effects of ultrahigh shear rates during the injection molding process. During this research, an ultrahigh shear rate mold will be built and used to exceed a given materials shear rate limit. After regrinding the sheared and unsheared materials, a test specimen will be molded. Samples will be tested for mechanical properties. Comparisons will then be made and a shear rate limit for a given filled or unfilled material will be determined.

Effect of Blending of Styrenic Block Copolymer on Abrasive Wear of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)
Raquel Perez, May 1999

An experimental investigation has been conducted to assess the role of a styrenic block copolymer in modifying the wear properties of high performance thermoplastic elastomers. The TPEs which were evaluated are a polyurethane elastomer and a polyester elastomer. It was found that small amounts of the styrenic block copolymer increased the abrasive wear of these blend elastomers.

Modeling the Structural Evolution of Filled Polymers and Nanocomposites
Anna C. Balazs, May 1999

We simulate the motion of spherical particles in a phase separating binary mixture. We show that the addition of hard particles significantly changes both the speed and the morphology of the phase separation. The domain growth rate shows a nontrivial dependence on the particle density, in qualitative agreement with earlier experimental data. The results facilitate the development of filled polymers and nanocomposites for specific technological applications.

Nanoparticle Reinforcement of Nylon 6,6 Composites
Lloyd A. Goettler, Bruce A. Lysek, May 1999

Polymers have traditionally been reinforced with micron-sized fibers and fillers to improve their load-bearing capacity and/or thermal resistance. While generally cost-effective and structurally adequate for many applications, these materials usually lack good appearance and easy processing due to the relatively large size of the dispersed phase. Such disadvantages can be overcome by reducing particle size to nanoscale dimensions through several routes, including the delamination of certain mineral fillers.

Design of a Pressure Vessel of Oriented Polyolefins
Robert G. States III, May 1999

The scope of this project is to design and evaluate a plastic package for a product that generates internal pressure. The package will be made of a polyolefin that is capable of being oriented. The mechanical properties of the oriented polyolefin will be characterized. The data then will be used in a finite element package to optimize the package design and predict the final performance of the package.

Investigation of Methods Used to Determine Ejection Temperature for Injection Molding
Melissa Spring, Courtney Williams, May 1999

This paper presents a study on the different methods used to determine the ejection temperature applied to calculating the cooling times during processing of thermoplastic materials. These methods for determining ejection temperature are contrasted with each other and then compared to PVT data. This was done to determine whether or not PVT graphs could provide a reasonable estimate, or alternative, of determining ejection temperature.

Comparison of Extrusion and Injection Blow Molded Bottles
Matthew R. Cribbs, May 1999

Processing decisions are often made between blowing bottles by the extrusion or injection blow molding technique in companies having both capabilities. Where parison melt strength is not a problem, one of the major considerations is the strength of the resulting bottle. Using the same bottle geometry and same plastic material under optimum processing condition for each method tensile testing will be performed. The tensile specimens will be die cut from side wall panels and compared. Results will shoe the mechanical differences generated by the two approaches.

Cooling Rate Effects on Shrinkage
Andrew E. Resler, May 1999

This paper presents a study on the how cooling rate can produce variations in a plastic materials Pressure - Volume - Temperature (PVT) characteristics which are used in creating shrinkage data for injection molding simulation programs. Most of the currently available PVT data is created using a cooling rate of only 3° C/min. The problem with this data when used to predict shrinkage is that during injection-molding, materials experience much faster cooling rates. This paper presents a study on whether these variations in cooling rates significantly effect the shrinkage values used by mold filling analyses

Effects of Energy Director Geometry and Contamination on Ultrasonic Welds
Roger C. Sager, May 1999

A primary function of ultrasonic welding is to join two or more pieces of plastic together by means of a high frequency sound energy transferred into mechanical energy, thus producing heat adequate to generate a permanent bond. This frequency (20,000 Hz) is focused onto a specific geometric point on the pieces being welded. When properly designed and implemented, the two pieces will form a permanent structure. The geometry of the parts is a critical aspect of the finished product as is the cleanliness of the parts.

Effect of Notch Size" on Falling Impact of PC Sheet"
Jason W. Geiswite, May 1999

How do notch's or grooves in Polycarbonate sheet effect the flexural impact properties of that material? A method was developed to study the effect of notch size" in a falling impact experiment. An apparatus was made to drop a one inch in diameter ball bearing from various heights onto "notched" samples of PC. "Notches" were introduced into the PC sheets by drilling various diameter holes vertically. Results were compared to Notched Izod Impact values of the materials tested."

Synthesis of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites
X. Kornmann, H. Lindberg, L.A. Berglund, May 1999

Epoxy-clay nanocomposites have been synthesised by swelling an organo treated clay in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA) with subsequent polymerisation using different curing agents. The resultant nanostructure was shown to depend on the reactivity of the curing agent but also on the cation exchange capacity of the clay. Characterisation of the different nanostructures was performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

Ultrasonic Investigation of Process Variation during Single Screw Extrusion and Injection Moulding: Real Time Detection of Temperature Profile and Material Degradation
E.C. Brown, P. Olley, T.L.D. Collins, P.D. Coates, May 1999

Ultrasound transit time measurements are used on an industrial scale extruder and injection moulding machine to monitor bulk melt temperatures in the melt by a non-invasive technique, using an ultrasound 'virtual instrument' operating at 10Hz sampling of transit time. Process induced change in the polymer melt is also monitored using the same technology.

In-Line Monitoring of Multiple Additives in Polyethylene Melt Using Fiber-Optic Spectroscopy
Jigui Li, Marion G. Hansen, May 1999

The feasibility of simultaneous in-line monitoring of additives Irganox 1076®, Irgafos 168®, Tinuvin 622®, erucamide, and Armostat 310® in molten low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was studied. The near-infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic systems used for the determination of additives were described. Based on the Partial Least Square (PLS) multivariate regression analysis, calibration models were built for predicting the concentrations of additives. It was found that some additives can be predicted reliably.

The Euro - A Common European Currency or a Milestone on the Way to a United States of Europe?
Barry H. Massey, May 1999

The European Monetary Union is a further step in economic and political integration in Europe. The driving forces include the desire for reduced financial transaction costs and avoidance of exchange rate volatility. Eleven countries have fulfilled the criteria, and have applied to join. Many companies have not appreciated the likely impact of EMU, and have done little to comply. This paper describes methods of evaluating the effect of the EMU on company operations.

Integrated Approach to Cleaning during the Recycling Process
May 1999

With an ever-present desire to increase the amount of plastics, being recycled, specifically PET and HDPE, a premium has been put on optimizing the whole recycling process. This process involves many steps including collection, sortation, cleaning and reuse. Each of these steps includes many stages with varying degrees of sophistication. In this paper we will look specifically at the cleaning process and the parameters effecting cleaner performance.

Novel Heterojuctions Based on Conducting Polymers
M. Aldissi, E. Lazaro, M. Bhamidipati, B. Dixon, May 1999

This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of junction devices based on the combination of conducting polymers and nanoparticles or nanotemplates of n-type inorganic semiconductors for photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications. Several materials, the choice of which derives from their stability, solution processability and film forming properties, have been synthesized. We have explored in this effort the use of electron transfer materials in order to optimize the barrier interface. Characteristics of the novel heterostructures are described.

Optimization of Injection-Molding Process with Genetic Algorithms
Hua Ye, K.K. Wang, May 1999

Injection molding is widely used for mass production of polymer products. One important issue is how to determine the gate location(s) and process conditions to produce parts of the best quality. The objective of this paper is to develop an efficient optimization system that can automatically make such determination. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) will be compared with a functional search method, Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. The principle of both algorithms will be described and illustrated with examples. Application of these algorithms to determine gate location and optimal process condition in injection molding will be demonstrated with examples. Gate location is determined based on the principle of balanced flow paths, while the optimal process condition is computed by minimizing the warpage across the entire part. Results show that the Genetic Algorithm is more efficient computationally than the SA algorithm.

Reduce Costs and Get Better Product Using Your Own SPC System on Your Line at Your Profile Extruder's Plant: A Customer's Perspective
Chris Rauwendaal, David Hadden, May 1999

SPC (Statistical Process Control) is a powerful tool that can be used to enhance quality and increase productivity in profile extrusion lines, but the number of custom extruders that use SPC is limited. When the right extrusion vendor can be found who is open to new ideas and is willing to work in partnership with a customer with basic SPC skills, it is possible to increase part quality and reduce costs simultaneously. For $3,500 plus a low end laptop and one of the popular spreadsheet programs, a simple, portable and powerful SPC system can be built, assembled, and programmed. All hardware and software is commercially available. Only a limited knowledge of instrumentation, statistics, and the ability to design and use a spreadsheet program is necessary to employ the methods presented. An example is presented wherein a customer brought his own portable SPC system into his profile extrusion company's shop and used it to troubleshoot the process, improve the quality of the customer's product, and decrease manufacturing costs by increasing production rates.

Influence of the HDPE Grade on the Blow Moulding of a Bottle: A Numerical Investigation
Benoît Debbaut, Gerrit Rekers, May 1999

A numerical investigation is performed on the influence of the properties of the high density polyethylene properties on the final thickness distribution of a bottle. The K-BKZ integral model with a relaxation spectrum is used for modelling the rheology of the material. A membrane element is used for performing the simulation of the blow moulding of geometrically complex objects, and is combined to a Lagrangian representation for the equations governing the motion. The simulation tool is applied for the production of a bottle with a handle. Numerical predictions on the thickness distribution of the part are compared to available experimental data.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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