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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Sustainability
Various topics related to sustainability in plastics, including bio-related, environmental issues, green, recycling, renewal, re-use and sustainability.
FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF JUTE FABRIC REINFORCED SHEET MOLDING COMPOUND (SMC) MOLDING
Masanori Okano , Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Hidekazu Nakano , Akiko Odawara , Yuya Hidekuma , Tohru Morii , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability. Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part the design of the strength is very difficult because the failure mechanism is complicated considerably. In this study SMC that reinforcement was jute cloth was prepared. The low-cycle bending fatigue test and the cross sectional observation of fracture part were performed. As a result the brittle crack propagation in the interface around the fiber bundle was seen in the specimen of warp and weft direction and the phenomenon such as brittle crack propagation was not confirmed in the specimen of 45-degree direction.
FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF JUTE FABRIC REINFORCED SHEET MOLDING COMPOUND (SMC) MOLDING
Masanori Okano , Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Hidekazu Nakano , Akiko Odawara , Yuya Hidekuma , Tohru Morii , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system, and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts, the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability.Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part, the design of the strength is very difficult because the failure mechanism is complicated considerably. In this study, SMC that reinforcement was jute cloth was prepared. The low-cycle bending fatigue test and the cross sectional observation of fracture part were performed. As a result, the brittle crack propagation in the interface around the fiber bundle was seen in the specimen of warp and weft direction, and the phenomenon such as brittle crack propagation was not confirmed in the specimen of 45-degree direction.
FEASIBILITY OF USING BIO-DEGRADABLE PLASTIC FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS IN TYPICAL AUSTRALIAN WEATHER
Martin N. Bureau, Marion Maire, Gerardo Diaz-Quijada, Lucie Robitaille, Abdellah Ajji, Yahye Merhi, May 2010
End of Life Vehicles (ELVs) are becoming a growing concern because of their impact on the environment. The automotive industries are facing worldwide pressure to help find environmentally friendly ways of disposing end of life vehicles. Though most of the metal parts from the ELVs are recycled however, plastic components from the shredder residue are complex to separate and they are being mostly dumped into the landfill. The main purpose of this paper is to present an alternate solution to this environmental issue by using bio-degradable plastic in the automotives. Experimental works have been done to check the change in mechanical properties of bio-degradable plastic for accelerated weathering test. The results resemble the impact of weather on bio-degradable plastic while using for automotives in typical Australian environment.
FRICRIVETING: A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR JOINING THERMOPLASTICS TO LIGHTWEIGHT ALLOYS
Sergio T. Amancio Filho , Jorge F. dos Santos, May 2010
The FricRiveting technique is a new alternative spot joining process developed for polymer-metal multimaterial structures. A cylindrical metallic rivet is used to join one or more thermoplastic-metal components by means of plasticizing and deforming the tip of the rotating rivet through frictional heating. Advantages of this new technique are short joining cycles minimal sample preparation and absence of environmental emissions.Fricriveted joints have enhanced mechanical performance.This study demonstrates with aid of a case study of polyetherimide to aluminum alloys the feasibility of FricRiveting.
FULLY BIODEGRADABLE BAMBOO FIBER AND POLYLACTIDE COMPOSITES
Jun Tae Kang, Seong Hun Kim, Seung Goo Lee, May 2010
Bamboo fiber may withhold great potential as an alternative to wood, and bamboo can be a raw material to fabricate a composite material and its applicability is being widely investigated. Cellulose fibers can be aligned to the length of the bamboo providing maximum tensile and flexural strengths and rigidity. Increased research in the recent years has considerably contributed to the use of bamboo fibers as a reinforcing material for broader applications. However, it is difficult to obtain polymer/bamboo fiber composite having its excellent mechanical properties, because the bamboo fibers covered with lignin show lack of interfacial adhesion. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the interfacial adhesion by extracting lignin without microstructure disruption and adding silane coupling agents. In this research the influence of silane coupling agent, composites with pristine bamboo fiber, delignified bamboo fiber, and delignified and silane treated bamboo fiber were newly prepared and investigated, respectively.
GET GREEN WITHOUT PAINT: MOLDED-IN-METALLIC ENGINEERING RESINS FOR APPEARANCE APPLICATIONS
S.-H. Zhu, C. Tzoganakis, May 2010
Trends in styling continue to include metallic accents traditionally coming from paints and chrome plating. While paint and plating allow designers to achieve this desired look, both processes come with relatively high cost and are not environmentally friendly. VOCs, chemical disposal and no potential to recycle once the part is painted or plated are environmental concerns. New engineering resins have been developed which eliminate the need for painting and can achieve the desired appearance right out of the mold. This talk explores these resins as a way to get green: both environmentally and with lower cost.
GREEN COMPOSITES" FROM A CONJUGATED SOYBEAN OIL RESIN USING CORN STOVER AS A NATURAL FIBER REINFORCEMENT"
Daniel P. Pfister , Richard C. Larock, May 2010
Novel green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Approximately 68 million metric tons of corn stover the residue remaining after harvest is available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of the natural fiber the length of the fiber and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis thermogravimetric analysis dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Youngƒ??s moduli and tensile strengths of the composites range from 386 to 1324 MPa and 3.5 to 6.5 MPa respectively."Novel green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Approximately 68 million metric tons of corn stover the residue remaining after harvest is available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of the natural fiber the length of the fiber and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis thermogravimetric analysis dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Youngƒ??s moduli and tensile strengths of the composites range from 386 to 1324 MPa and 3.5 to 6.5 MPa respectively."
GREEN COMPOSITES” FROM A CONJUGATED SOYBEAN OIL RESIN USING CORN STOVER AS A NATURAL FIBER REINFORCEMENT
Daniel P. Pfister , Richard C. Larock, May 2010
Novel “green composites” have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Approximately 68 million metric tons of corn stover the residue remaining after harvest is available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of the natural fiber the length of the fiber and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis thermogravimetric analysis dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young’s moduli and tensile strengths of the composites range from 386 to 1324 MPa and 3.5 to 6.5 MPa respectively.
GREEN LAMINATE COMPOSITES BASED ON POLYPROPYLENE (PP) AND FLAX FIBER
T.-D. Ngo, M. Nofar, M.-T. Ton-That, M. Sepehr, W. Hu, J. Denault, May 2010
As the demand of green materials and green products are growing, the use of renewable resources and recycle materials are of great attraction. Natural fiber composites have been extensively studied during the last ten years. However, the main focuses were laminate thermoset composites and extrusion/injection composite products. New approach in fabricating thermoplastic composite parts and composite formulation with flax fiber at low cost has been developed to reduce energy consumption and improve the mechanical performance. The laminate composites were prepared by compression moulding. The results demonstrate that the formulation and the fiber treatment play important roles to the performances of the composites.
HIGH WATER BARRIER NANOBIOCOMPOSITES FOR COATING AND LAMINATION APPLICATIONS
A. Fendler , E. Giménez , J. M. Lagaron, May 2010
Polysaccharides and protein biopolymers are of increasing interest for their use as sustainable coating materials.However their main drawback in these applications is their inherent high water-permeability and low water resistance at high relative humidity conditions. In this study two specifically designed commercial fillers of different nature and aspect ratio were successfully incorporated into two polysaccharides: methyl cellulose and chitosan. The morphology study indicated that a good dispersion with intercalation of the fillers was observed in both matrices. The water barrier properties of the nanobiocomposites were found to be enhanced to a significant extent particularly for the higher aspect ratio filler as compared to the pure matrix materials while the biodegradability of the composite materials was maintained.
HOW TO STRUCTURE FUND & FINANCE A CLEAN TECHNOLOGY VENTURE: TRENDS FOR DEVELOPING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN A “GREENING” MARKETPLACE
Eric A. Koester, May 2010
The plastics industry and related markets represents a substantial opportunity for entrepreneurial and intrapreneural activity ƒ?? particularly in the emerging Clean Technology space. Investment into clean technology is one of the fastest growing markets. However the plastics industry is currently lagging in its ability of startup technologies to tap into those funds. In order to increase access to capital the plastics industry must continue to foster innovation through its development of clean technologies companies. These companies will be built on entrepreneurial and scientific talent broad market opportunities and cutting edge technologies. There are many challenges faced by clean technology companies but with the right foresight and planning success can be achieved and new technologies commercialized.This presentation will provide insights into the clean technology marketplace and insights into successful companies within the plastics industry. In addition weƒ??ll explore what new and emerging companies will require in order to tap into investment dollars and advance their technologies.
HYDROXYAPATITE- POLYLACTIDE COMPOSITE FOR BONE REPAIR
Shih-Po Sun , Montgomery T. Shaw , Mei Wei , James Olson, May 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the interealtions between the design processing and properties of hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide) composites intended?ÿ as biodegradable bone grafts for joining fractured bone tissues.?ÿ Poly(lactide) fibers were employed to increase the axial strength and toughess of the composite.?ÿ The hydroxyapatite nano rods are also aligned in the axial direction during the pultrusion process to increase the low-strain modulus of the composite.?ÿ The resulting composite with a composition of HA: PCL:?ÿ PLA= 3: 34: 63 (vol%) had a tensile modulus of 6.6 GPa.
IMPROVED COLOR MIXING FOR SHEAR AND THERMALLY SENSITIVE PIGMENTS
Alan Stall , Thomas Hicks , Carl Frauenpreis , Vladimir Sinani , Tatyana Samoylova, May 2010
Currently, many small twin-screw extruders cannot directly blend specific blue pre-blended composites with temperature and shear sensitive yellow pigments to produce a uniform green color. This research will show a new mixing method, one employing a singlescrew extruder joined directly to a low temperature, low shear, low pressure extensional flow mixer, to develop a 1-pass, mixing process, which creates a superior homogenous, vibrant color from dissimilar, incompatible materials. The challenge was to achieve adequate distribution and dispersion, without generating enough energy from shear, temperature, and pressure which would degrade the sensitive yellow constituent of this mix and turn it brown when degraded.
IMPROVED DESIGN FOR POLYMER DISTRIBUTION IN FLAT FILM & SHEET EXTRUSION DIES
Rajen Patel, Antonios K. Doufas, Rajesh Paradkar, Ed Knickerbocker, May 2010
A design methodology has been developed for creating an improved flow passage in a flat die that distributes polymer extrudate across the width under a condition of uniform shear rate. This type of flow passage will spread any and all molten polymer materials uniformly regardless of the power law exponent value. This also results in a uniform residence time inside the die which allows for reduced changeover time and material waste. The new method achieves these results in a more compact fashion with reduced wetted area expanding the applications to wider widths than previous constant shear designs.
IMPROVEMENT OF IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) (PET)INJECTION MOLDINGS RECYCLED POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) (PET)INJECTION MOLDINGS IMPROVEMENT OF IMPACT PROPERTIES OF R
N. Kunimune , S. Tamada , T. Nagasawa , Y. Makata , Y.W.Leong , H. Hamada, May 2010
Recycling PET is emerging issue for protecting the earth environments and using petrochemical products effectively. R-PET has been used in the form of film fibers and sheet. In the industries R-PET injection moldings are demanded however there are still some problems in injection molding pellet making and properties of products. The most important problem is low impact strength. In this paper we found effective modifier of R-PET to increase impact strength. The effects of modifier contents on not only impact strength but static strength and rigidity were discussed.
IMPROVEMENT OF IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) (PET)INJECTION MOLDINGS
N. Kunimune , S. Tamada , T. Nagasawa , Y. Makata , Y.W.Leong , H. Hamada, May 2010
Recycling PET is emerging issue for protecting the earth environments and using petrochemical products effectively. R-PET has been used in the form of film, fibers, and sheet. In the industries R-PET injection moldings are demanded, however there are still some problems in injection molding, pellet making and properties of products. The most important problem is low impact strength. In this paper we found effective modifier of R-PET to increase impact strength. The effects of modifier contents on not only impact strength but static strength and rigidity were discussed.
IMPROVEMENT OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AN ALL RENEWABLE BASED WOOD-RESIN COMPOSITE
Rahul M. Rasal, Douglas E. Hirt, May 2010
Impregnation of linseed epoxy resin into softwood creates an all-renewable composite. This composite is intended to be a substitute for expensive hardwoods used in applications such as decking and flooring. Initial epoxy impregnation was conducted within a custom vacuum-pressure chamber with positive results. The impregnation process begins with an initial vacuum treatment to remove the air inside the wood, followed by the use of pressure to drive the resin into the wood under certain temperature conditions. This process was improved by optimizing vacuum-pressure levels and temperature, as well as the use of a high temperature curing agent. In this way, superior impregnation depths were obtained. The final result was a composite material with better mechanical properties than both the resin and the softwood themselves. Specifically, the impregnated samples showed Youngƒ??s modulus over three times higher than those of unimpregnated wood samples, in both tension and compression. Furthermore, the hardness of the wood increased significantly; depending on impregnation depth, hardness reached and surpassed 4500 lbf, the estimated value of Lignum Vitae, the hardest wood available. Secondary testing focused on automation of the initial process in order to facilitate optimized impregnation on an industrial scale. A custom multi-chambered impregnation machine was designed to perform a continuous impregnation.
IMPROVING THE EXFOLIATION OF LAYERED SILICATE IN A POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) MATRIX USING SUPER CRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE
Joseph Samaniuk , David Litchfield , Donald Baird, May 2010
A novel technique for improving the exfoliation of organically modified layered silicate (OMLS) in a PET matrix using super critical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is compared to traditional direct melt blending. The process relies on the rapid expansion of a sc-CO2/OMLS mixture into the second stage of a single screw extruder where it is subsequently melt blended with the PET matrix. The simple environmentally benign process results in a more highly exfoliated system than direct melt compounding.X-ray diffraction analysis and mechanical testing are used to reveal improved clay exfoliation and the resulting mechanical properties.
IN SITU PRODUCTION OF SLIGHTLY BRANCHED POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) BY SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION TO IMPROVED RECYCLABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
Cynthia Pierre , John M. Torkelson, May 2010
Using solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) to process poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) without addition of chemical agents, we demonstrate that linear PET can be transformed into lightly branched PET, with resulting improvements in physical and mechanical properties. Rheological characterization demonstrates an increase in the melt viscosity of the pulverized PET while intrinsic viscosity characterization yields data consistent with no increase in linear chain length. These results indicate that branching occurs in situ during SSSP via mechanochemistry involving the production of polymeric radicals that result from low levels of chain scission accompanying SSSP. A hypothetical mechanism for this mechanochemical transformation is discussed. The lightly branched PET resulting from SSSP yields a dramatic increase in the crystallization rate of the PET, improving its processability. The ability to increase the melt viscosity of PET by SSSP may contribute to sustainable engineering of PET; a long-standing issue with recycling PET for high-value applications is the fact that melt processingof PET results in reduction of molecular weight and thereby melt viscosity, making the recycled material often unusable for the original application for which it was made.
INFLUENCE OF RECYCLED ABS ADDED TO VIRGIN POLYMERS ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Venkatesha. N, Claes. Lindberg, Stefan. Johannesson, Derek Buckmaster, May 2010
Reuse of recycled polymers is steadily increasing. In this study, blends of varying proportions of ABS recycled resins (0~50%), obtained from the gate and runner materials of products, was added to virgin resin to investigate the effect of various compositions of virgin ABS and recycled polymers on the physical properties of the final blend. The results show that there is no obvious effect of recycled ABS percentage (by weight) on the tensile strength, elongation at yield, flexural strength, and flexural modulus. However, hardness, glass transition temperature, MFI, and heat conductivity of recycled ABS increase with as the percentage (by weight) of recycled material increases. The impact strength was also found to vary with the recycled ABS loading.


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