SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Aerogel from Food Waste
Zhang Xiwen, August 2019
What is Aerogel? Lightest but strong solid material with extreme low densities of 3 to 40 mg/cm3. Highly porous materials (> 99% of air) with large surface area. Objectives of the using coffee for aerogel: Repurpose food wastes into something useful while keeping environmental impacts to a minimum; Design a FULLY BIODEGRADABLE aerogel for various applications; Sustainable processing development for designed coffee aerogels; Functionalize the aerogels towards certain applications.
Alternative Plasticizers for Automotive Underbody Coatings and Seam Sealants
E. McBride | M. Hall | M. Smith, October 2019
Background: Vinyl Leathercloth (interior); Underbody Coatings - Protect underbody and deaden sound; Seam Seals - Unpainted seams (less demanding) -Wet-on-wet cure/application (very demanding)
Regulatory Horizon for Antimony Trioxide
G. Squires, October 2019
Antimony Trioxide remains invaluable as a flame retardant synergist for PVC and for halogen flame retardant systems. A complete replacement has yet to be found and is unlikely to be found.
Computational Molecular Engineering for PVC Plasticizer Development: from Chemistry to Performance
L. Xi, October 2019
The lengthy timeframe for materials to move from discovery to market is due in part to the continued reliance of materials research and development programs on scientific intuition and trial and error experimentation. Much of the design and testing of materials is currently performed through time-consuming and repetitive experiment and characterization loops.
Phosphite Design Considerations for Low VOC Applications
J. Weingart | M. Jakupca | J. Lance | C. Phillips | J. Regula, October 2019
VOC Reduction via Phosphite Design: Remove phosphites that contain phenol as a ligand (such as DiDP and DPiD phosphites). Use phosphites with higher boiling ligands and that are of higher MW.; Use more hydrolytically/thermally stable phosphites (larger aryl and more hydrophobic aryl groups sterically hinder water from attacking the phosphorous and provide better thermal stability).
Rotational Rheometry on PVC Materials
G. Kamykowski, October 2019
Rheology: The study of the flow and deformation of matter. Flow: Fluid Behavior; Viscous Nature: F = F(v); F ≠ F(x). Deformation: Solid Behavior Elastic Nature: F = F(x); F ≠ F(v). Viscoelastic Materials: Force depends on both Deformation and Rate of Deformation and vice versa.
Mixing Fundamentals of Twin-Screw Compounding
C. Kheradi, October 2019
Mixing: Key to Successful Compounding of Filled and Reinforced Polymers. Mixing: What is it? Intimate blending of two or more ingredients to make a new material formulation that has certain predefined properties. – Mineral fillers – glass fibers – Impact modifiers – Pigments – Difficult to handle materials or additives
PVC Manufacturing
Peeples, October 2019
What Is a Mono-mer? A single compound from which a polymer is made. Ethylene, propylene, styrene, and vinyl chloride are examples of monomers.
Process Technology for PVC Compounding
T. Schelling, October 2019
Blending vs. Melt Mixing. Blending - the intimate intermingling of ingredients without phase change; Melt Mixing - the intimate intermingling of ingredients with a phase change.
Rigid PVC Stabilization
B. Smith, October 2019
PMC Organometallix: • Sn Heat Stabilizers • Catalysts and Fine Chemicals • PMC Biogenix • Fatty Amides and isamides • Fatty Acids • Glycerol Esters • Stearates • PMC Crystal • Paraffin based blends
Formulating Rigid / Semi-rigid PVC: Acrylic Modifiers
K. Yocca, October 2019
Acrylic Impact Modifiers: ● Core / Shell impact modifier design ● Modes of failure and formulation ● Processing and impact performance; Acrylic Process Aids: ● Process aid chemistry and functionality ● Selecting process aid technology ● Applications in semi-rigid and flexible PVC; PVC Formulation by market segment: ● Rigid weatherable ● Substrate ● Cellular PVC.
Sustainability within PVC Stabilization – A Systematic Approach
T. Seibel | S. Cockett | A. Eichholzer | S. MacDonald, October 2019
What is sustainability? the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level; avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance; Sustainability is most often defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. It has three main pillars: economic, environmental, and social. These three pillars are informally referred to as people, planet and profits.
PVC Additives 102
J. Scott, October 2019
Mixed Metal Heat Stabilizers • Tin Stabilizers • Organic Stabilizers • UV Stabilizers • Processing Aids • Biocides • Copolymers • Epoxy Plasticizers/Stabilizers • Fillers • Flame Retardants • Antioxidants • Lubricants • Copolymers • Pigments • Pigment Extenders • Plasticizers • Secondary Plasticizers • Bonding Agents; Under the Hood of Mixed Metal Heat Stabilizers • Primary and secondary metals • Phosphites and hydrotalcite • Stabilizer Shelf Life • Water blushing • Antioxidants • Mechanisms of primary and secondary • Quinoidal color bodies • NOX testing and discoloration • Epoxy Plasticizers • Types / Properties / Applications • Effect of oxirane on compatibility and stability • Cross linking and metal catalyzed cross linking • Spew testing
Determination of Fusion by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
G. Walrath, October 2019
Determining the Fusion of PVC Standard methods include: • ASTM D2152 – Standard Test Method for Adequacy of Fusion of Extruded Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Molded Fittings by Acetone Immersion; • ISO 9852 Unplasticized poly(vinyl Chloride) (PVC-U) pipes – Dichloromethane resistance at specified Temperature; • No ASTM Standard for use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry to determine Degree of Fusion of PVC; • Numerous papers have been published on the use of DSC to determine the degree of fusion of PVC ( Gilbert & Vyvoda "Thermal Analysis Technique for investigating the Gelation of Rigid PVC Compounds" 1981) (Vanspeybroeck & Dewilde "Determination of the Degree of Gelation of Rigid PVC Compounds" 2007) and others.
The Use of Recycled and Waste Materials in Selected Automotive Applications
K. Tarverdi | P. Allan | P. Marsh | J. Silver, December 2019
This report is an account of a project that went under name ‘Light AND Sound’ or the acronym ‘LANDS’. The objective was to investigate the potential use of recycled and waste materials in automotive components. Five components were selected for the investigation. All of them had the potential to be manufactured from waste and recycled materials. The trial materials which included recycled polypropylene and a particulate industrial solid waste stream, were processed into prototype components that were evaluated and compared with the respective production counterparts. Finally a life cycle assessment was carried out for each prototype component that was also compared with the current part. The overall results indicated a clear potential for the use of the project materials in their respective application.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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