SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Prediction of Powder Concentration for Filling Simulation of Metal Injection Molding
Huan-Chang Tseng, Yuan-Jung Chang, Chia-Hsin Tien, Chia-Hsiang Hsu, May 2014
A full 3D finite volume analysis system has been developed to simulate a Metal Injection Molding (MIM) filling process. In the MIM industry, the so-called black lines are frequently observed in the surface inspection of the final sintering products. Such a critical appearance defect is attributed to powder-binder phase separation. Powder concentration is used as an indicator for phase separation. In this work, it is necessary to numerically predict the powder concentration distribution during mold filling and discuss the phase separation issue.
New Color & Effect Pigments and Trends for Plastics
Doreen Becker, May 2014
This paper will review the newest color and effect pigments that have been recently introduced to the marketplace including features benefits and comparisons to traditional products that have been used in the past few years. The paper will also review color trends for teletronics, aviation, sporting goods and toys for 2010.
Developing Cost Effective Co-Extruded Film Structures for Flexible Packaging
Nitin Borse, Norman Aubee, May 2014
Co-extrusion enables the combination of attributes of different polymeric resins to create films having unique and tailor-made properties. In this study we show that the proper selection and the correct placement of different polyethylene resins in co-extruded structures enables one to produce films having improved toughness and optical properties in a cost effective way. It was concluded that using single-site linear low density polyethylene in film structures makes this possible.
Rapid Heat Cycle Molding, Surface Topography and Visual Appearance of Injection Molded Parts. Research Work in Leoben in the Last 10 Years.
Gerald R. Berger, Dieter P. Gruber, Gernot A. Pacher, Johannes Macher, Walter Friesenbichler, May 2014
Different aspects on surface quality of injection molded parts have been researched in Leoben in the last decade. This paper will give a short overview on our research work, considering rapid heat cycle molding, surface topography and visual appearance of polymer part surfaces with special focus on weld lines, sink marks, and gloss differences, respectively.
Using One-Sided Constraints to Improve Prediction of Core Shift during Mold Filling Simulation
Alexander Bakharev, Zhiliang Fan, David Astbury, May 2014
Uneven distribution of melt flow around a core pin during injection molding can result in core shift. Many real life injection molds establish one-side constraints for the cores then the core is free to deform in one direction but cannot deform in the opposite direction. In the article we present algorithms and results of mold filling simulations that take into account one-sided constraints on deformation of the mold cores.
A Comparison of the Residence Time in Micro-Extruders and its Effect on Molecular Weight for Low Output Applications
Kevin R. Slusarz, May 2014
This study investigates the residence time in micro extruders for low output applications. The micro extruders that were analyzed included extruder diameters between 12mm and 25.4mm. This study will show the effect of extruder screw speed on the residence time and compare that to theoretical calculations. Additionally, the study also demonstrates the change in molecular weight for a fixed output rate on the different extruder diameters.
The Role of Pigmentation in the Reduction of Heat Buildup in Polymeric Materials
J. Don Connolly, Jr., Joy S. Bloom, Sandra P. Davis, Austin H. Reid, Jr., May 2014
The accumulation of thermal energy in polymeric materials can pose a serious threat to service life as well as appearance of a finished product. The types and levels of pigments used in the fabrication of polymeric goods can have a profound effect on the impacts of thermal energy accumulation. In this paper we will provide a primer on the physics behind the effects of the terrestrial components of solar radiation and the ways in which different materials behave under typical terrestrial conditions.
Light Cure Adhesive Best Practices/Technical Overview
Daniel Hanscom, May 2014
While light curing technology provides many benefits to manufacturers, careful product selection and planning are needed to assure a smooth change over from existing, slower curing processes. Manufacturers must carefully weigh a variety of process variables to assure a smooth transition from older adhesive technologies when setting up a new light curing process like choosing the light source, understanding the substrates, opacity of materials, implementing process monitoring, adhesive selection and numerous other factors.
Effects of Biodiesel Fuels on the Permeation and Mechanical Properties of Coated Fabrics Used in Collapsible Fuel Storage Tanks
James M. Sloan, D. Flanagan, P. Touchet, H. Feuer, May 2014
The purpose of this work was to perform a comparative analysis of various candidate nitrile coated fabric materials supplied by potential vendors to be used as fuel storage tanks and compare the results to the currently fielded polyurethane storage tanks. Our results demonstrate that the nitrile coated fabrics performed well in our evaluation. Their breaking strengths are about equal to the currently fielded urethanes and they performed much better as barrier materials after ageing.
The Sole Effect of Lateral Stress on Solids Conveying
Stephen J. Derezinski, May 2014
The lateral stress ratio of the solid feed resin has been shown to be a key factor in solids conveying. The lateral stress ratio has also been measured to be a function of primary stress, and it can vary significantly. Modeling of solids conveying is done to illustrate the effect of different stress ratio functions of polyethylene on solids conveying. Experimental results are used to validate the model and the fact that normal variations in lateral stresses are significant in solids conveying performance.
Cyclic Olefine Copolymer (COC) Nanocomposites and Nanocomposite Foams: Preparation, Morphology and Properties
Yan Li, Hui Wang, Md Deloyer Jahan, Changchun Zeng, May 2014
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COC)/ multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites of different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) concentration were prepared by melt blending. The dispersion of the CNTs in the polymer matrix was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rheological property and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites were studied. In addition, the nanocomposites were foamed by carbon dioxide, and the effects of the CNTs on the foam cell morphology were investigated.
Dynamic Heating of Injection Molds Using an External High Power Diode Laser Scanner
Maximilian Schöngart, Christian Hopmann, May 2014
By using dynamic mold temperature control in injection molding, parts with special features such as functional micro structures or high gloss surfaces can be produced in a one-step process. Due to limitations of available mold heating techniques, an innovative system using an externally robot-guided laser scanner was developed and implemented at the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University. High heating rates, a focused, discrete heating of specific cavity areas and the flexible, mold independent set-up are key aspects of the technology.
Self-Optimizing in Injection Molding and the Problem at Compensating Viscosity Fluctuations
Axel Reßmann, Christian Hopmann, May 2014
A self-optimizing injection process can compensate temperature fluctuations. But viscosity fluctuations are not considered in this concept, yet. Modifying the injection flow rate can balance the shrinkage potential but results although in varying residual stresses.
Innovative Plasticizing Method for Micro Injection Molding
Torben Fischer, Christian Hopmann, May 2014
The process reproducibility during injection molding of micro components is often bought on an unnecessarily large dosing volume. To enable an economical production of micro components, a reduction of the material consumption is crucial. Therefore new production strategies need to be developed to reduce the required plasticized mass to a minimum while maintaining part quality at the same time. In the context of this paper, an innovative plasticizing method for micro injection molding is introduced, tested on its feasibility and analyzed in detail on its conveying and homogenizing characteristics.
Development of Low Gloss Polyacetal
Matt Orlando, Masayuki Nagai, Satoshi Nagai, May 2014
Nowadays low gloss Polyacetal (POM) materials are required for automotive interior parts. In this study, new low gloss POM was developed. Original organic particles having effective interaction with POM, was developed as the matting agent. Consequently, excellent low gloss appearance with a good balance of mechanical properties is obtained. In addition, weather resistant and low VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emission technology could be applied to this low gloss POM.
Steady State and Response Time Temperature Validation for a Multivariate Injection Molding Sensor
Guthrie Gordon, David O. Kazmer, Robert X. Gao, Zhaoyan Fan, Xinyao Tang, May 2014
An infrared temperature sensor is detailed using a thermopile with an incorporated thermistor into a standard Dynisco snout. A testing apparatus was built to measure the temperature of a heated polymer at steady state. The apparatus was also used to validate the response time of the multivariate senor. Results show the multivariate sensor can accurately measure temperature with a response time of approximately 200 milliseconds.
A Two-Dimensional Iterative Learning Model Predictive Control Method for Injection Molding Based on Mixed Integer Quadratic Programming
Jingyi Lu, Zhixing Cao, Furong Gao, May 2014
Batch processes like injection molding are inherently a two-dimensional process with multi-phase dynamics. The transient period from one phase to the next is always difficult to control due to the significant change of process dynamics. In this paper, a new two dimensional method based on mixed integer programming is proposed to improve the performance during the transient period. Switch condition is formulated as constraints of an optimization problem. Simulation results are listed to show the efficiency of the algorithm.
Virtual Prototyping Applied to Flat Extrusion Die
Cathy Gomez, May 2014
This paper discusses the use of virtual prototyping for industrial extrusion die. We used numerical simulation to analyze the flow behavior in a PVC extrusion die. First, 3D isothermal simulation is used to investigate the flow uniformity at the outlet section of an extrusion die for 3 different internal geometries. Then, 3D non isothermal simulation will be used to see the impact of specific temperature profile at the entrance of the die on the flow uniformity. The shape of a flow channel was evaluated and the reason of a flow problem in practice was found by using this software.
The Development of a CAD/CAE Integrated Wizard Design System for Injection Mold
Zhigao Huang, Binkui Hou, Shubiao Cui, Huamin Zhou, May 2014
For injection molding simulation, the model reconstruction is an obstacle in the application, because the computer-aided design (CAD) systems and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems are realized as isolated modules. In order to improve the quality and efficiency of simulation, a CAD/CAE integrated wizard design system is developed, which is based on the commercial CAD and CAE systems. In this system, the mold design task can be efficiently completed and the CAE data can be automatically obtained with the support of some certain procedures and the powerful tools.
Novel Plasticizer Alternative for Polyamide Polymers
Semra Senturk-Ozer, James Day, Viggy Mehta, May 2014
Flexil™ is a novel modified organosilicon based additive developed and marketed by Polymer Dynamix, LLC in South Plainfield, NJ. Flexil™ provides properties of flexibility to polyamides over a wide range of temperatures from less than -50°C to greater than 300°C. The results demonstrate that Flexil™ can replace various traditional plasticizers in polyamide compositions.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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