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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Sustainability
Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
BIODEGRADABLE POLYURETHANE/SOY PROTEIN SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMER BLENDS PREPARED VIA ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY AQUEOUS DISPERSIONS
Atakan Altinkaynak, Mahesh Gupta, Mark A. Spalding, Sam L. Crabtree, May 2010
Biodegradable and biocompatible shape-memory polymer blends of soy protein (SP) and polyurethane (PU) based on poly(?æ-caprolactone) (PCL) has been synthesized using environmentally-friendly aqueous dispersion technique. High-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technique was applied to the blends to generate three-dimensional interconnected porous structures or scaffolds with special enhanced benefits for potential biomedical applications such as soft tissue engineering and/or drug release. Blending PU dispersion (PUD) with SP significantly increased the biocompatibility and biodegradability properties of the materials and improved their shape-memory capability. The PCL soft segment was found to be miscible with SP over the entire range of concentration as confirmed by DSC measurements, where a single Tg located between the Tg of the pure SP and PCL soft segment was observed for all blend concentrations. The shape-memory behavior of the blends was investigated for different concentrations under free-stress condition. The rate of strain recovery was found to be SP concentration dependent. The stress recovery of the blend reached a maximum value at wSP = 0.1 weight fraction. This finding was attributed to the maximum increase in the degree of crystallinity of PCLsoft segment at wSP = 0.1 as conformed by X-ray analysis.
BIODEGRADATION OF POLY(HYDROXY BUTANOIC ACID) COPOLYMER MULCH FILMS IN SOIL
Vasko Naumovski, May 2010
Agricultural mulch films that are used to cover soil of crop rows contribute to earlier maturation of crops and higher yield. Incineration and landfill disposals are the most common means of disposal of the incumbent polyethylene mulch films; these are not environmentally friendly options. Biodegradable mulch films that can be rototilled into the soil after crop harvest are a promising alternative to offset problems such as landfill disposal, and film retrieval and disposal costs. In this study, an in-house laboratory scale test method has been developed in which the rate of disintegration, as a result of biodegradation, of films based on polyhydroxybutanoic acid (PHB) copolymers were investigated in a soil environment using residual weight loss method. The influence of soil composition, moisture levels in the soil and industry-standard anti-microbial additive in the film composition on the rate of disintegration of PHB copolymer films will be discussed.
HOW NUCLEATED MMW HDPE RESINS INFLUENCE BARRIER FILM STRUCTURE DESIGN
Jonathan Jeffery Stanger, Nick Tucker, Nigel Larsen, Mark Staiger, Roger Reeves, May 2010
This paper describes a film structure study involving nucleated medium molecular weight high density polyethylene (MMW HDPE) materials that enhance film properties. Using these new nucleated MMW HDPEs, several film structures have been designed to improve moisture barrier, oxygen barrier, toughness and cost, as well as reduce the environmental footprint by downgauging existing film structures. The films in this study use a variety of polyethylene materials commonly used in the film converting industry.
IMPROVEMENT OF INTRINSIC VISCOSITY OF RECYCLED PET BY RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING
Maxime Ricbourg, Jean-Pierre Habas, Pascal Pignolet, May 2010
The improvement of Intrinsic Viscosity of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)(R-PET) pellets by an industrial radio frequency(RF) heating is described. RPET pellets are made from post-consumer PET bottles, degraded by hydrolysis during distribution process. Hence, intrinsic viscosity(IV) or molecular weight of RPET exhibits significant lower compared to virgin PET, caused from cleavages of chains. This study indicates thermal recycling method of solid phase polymerization to improve the IV values, namely molecular weight of RPET pellets.
IMPROVEMENT OF INTRINSIC VISCOSITY OF RECYCLED PET BY RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING
Minoru Ogasahara , Manabu Shidou , Shigeru Nagata, May 2010
The improvement of Intrinsic Viscosity of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)(R-PET) pellets by an industrial radio frequency(RF) heating is described. RPET pellets are made from post-consumer PET bottles, degraded by hydrolysis during distribution process. Hence, intrinsic viscosity(IV) or molecular weight of RPET exhibits significant lower compared to virgin PET, caused from cleavages of chains. This study evaluates the feasibility of RF Heat Treatment to improve the intrinsic viscosity of the material.
IMPROVEMENT OF INTRINSIC VISCOSITY OF RECYCLED PET BY RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING
Minoru Ogasahara , Manabu Shidou , Shigeru Nagata , Hiroyuki Hamada , Leong Yew Wei, May 2010
The improvement of Intrinsic Viscosity of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)(R-PET) pellets by an industrial radio frequency(RF) heating is described. RPET pellets are made from post-consumer PET bottles degraded by hydrolysis during distribution process. Hence intrinsic viscosity(IV) or molecular weight of RPET exhibits significant lower compared to virgin PET caused from cleavages of chains. This study evaluates the feasibility of RF Heat Treatment to improve the intrinsic viscosity of the material.
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF POLY (HYDROXY BUTANOIC ACID) COPOLYMERS DURING THEIR POST-FABRICATION ANNEALING AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
Rajendra K. Krishnaswamy, Supicha Kridaratikorn, Yelena Kann, Renuka Bhoyar, Stephen McCarthy, Douglass S. Kalika, Patrick Smith, May 2010
The mechanical properties of bio-based, biodegradable poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) or PHB copolymers are known to change considerably over a period of time after their parts are fabricated. This study will focus on the changes in semi-crystalline morphology during this aging process. The semi-crystalline morphology is characterized using the three-phase model (crystalline, mobile amorphous and rigid amorphous phases) and through a variety of experimental probes including thermal analysis, refractometry, x-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR.
CHARACTERIZING CO-CONTINUOUS MORPHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN MISCIBLE POLYLACTIC ACID / POLYVINYL ALCOHOL BIODEGRADABLE BLENDS
Jun Peng, Yi-Yan Peng, Lih-Sheng Turng, Xiang-Fang Peng, Xiao-Fei Sun, May 2010
Targeted for tissue engineering scaffold applications, biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) and water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) resins were employed to produce miscible blends by means of melt blending in a thermokinetic mixer (K-mixer). Different volume fractions of PLA and PVA were melt mixed. After water leaching (extraction) of the sacrificial PVA domains, co-continuous morphology development of the blend systems was investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dimensions of the voids occupied by PVA in the blends were measured using an image analysis tool. In addition, the miscibility of these blends was evaluated by thermal characteristic measurements using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was shown that the continuity development and microstructure features of PLA/PVA blends were dependent on the component composition and the miscibility.
INTERACTION OF HALS AND COLORANTS: PART II
David Bigio, May 2010
A series of colorants including yellows, reds, blues and greens have been evaluated when processed with monomeric and oligomeric HALS in PP and HDPE. Comparisons have been done in masstone and tint looking at effects on color shift and strength.
CLOSED LOOP QUALITY CONTROL OF THE PROCESSING OF UNDRIED POLYCONDENSATES USING MELT DEGASSING SINGLE SCREW EXTRUSION
Walter Michaeli , Henning Seidel, May 2010
Processing undried polycondensates as PET or PA using a melt degassing single screw extruder is a real alternative to the conventional energy- time- and cost-consuming pre-drying process. Due to the industrial demand of processing recycled and low priced materials the moisture content or/and the resin mixture can substantially vary from batch to batch. This leads to a deviant molecular weight degradation and an unsteady final product quality. The paper presents an approach to compensate these variations in the feedstock in a closed-loop control. It is based on the direct influence of the degassing pressure on the moisture evaporation of the melt. The product quality is estimated online in the extrusion process e.g. via melt viscosity and is controlled by the degassing pressure in the extruder.
CLOSED LOOP QUALITY CONTROL OF THE PROCESSING OF UNDRIED POLYCONDENSATES USING MELT DEGASSING SINGLE SCREW EXTRUSION
Walter Michaeli , Henning Seidel, May 2010
Processing undried polycondensates as PET or PA using a melt degassing single screw extruder is a real alternative to the conventional energy-, time- and cost-consuming pre-drying process. Due to the industrial demand of processing recycled and low priced materials, the moisture content or/and the resin mixture can substantially vary from batch to batch. This leads to a deviant molecular weight degradation and an unsteady final product quality. The paper presents an approach to compensate these variations in the feedstock in a closed-loop control. It is based on the direct influence of the degassing pressure on the moisture evaporation of the melt. The product quality is estimated online in the extrusion process, e.g. via melt viscosity, and is controlled by the degassing pressure in the extruder.
COMPARISON STUDY OF N2 AND CO2 AS PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENTS FOR INJECTION FOAM MOLDED WOOD-FIBER PLASTIC COMPOSITE
Peter U. Jung, Yongrak Moon, C.B. Park, May 2010
Due to rising environmental concerns, the plastic industry has been seeking bio-plastics that can replace current plastics. Efforts are continuously being made to reduce weight and cost without a major compromise to required properties. Foaming can offer a plastic with significant weight reduction. There has been research to evaluate the effects of chemical blowing agents (CBAs) on wood-fiber plastic composites (WPC). Although physical blowing agents (PBAs) have a number of advantages, their effects on WPC have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this research utilizes N2 and CO2 to analyze their effects on the foaming and mechanical properties of injection foam molded WPCs.
COMPLIMENTARY FAILURE ANALYSIS METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO PLASTIC PIPE
Jennifer M. Hoffman , Maureen T.F. Reitman , Suresh Donthu , Paul Ledwith, May 2010
A variety of methods can be employed to characterize failure modes of plastics and identify contributing factors. By combining visual and microscopic examination with chemical analysis, the reasons for ductile, brittle, or progressive failure may be determined. This paper provides a comparative analysis based on fractography and spectroscopic analysis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe samples that failed due to chemical exposure. Chemical degradation and environmental stress cracking failure modes are explored using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and FTIR.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT-SEALED PART IN ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY FILM
Rei-ichi Konishi , Kazushi Yamada , Yasuo Hashimoto , Yew Wei Leong , Tetsuya Tsujii , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Multi-layered laminated films are widely used as general packaging materials and thermal lamination is one of the environmentally friendly techniques since it does not involve solvents during lamination. The heat exerted during the heat- sealing process, however, could affect the lamination strength of these films. In this study, we focused on the relationship between the results of pinhole test and the properties of heat sealed parts.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT-SEALED PART IN ENVIRONMENTFRIENDLY FILM
Rei-ichi Konishi , Kazushi Yamada , Yasuo Hashimoto , Yew Wei Leong , Tetsuya Tsujii , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Multi-layered laminated films are widely used as general packaging materials and thermal lamination is one of the environmentally friendly techniques since it does not involve solvents during lamination. The heat exerted during the heat- sealing process however could affect the lamination strength of these films. In this study we focused on the relationship between the results of pinhole test and the properties of heat sealed parts.
CORN (SUGARS) BASED CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER INDUSTRY
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS) are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range cost-effective supply questionable creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.
CORN (SUGARS) BASED POLYMER CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER AND COSMETICS INDUSTRIES
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers, polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers, stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity, chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new, cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range, cost-effective supply questionable, creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.
NATURAL FIBER-PHENOLIC-HANNEBACHITE COMPOSITES: EFFECTS OF FIBER TYPE
Hui Deng , John M. Torkelson, May 2010
The management of greenhouse gasses can certainly benefit from better marshalling of our wooded lands. Therefore, our recent research has focused on developing wood-substitute composites without wood in them from natural fibrous materials, e.g., jute, miscanthus, kenaf, wheat straw, and industrial hemp and plate-like hannebachite crystallites. Imaging, DSC, flexural strength and water sensitivity measurements were undertaken on composites formulated from the aforementioned natural fibers. Comparative effects on the mechanical and thermal properties were ascertained.
CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF TITANATES AND ZIRCONATES - 2010
Salvatore J. Monte, May 2010
Titanate and zirconate coupling agents as invented by the author generate approximately six ACS CAS abstracted works (technical papers, articles and patents) per week. The author will review the literature and update ANTEC attendees on applications in thermoplastics and thermosets with an emphasis on the latest work in nano and green technologies such as biopolymers and landfill biodegradation. For example, investigators Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin; Yao, Fei; Xu, Yanjun from the School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA reported: Composites based on recycled high-polyethylene (RHDPE) and natural fibers i.e. pine wood flour and bagasse were made through melt blending and compression molding. The effects of the fibers and coupling agent type/concn. on the composite properties were studied. The use of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) carboxylated polyethylene (CAPE) and titanium-derived mixt. (TDM)-(20% pellet masterbatch of a neoalkoxy pyrophosphato titanate) improved the compatibility between the bagasse fiber and RHDPE and mech. properties of the resultant composites compared well with those of virgin HDPE composites. The modulus and impact strength of the composites had maxima with MAPE content increase. The composites had lower crystn. peak temps. and wider cryst. temp. range than neat RHDPE and their thermal stability was lower than RHDPE.""
NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY PROGRESSIVE POLYESTER FR RESINS
Rama Konduri , Chris van der Weele, May 2010
New family of ENH flame retardant PBT (polybutylene terephthalate) thermoplastic polyester resins developed is aimed at helping electrical/electronics (E/E) manufacturers and suppliers comply with regulations restricting use and disposal of hazardous substances. The non-chlorinated non-brominated resin based on PBT delivers good ductility and strength than other nonhalogen flame-retardant PBT materials as well as electrical properties of standard flame-retardant PBT materials. Some of the resin properties will be discussed in this publication.


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