The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Copolyesters As Heat Distortion Temperature Modifiers In Rigid Pvc
Exterior Rigid PVC products such as Siding, Cladding, Fencing, Decking and Window profiles are moving to more dark colors to enhance design features. Darker colors pose a challenge for Rigid PVC as infrared radiation absorbtion from the Sun can often raise the temperature high enough to exceed the Heat Distortion Temperature of the PVC causing distortion and sagging. Current technologies such as infrared non-absorbing pigments and coatings and additives, while minimizing the distortion, all have some problems in these exterior applications. Eastman is introducing a new material that solves many of these problems while increasing the Heat Distortion Temperature, enhancing ductility, and little effect on processing. This paper will discuss Eastman’s recent developments.
Heat Stabilising Flexible PVC with Layered Double Hydroxide Derivatives
The layered double hydroxide ([Mg0.667Al0.333(OH)2](CO3)0.167·mH2O) (LDH) has found application as a heat stabiliser for PVC. Derivatives of this compound were synthesised using a hydrothermal method. Emulsion grade PVC was plasticised with 100 phr diisononyl phthalate and stabilised with 30 phr of the LDH filler additives. Heat stabilities were determined at 200 C. The dynamic heat stability tests were performed on the plastisols using the torque rheometer method. Static heat stability was evaluated on the fused compounds. It was evaluated from discoloration profiles of strips exposed for various lengths of time to heat in a Metrastat oven. The time dependence of hydrogen chloride evolution was followed with a Metrohm Thermomat instrument. The conventional LDH provided the best dynamic heat stability. However, partial replacement of the magnesium with copper significantly delayed the release of volatile HCl. If instead the replacement was done using zinc, better colour retention was achieved.
Temperature Control In Accelerated Laboratory Weathering Testing Of Plastics
Accelerated weathering testing is used widely to evaluate the performance of outdoor polymeric materials. Test standards have been published by multiple international and other standards bodies for performing testing to simulate outdoor environments. These test methods apply ultraviolet (UV) light, high temperature, and water in the form of condensation, humidity, and spray. Control of temperature during accelerated weathering testing is critical for many plastic materials, both to control the rate of photochemical degradation and to avoid unrealistic failure modes from plastics softening or even melting. Unfortunately, maintaining proper specimen temperature during accelerated weathering testing can be challenging and is often not well-understood.
A New Method To Determine TF And Clash Berg Stiffness (ASTM D1043), Using A Rotational Rheometer
Thermo-rheological testing is important for the vinyl industry, as it indicates the temperature range over which a given vinyl formulation can be used in a specific application. A test that has been used for many years is described in D1043, the Clash-Berg stiffness test. The test typically consists of determining at what temperature a material will have a shear modulus of 310.3 MPa (45,000 psi) after 5 seconds of stress applied in torsion. The instrumentation that is used for this test is antiquated and has become difficult to procure. Modern rotational rheometers are well-suited for this test and can be considered as replacements for the older equipment. In this presentation, we will show test results from Clash-Berg tests on TA Instruments DHR rotational rheometer and will demonstrate the excellent correlation between results from the rotational rheometer and the torsion tester.
UV Light Irradiation Of Fibers In Termoplastic Pultrusion For Higher Surface Energy
Pultrusion is a common way to produce thermoplastic composites reinforced with different kinds of fibers. There are many different opportunities to improve the properties of a thermoplastic material. Different kind of fibers where pultruded in combination with different thermoplastic materials. The fiber content was set to 30wt% comparing the roving strain with the pultruded strain. UV-C light was integrated in the process to improve the fiber matrix adhesion. The pultruded strain was granulated and injection molded to specimen. The samples were tested in tensile and charpy tests. It could be shown that the concentration of oxygen on the surface of a cellulose fiber can be raised by uv light irradiation. Cellulose fibers show low but best changes of properties after the uv treatment.
"Smart Factories": The Future Of Plastics Production With 4.0 Connectivity & Condition Monitoring System (Cms)
“Smart Factories” are now a real possibility. Many innovations have been realized over the years, but perhaps none as interesting and valuable as Industry 4.0 and Condition Monitoring Systems (CMS). The ability to achieve complete connectivity along with the need to stay in touch have driven innovation to a point that now allows nearly all equipment to speak to each other. The capability to have full internal communication of equipment coupled to the Injection Molding Machine with nearly instant access to streaming data through the internet may have truly created the next generation of “Smart Factories”. The innovations provided by 4.0 connectivity along with CMS, a system which combines technical sensing components with predictive diagnostic analysis, allow factory monitoring at local and global levels.In this presentation we will review the integration of all injection molding components using 4.0 connectivity. This includes a complete automation system along with all the peripherals – and the connection of these cells to a Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). We will also review Condition Monitoring Systems (CMS) and how they will affect the future of plastics production. The strategy of condition monitoring is a permanent surveillance of the actual condition of the injection molding machine components with the goal of optimizing, and subsequently, keeping the availability and efficiency at an optimal level, thus reducing their life cycle costs.
Effect Of High Speed Twin And Quad Screw Compounding On The Molecular Weight, Molecular Weight Distribution, And Mechanical Properties Of Polyethylene Composites
In this study, a particulate-filled polymer composite was compounded with ultra-high-speed twin and quad screw extruders to investigate the effects of screw speed and intermeshing area on 1) the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution and 2) the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. In general, the quad screw extruder produced significant decreases in the molecular weight of the neat polymers, with greater decreases observed with higher molecular weight polyethylenes. Examination of Gʺ/Gʹ crossover points showed that higher screw speeds produced decreases in molecular weight, but narrowing of the molecular weight distribution. These results were more affected by material system than extruder type. Since the quad screw extruder provided better filler dispersion combined with reductions in molecular weight, it produced no change in elongation at yield and break for filled LDPE, decreases in elongation at yield and increases in elongation at break for MDPE, and increases in modulus that were not significantly affected by screw speed. The flexibility of the materials created Izod impact results that showed no major changes with extruder type or speed.
Machine Upgrades & Rebuilds
What to do with an aging fleet of rotomolding machines? • Sell • Scrap • Maintain & pray • Rebuild & Upgrade
Interfacing with Floor Associates
Nice Sounding Title ...but… Why this presentation • Changing workplace • Changing workforce • Changing attitudes towards co-workers • Changing attitudes towards work & expectations
Rotational Molding Design Case Study - Car Wash Kiosk
in the Beginning - Initial Meeting: • Highlight major design objectives • Review possible product configurations • Define major product requirements • Review schedule • Investment & cost • Discuss marketing objectives. Current Products – vacuum formed & sheet metal construction
Fuel Tank Regulations
Regulations can be found in all industries: Automotive, Small Off Road Engine (SORE), Marine, Large Spark, etc. This presentation will focus on fuel tanks for the Small Off Road Engine (SORE) Industry. So what is a Small Off Road Engine (SORE) Application?
Nylon 6.6/9: A Lower Melting Temperature Nylon
Copolymers of Nylon 6 - Benefits: • Good Gasoline Permeability • Long Term Heat Stability • Great Design Flexibility • Good VOC Behavior. Nylon 669: • Excellent Resistance to Hydraulic Fluid • Higher Wear Resistance • Extruded Monofilament • Much Lower Costs than High Number Nylons.
Polyethylene - Expanding Options for Rotational Molded Products
Why Polyethylene? • It is easy to mold. • It is widely available in rotomolding grades. • It has good physical properties. • Cost – offers a cost competitive solution to end users. • Knowledge and Confidence - molders are very familiar with it. • Market Identification – end users know rotomolding is a Polyethylene based industry and therefore design products to suit the capabilities of the material.
Functional Color Concentrates TekTuff™ Impact Enhancement
Teknor Apex Company Capsule: • Founded 1924 • Privately held company, for long term growth and stability • Fully equity financed • Worldwide production, marketing, sales, R&D • Continuous growth through re-investment of profits • Employing ~2,200 staff • Acquired DSM Sarlink TPVs November 2010 • Acquired Viking Polymers rigid PVC February 2014 • Acquired PTS April 2016
Weathering, UV Rating and Other Testing in the Rotational Molding Market
Presentation Outline: • Brief Overview of Solvay • The Need for UV Protection of Plastics • Definition of UV Rating for Rotational Molding • UV Ratings in North America and Europe • Correlating UV Rating with Expected Service Life • Primary Weathering Factors • Correlating Accelerated Testing to Outdoor Exposure • Polymer Testing for UV Rating • Other Considerations for the Rotational Molding Market • Out of Mold Color, Gas Fade, Processing Window, and Cycle Time • Summary
Analysis of Internal Temperature Curves for the Process Control of Complex Parts
Content: • Introduction on rotomolding process control • Data profiles • Curve analysis • Conclusion • Acknowledgements
Process Temperature Control
Process Management & Control: • Classic Temperature & Control • Temperature Profile & Layer Maturation • Process Management System • Process Temperature Profile via Batch Instrumentation • Process Temperature Control via Non-Contact Instrumentation
Forces On Threaded Inserts
Threaded Inserts: • “How strong is this insert?” • “What is the Torque Strength of this insert?” • Mechanical bond between insert & substrate • Typically Threaded for secure attachment of bolts and fittings • Failure is dictated by their ultimate function!
Powder Quality, Mixing, Colorants, Proper Venting and QC Equipment
Rotational Molding Topics: • Importance of the powder quality • Proper mixing and polishing powder • Static swirling – the ABC’s • Why colorant selection is critical • Proper venting reduces scrap • Important QC equipment
Effects of Mixing Methods of Color on Mechanical Properties of Rotationally Molded Parts
Equipment Used: • Medkeff-nye Shuttle PD Rotational Molder • 12”x12”x12” Test Box • Ez-Logger Data Acquisition Tool • Leistritz Twin Screw Extruder • Webco Reduction Grinder • PlasMec High Intensity Mixer • Falling Dart Impact Tester • Tinius-Olsen Universal Tester
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