SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Heat Stabilising Flexible PVC with Layered Double Hydroxide Derivatives
Dan Molefe, May 2018
The layered double hydroxide ([Mg0.667Al0.333(OH)2](CO3)0.167·mH2O) (LDH) has found application as a heat stabiliser for PVC. Derivatives of this compound were synthesised using a hydrothermal method. Emulsion grade PVC was plasticised with 100 phr diisononyl phthalate and stabilised with 30 phr of the LDH filler additives. Heat stabilities were determined at 200 C. The dynamic heat stability tests were performed on the plastisols using the torque rheometer method. Static heat stability was evaluated on the fused compounds. It was evaluated from discoloration profiles of strips exposed for various lengths of time to heat in a Metrastat oven. The time dependence of hydrogen chloride evolution was followed with a Metrohm Thermomat instrument. The conventional LDH provided the best dynamic heat stability. However, partial replacement of the magnesium with copper significantly delayed the release of volatile HCl. If instead the replacement was done using zinc, better colour retention was achieved.
Temperature Control In Accelerated Laboratory Weathering Testing Of Plastics
Andy Francis, May 2018
Accelerated weathering testing is used widely to evaluate the performance of outdoor polymeric materials. Test standards have been published by multiple international and other standards bodies for performing testing to simulate outdoor environments. These test methods apply ultraviolet (UV) light, high temperature, and water in the form of condensation, humidity, and spray. Control of temperature during accelerated weathering testing is critical for many plastic materials, both to control the rate of photochemical degradation and to avoid unrealistic failure modes from plastics softening or even melting. Unfortunately, maintaining proper specimen temperature during accelerated weathering testing can be challenging and is often not well-understood.
A New Method To Determine TF And Clash Berg Stiffness (ASTM D1043), Using A Rotational Rheometer
Greg Kamykowski, May 2018
Thermo-rheological testing is important for the vinyl industry, as it indicates the temperature range over which a given vinyl formulation can be used in a specific application. A test that has been used for many years is described in D1043, the Clash-Berg stiffness test. The test typically consists of determining at what temperature a material will have a shear modulus of 310.3 MPa (45,000 psi) after 5 seconds of stress applied in torsion. The instrumentation that is used for this test is antiquated and has become difficult to procure. Modern rotational rheometers are well-suited for this test and can be considered as replacements for the older equipment. In this presentation, we will show test results from Clash-Berg tests on TA Instruments DHR rotational rheometer and will demonstrate the excellent correlation between results from the rotational rheometer and the torsion tester.
UV Light Irradiation Of Fibers In Termoplastic Pultrusion For Higher Surface Energy
Christian Kahl, May 2018
Pultrusion is a common way to produce thermoplastic composites reinforced with different kinds of fibers. There are many different opportunities to improve the properties of a thermoplastic material. Different kind of fibers where pultruded in combination with different thermoplastic materials. The fiber content was set to 30wt% comparing the roving strain with the pultruded strain. UV-C light was integrated in the process to improve the fiber matrix adhesion. The pultruded strain was granulated and injection molded to specimen. The samples were tested in tensile and charpy tests. It could be shown that the concentration of oxygen on the surface of a cellulose fiber can be raised by uv light irradiation. Cellulose fibers show low but best changes of properties after the uv treatment.
"Smart Factories": The Future Of Plastics Production With 4.0 Connectivity & Condition Monitoring System (Cms)
Markus Klaus, May 2018
“Smart Factories” are now a real possibility. Many innovations have been realized over the years, but perhaps none as interesting and valuable as Industry 4.0 and Condition Monitoring Systems (CMS). The ability to achieve complete connectivity along with the need to stay in touch have driven innovation to a point that now allows nearly all equipment to speak to each other. The capability to have full internal communication of equipment coupled to the Injection Molding Machine with nearly instant access to streaming data through the internet may have truly created the next generation of “Smart Factories”. The innovations provided by 4.0 connectivity along with CMS, a system which combines technical sensing components with predictive diagnostic analysis, allow factory monitoring at local and global levels.In this presentation we will review the integration of all injection molding components using 4.0 connectivity. This includes a complete automation system along with all the peripherals – and the connection of these cells to a Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). We will also review Condition Monitoring Systems (CMS) and how they will affect the future of plastics production. The strategy of condition monitoring is a permanent surveillance of the actual condition of the injection molding machine components with the goal of optimizing, and subsequently, keeping the availability and efficiency at an optimal level, thus reducing their life cycle costs.
Effect Of High Speed Twin And Quad Screw Compounding On The Molecular Weight, Molecular Weight Distribution, And Mechanical Properties Of Polyethylene Composites
Mansour Albareeki | Stephen B. Driscoll| Carol F. Barry, May 2018
In this study, a particulate-filled polymer composite was compounded with ultra-high-speed twin and quad screw extruders to investigate the effects of screw speed and intermeshing area on 1) the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution and 2) the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. In general, the quad screw extruder produced significant decreases in the molecular weight of the neat polymers, with greater decreases observed with higher molecular weight polyethylenes. Examination of Gʺ/Gʹ crossover points showed that higher screw speeds produced decreases in molecular weight, but narrowing of the molecular weight distribution. These results were more affected by material system than extruder type. Since the quad screw extruder provided better filler dispersion combined with reductions in molecular weight, it produced no change in elongation at yield and break for filled LDPE, decreases in elongation at yield and increases in elongation at break for MDPE, and increases in modulus that were not significantly affected by screw speed. The flexibility of the materials created Izod impact results that showed no major changes with extruder type or speed.
3D Characterization And Mechanical Analysis Of Polyethylene Foams Processed In Rapid Rotational Foam Molding
P. Karimipour-Fard | W. Y. Pao | R. Pop-Iliev | G. Rizvi, May 2018
Rapid Rotational Foam Molding (RRFM) products are integral cellular composites that consist of a solid skin which encapsulates a foamed core. This paper focuses on characterizing the morphologies in 3D and identifying the key mechanical properties of respective integral-skin polyethylene (PE) cellular structures produced in RRFM by making use of Micro-CT Scanner. Two types of PE grades were used to produce the foamed core, whereas a PE and a PP grade were used to produce the surrounding solid skin layer. The effects of varying relevant processing parameters such as: foam filling directions, processing temperatures and skin temperatures on the quality of the obtained foams were studied. In addition, the correlations between the resulting cellular structures, cell size distributions, and cell densities have been assessed. Finally, simultaneous stress-strain behavior and 3D structure changes were monitored with in-situ compression testing. The experimental results revealed that foam layers adjacent to the integral skin solid layer demonstrate a higher cell density compared to those located in the core, which affects the compressive strength of the material by 0.2 MPa. It was also observed that higher processing and skin temperatures cause increase in cell size, and conversely, decrease in cell density. Mechanical analysis results indicated that cellular structures near the skin have higher compressive strength, and in general, the manufactured LLDPE foam exhibited higher mechanical properties than the sHDPE foam. Compression tests revealed that foam cell size decreases through compression, while cell density was not specifically affected with increased strain.
3D Printing Feedstock From Recycled Materials
Nicole Zander, May 2018
United States Army warfighters in theater are often faced with the challenge of broken, damaged, or missing parts necessary to maintain the safety and productivity required. Waste plastics can be utilized to improve the self-reliance of warfighters on forward operating bases by cutting costs and decreasing the demand for the frequent resupplying of parts by the supply chain. In addition, the use of waste materials in additive manufacturing in the private sector would reduce cost and increase sustainability, providing a high-value output for used plastics. Experimentation is conducted to turn waste plastics into filament that can be used in fused deposition modeling. The effect of extrusion temperature and number of extrusion cycles on polymer viscosity and crystallinity are explored. The effect of blends and fillers to impart additional functionality are also examined. Tensile specimens were tested and compared to die-cut and injection molded parts. Parts printed from recycled polyethylene terephthalate had the highest tensile strength of all recycled plastics evaluated (35.1 ± 8 MPa), and were comparable to parts printed from commercial polycarbonate-ABS filament. Elongation to failure of all recycled plastics was similar to their injection molded counterpart. In addition, select military parts were printed with recycled filament and compared to original parts. This research demonstrates some of the first work on the feasibility of using recycled plastic in additive manufacturing.
Machine Upgrades & Rebuilds
Adam Covington, June 2018
What to do with an aging fleet of rotomolding machines? • Sell • Scrap • Maintain & pray • Rebuild & Upgrade
Interfacing with Floor Associates
Ken Bather, June 2018
Nice Sounding Title ...but… Why this presentation • Changing workplace • Changing workforce • Changing attitudes towards co-workers • Changing attitudes towards work & expectations
Rotational Molding Design Case Study - Car Wash Kiosk
Michael Paloian, June 2018
in the Beginning - Initial Meeting: • Highlight major design objectives • Review possible product configurations • Define major product requirements • Review schedule • Investment & cost • Discuss marketing objectives. Current Products – vacuum formed & sheet metal construction
Fuel Tank Regulations
Andrew Meloeny, June 2018
Regulations can be found in all industries: Automotive, Small Off Road Engine (SORE), Marine, Large Spark, etc. This presentation will focus on fuel tanks for the Small Off Road Engine (SORE) Industry. So what is a Small Off Road Engine (SORE) Application?
Nylon 6.6/9: A Lower Melting Temperature Nylon
Bobby Richards, June 2018
Copolymers of Nylon 6 - Benefits: • Good Gasoline Permeability • Long Term Heat Stability • Great Design Flexibility • Good VOC Behavior. Nylon 669: • Excellent Resistance to Hydraulic Fluid • Higher Wear Resistance • Extruded Monofilament • Much Lower Costs than High Number Nylons.
Polyethylene - Expanding Options for Rotational Molded Products
Sandy Scaccia, June 2018
Why Polyethylene? • It is easy to mold. • It is widely available in rotomolding grades. • It has good physical properties. • Cost – offers a cost competitive solution to end users. • Knowledge and Confidence - molders are very familiar with it. • Market Identification – end users know rotomolding is a Polyethylene based industry and therefore design products to suit the capabilities of the material.
Functional Color Concentrates TekTuff™ Impact Enhancement
John Wood | Edwin Tam, June 2018
Teknor Apex Company Capsule: • Founded 1924 • Privately held company, for long term growth and stability • Fully equity financed • Worldwide production, marketing, sales, R&D • Continuous growth through re-investment of profits • Employing ~2,200 staff • Acquired DSM Sarlink TPVs November 2010 • Acquired Viking Polymers rigid PVC February 2014 • Acquired PTS April 2016
Weathering, UV Rating and Other Testing in the Rotational Molding Market
Gregory Treich | Tom Steele, June 2018
Presentation Outline: • Brief Overview of Solvay • The Need for UV Protection of Plastics • Definition of UV Rating for Rotational Molding • UV Ratings in North America and Europe • Correlating UV Rating with Expected Service Life • Primary Weathering Factors • Correlating Accelerated Testing to Outdoor Exposure • Polymer Testing for UV Rating • Other Considerations for the Rotational Molding Market • Out of Mold Color, Gas Fade, Processing Window, and Cycle Time • Summary
Analysis of Internal Temperature Curves for the Process Control of Complex Parts
Denis Rodrigue, June 2018
Content: • Introduction on rotomolding process control • Data profiles • Curve analysis • Conclusion • Acknowledgements
Process Temperature Control
Patrick J. Calderone, June 2018
Process Management & Control: • Classic Temperature & Control • Temperature Profile & Layer Maturation • Process Management System • Process Temperature Profile via Batch Instrumentation • Process Temperature Control via Non-Contact Instrumentation
Forces On Threaded Inserts
Steve Harris | Connor Landsverk, June 2018
Threaded Inserts: • “How strong is this insert?” • “What is the Torque Strength of this insert?” • Mechanical bond between insert & substrate • Typically Threaded for secure attachment of bolts and fittings • Failure is dictated by their ultimate function!
Powder Quality, Mixing, Colorants, Proper Venting and QC Equipment
Bruce Muller, June 2018
Rotational Molding Topics: • Importance of the powder quality • Proper mixing and polishing powder • Static swirling – the ABC’s • Why colorant selection is critical • Proper venting reduces scrap • Important QC equipment

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