The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Joseph Greene, Lisa Ott, Kate Isganitis, Reta Betar, May 2014
A 22% solution of sucrose derived purely from sugar beets was dissolved in water and hydrolyzed with an invertase enzyme to produce glucose. This glucose was fed to champagne yeast and fermented to produce ethanol in yields of approximately 15 %. The ethanol was catalytically dehydrated to ethylene with a HZSM-5 catalyst in a small batch reactor. The ethylene was converted to poly(ethylene) using a Ziegler-Natta type catalyst. This poly(ethylene) should be suitable for use in plastic products like plastic bottles, containers, and grocery bags.
Christopher T. Thellen, Corey Hauver, Jo Ann Ratto, May 2014
Multilayer packaging films from bio-polyethylene/soy flour composites were produced via co-extrusion processing through feedblock technology. Three layer films were produced containing up to 20% milled soy flour in the core layer, with neat polyethylene skins. Oxygen permeability of the films decreased by as much as 38% with the addition of soy flour to the core layer, but tensile strength values decreased by 29% in comparison to the neat multilayer control.
Sudhir B. Railkar, Walter Zarate, Peter Campbell, Charles Lake, Jeffrey Avitabile, Leslie Peels, May 2014
Injection molded accessory products are widely used in residential and commercial roofing systems. These products generally require complex polymeric formulations to meet roofing functionality. With the growth of polymeric accessory products, significant post-consumer recycled streams are available. The goal of this paper is to discuss performance of several post-consumer recycled PP streams in injection molded PP formulations while maintaining performance attributes.
Thomas Baranowski, Markus Franzen, Erwin Baur, Maira Magnani, May 2014
The interest in renewable materials in car industry is growing dramatically. Natural fiber reinforced plastics (NFC) are an attractive solution, because of their interesting mechanical properties in combination to a good eco balance. One of the main obstacles to being used on a large scale in the car development process is the requirement that all components must proof that they meet product safety requirements and are fit for purpose through using CAE methods. The usage of CAE is a fixed established procedure in the automotive industry to meet today's challenging development times. The project NFC-Simulation, which is described in this paper, established a complete and integrated solution for the simulation of NFC components, from processing to crash simulation. In order to achieve these capabilities, many technical and scientific problems had to be solved in detail and the results integrated to a complete solution.
Hani Naguib, Shahriar Ghaffari Mosanenzadeh, Yang Zhou, Gengyu Xu, Siu N. Leung, May 2014
Since electronic devices are constantly becoming smaller and more powerful [1,3], heat dissipation plays a very important role in electronic packaging applications. By using highly thermal conductive materials, it is possible to manage the heat dissipation on electronics to improve their efficiency. In addition, it is possible to avoid the use of mechanical fans by avoiding the heat sink cooling method. Thus, electronics can be made cheaper, lighter, and more compact [4-8]. Recycling of electronics is also another concern because millions of devices are used and produced every day. This research is aimed at making a polymeric composite that has high thermal conductivity, is electrically isolative, and is bio-based: a suitable as a replacement candidate for current electronic packaging materials. In this study, Polyamide (PA) with at least 60% bio-based content in composite with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) was studied. Significant improvement in thermal conductivity was found relating to the size of conductive network, which has direct relationship with numbers, length, and direction of thermal pathways, rather than amount of filler particles.
Adriana Pavia-Sanders, Jeniree A. Flores, Jonathan E. Sanders, Jeffrey E. Raymond, Karen L. Wooley, May 2014
Well-defined, magnetic shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles (MSCKs) with hydrodynamic diameters ca. 70 nm were constructed through the co-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers of PAA20-b-PS280 and oleic acid-stabilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. These hybrid nanomaterials were designed as sequestering agents for hydrocarbons present in crude oil. Their combination of amphiphilic organic domains, for aqueous solution dispersibility and capture of hydrophobic guest molecules, with inorganic core particles for magnetic responsivity, make these nanomaterials uniquely qualified for oil spill remediation. The employment of these MSCKs in contaminated water resulted in the successful removal of the hydrophobic pollutants at a ratio of 10 mg of oil per 1 mg of MSCK. Using a magnet, the loaded nanoparticles were isolated and through “rinsing” in an ethanol sonicating bath, they were regenerated for reuse with no loss of their loading capacity.
Patricia I. Dolez, Eric David, Eric Blond, May 2014
Layered-silicate-based nanocomposites offer great potential for improving barrier properties of polymer membranes for applications in packaging, protective clothing, geotechnical and environmental engineering, etc. In this study, organo-modified montmorillonite / linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) nanocomposite samples with various percentages of nanoclay and maleic anhydride compatibilizer were prepared by twin-screw melt-extrusion followed by compression molding. Barrier properties are characterized through oxygen permeability measured according to ASTM D3985 standard test method. A linear relationship is observed between oxygen transmission rate and nanoclay percentage. Results reveal that both the nanoclay and compatibilizer individually contribute to the LLDPE nanocomposites oxygen permeability.
Man Chio Tang, Sushant Agarwal, Fares D. Alsewailem, Rakesh K. Gupta, May 2014
Polylactic acid (PLA), a bio-derived biodegradable polymer, is being considered as substitute for conventional non-biodegradable polymers in packaging applications, among other uses. However, it has low barrier properties for gases and water vapor. In this work, the effect of nanoplatelets of nanoclay and graphene has been evaluated on the water vapor permeability through PLA films. In addition, the effect of PLA crystallinity has also been studied. It was found that while both nanoclay and graphene have a significant effect on the water vapor permeability, PLA crystallinity has only a smaller effect.
The combined effect of two major causes of polymer failure, photo-oxidative degradation and environment stress cracking (ESC), have been investigated in this paper. Polycarbonate (PC) injection molded specimens were aged for 168 hours at 50 °C in an ultraviolet (UV) weatherable chamber. Then the stress relaxation and tensile tests were carried out in the ethanol environment to examine ESC behavior of PC. The results show that the tensile yield stress and stress relaxation resistance of PC improve slightly due to photo-oxidative degradation, while the ethanol will accelerate the failure of undegraded PC. When the previous degraded specimens were tested under the presence of ethanol, the stress relaxation rate increases significantly and the surface cracks appear to be more intensive in comparison with other ones. This indicates that there is a synergistic effect between photooxidative degradation and environmental stress cracking for PC injection molded parts.
Krishnan A. Iyer, Amanda M. Flores, Philip J. Brunner, John M. Torkelson, May 2014
Synergistic green composites of polypropylene (PP) with cardboard and waste paper are produced via solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) without any compatibilizers or surface modification. The property enhancements are comparable to those from more expensive forms of cellulose. Additionally, optimization of SSSP processing, commercial viability and melt processability of the composites are evaluated.
Today everyone is concerned about Sustainability - protecting today's environment for future generation. Sustainability has become major initiative by all companies. Consumers want sustainable/ Green packaging but most of them do not want to pay more for Green Packaging. Consumers & Customers want 'Cost-effective Sustainable' Packaging”. It's responsibility of everyone in supply chain to work together to meet demands of their consumers and customers.
María José Fabra Rovira, Amparo López-Rubio, Jose M. Lagaron, May 2014
This work studies de effect of incorporating high barrier se lf-adhesive nanostructured interlayers of zein, pullulan and whey protein isolate between of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) materials. Oxygen and water vapour barrier properties were greatly influenced by the morphology, thickness and inherent barrier of the electrospun interlayer materials. Thus, zein (in agreement with previous works) and pullulan formed fibrillar structures which significantly contributed to improve barrier properties of the multilayer systems. On the other hand, electrospun WPI formed bead microstructures and did not improve oxygen and water barrier properties of these multilayer systems. While the oxygen barrier properties was significantly improved by the presence of a zein nanostructured interlayer, the water vapour permeability of this multilayer system was seem to vary among materials since the zein interlayer was only efficient as a barrier element in the PHA materials as compared to polylactic acid (PLA).
Anshuman Shrivastava, Rachel Kamish, Bruce Carpenter, Mark Scheel, Julie Strama, May 2014
Plastics consumption into various products has substantially grown over the years. Increasing resin prices and escalating environmental legislatives towards landfills are encouraging recycling of plastics. Recyclability of thermoplastic materials facilitates innovative application established on their residual contents. The plastic scrap thus is classified into predominant categories as postindustrial resin (PIR) and postconsumer resin (PCR). Postconsumer resin (PCR) is recovered from recycled products such as disposable packaging containers, bottles, and commodities in landfills. Discarded carpets are becoming a compelling source of PCR- Nylon resins. This paper evaluates the use of PCR-PA6 resin for automotive component application. The lifetime performance of these formulations was estimated through prolonged heat aging and testing at various intervals.
This paper examines the tensile strength and Izod impact behavior of natural fibers and wood particles in recycled polypropylene composites for injection molding. The initial round of testing compares the performance of the straight recycled polypropylene resin versus non-compatibilized natural fiber or particle composites, and then the different composite performance was indicated through the addition of a compatibilizer. The mechanical properties of natural fiber or wood particle and recycled PP composites without a compatibilizer were firstly compared with those of only recycled PP. Then, some natural fiber or wood particle and recycled PP composites using various compatibilizers were investigated. It was found that the elongation at break and the Izod impact strength of some natural fiber or wood particle and recycled PP composites using specific compatibilizer were indicated for high flexibility and adhesive formation as compared with some natural fiber or wood particle and recycled PP composites without a compatibilizer. The difference between natural fibers and wood particle was also discussed.
Volker Schöppner, Tobias Herken, Nikolas Fecke, May 2014
Plastics, starting from inexpensive mass-produced articles to technical high-end applications, are being used in ever more areas of life. The main drivers are their flexible product properties and the resultant broad application possibilities. To be able to offer plastic products inexpensively and conserve the environment at the same time, more and more attention is being paid to plastics recycling. Polyethylene terephthalate – in short PET – is of particular significance here because of its frequent application in the film and packaging industry and its special material properties. The recycling of PET, however, can only be carried out a limited number of times because it’s processing necessarily results in both thermal and mechanical stresses on the material. This is the basis for the reactions at molecular level, which result in a shortening of the molecule chains (material degradation) and exert a negative effect on the product properties. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the material degradation of PET in twin-screw extrusion. To do this, various screw configurations and different speed and throughput conditions are examined in a series of experiments. Furthermore, material specimens are removed along the length of the screw in order to evaluate the influence of individual screw sections. By determining the intrinsic viscosity of the specimens, it is possible to measure the mean molecular weight and thus the material damage. Based on the test results, guidelines are drawn up for the compounding of PET so as to ensure as little damage as possible to the material.
This paper examines the recycling of sorted plastic offcuts produced during the manufacture of continuous carbon-fiber-reinforced polyamide 66 sheets. The idea is to process the offcuts so that they can be conveyed to a value adding application. For this study, the offcut is shredded into recyclate and processed by injection molding to produce specimens. The processing properties of the recyclate and the mechanical properties of the specimens are at the focus of the investigations. Good processability of the recyclate is achieved in the tests by using a stuffing device in the hopper of the injection molding machine. With optimum injection molding parameters, an outstanding tensile strength of 293 MPa is obtained in the tests.
Sunny J. Modi, Katrina Cornish, Kurt Koelling, Yael Vodovotz, May 2014
PHBV (Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)) is a bio-derived semi-crystalline polymer of interest to the packaging industry looking for alternatives to the petroleum based materials currently used. The brittle nature of PHBV material requires blending with other polymers such as Poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL), Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLA), and natural rubber. Natural rubbers (NR), cis-1,4-polyisoprene, are classified as elastomers due to their high elasticity and yield strength. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the thermal and mechanical properties of PHBV blended with natural rubber in two different concentrations.
Roy Smith, Jeffrey Alcott, Michael Mazor, May 2014
Extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam has been a useful and cost-effective thermal insulation for commercial and residential buildings for over 50 years. Producers have responded to a variety of factors, such as, environmental regulations, building codes, and energy costs, to obtain effective alternative XPS products. This paper reviews XPS insulation formulations with blowing gases, HFC-134a and HFC-152a, that have long-term thermal performance to meet or exceed current codes. The developed XPS insulations have zero ozone depletion potential and provide a sustainable benefit to society.
Eileen Weber, Jason Eich, Phil Abell, Kristy Wagner, Chris Mack, May 2014
Interest in alternatives to electroplated chrome is expanding dramatically. Color and appearance affects are limited with traditional chrome electroplating and successful “paint-on-chrome” applications are expensive and highly proprietary. Collectively the automotive, home appliance and cosmetic market are actively searching for alternatives with the appearance and durability of electroplating, but without the environmental side effects, appearance and functional design limitations, and costs associated with this decades old process. “Chrome look” processes and coatings for decorative and automotive lighting PVD applications have been used in the UV curable coating industry for over twenty years. As development of UV curable coatings for PVD has progressed, so has the understanding of the process and its unique capabilities and applications. This paper will address the advantages of PVD as a chrome alternative to include functional / design capabilities that are either cost prohibitive, or impossible to achieve with electroplated applications, as well as describe some of the tradeoffs associated when using coatings systems as an alternative for chrome electroplating.
New wear resistance (WR) thermoplastic co-polyester elastomers (COPE) deliver improved performance over a wide range of speed and load conditions in sliding or moving applications. These elastomers have excellent cold temperature impact strength and work well at a broad range of temperature and humidity conditions, primarily in injection molded articles. Various grades with wide range of hardness are suitable for applications requiring excellent tribological properties. These elastomers provide outstanding ductility combined with the excellent chemical and environmental resistance properties of polyesters. The unreinforced and higher flexibility COPE grades fill the property gap between standard thermoplastic polyester urethanes and vulcanized rubbers by providing excellent fatigue strength and hence an increased operational lifetime. These elastomers are easy to process, recyclable and retain their impact strength down to -30 °C.
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Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:
Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.