The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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PVC/Wood Flour Composites Compatibilized with Chlorinated Polyethylene
Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) has been demonstrated to be an effective compatibilizer for dissimilar materials in various mixed-polymer or recycled-polymer systems. In this paper the use of chlorinated polyethylene to compatibilize polymer/natural fiber composites is discussed. Examples of applications in PVC/wood flour composites are given.
Raman Spectroscopy: A Useful Tool for Characterizing the Polymerization Kinetics of Polyurethanes
In this study, the polymerization kinetics of an uncatalyzed polyester based thermoplastic polyurethane formulation was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. The normalized scattering intensity of the 1530 cm-1 diisocyanate band was used to calculate conversion as a function of time. Kinetic parameters obtained from these experiments correlated well with those obtained from analogous calorimetric experiments.
Real-Time Monitoring of Fluorescence Anisotropy and Temperature during Processing of Biaxially Stretched Polypropylene Film
Using an optical sensor, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence temperature measurements were carried out during the processing of biaxially stretched polypropylene films in a tenter. The fluorescence derived from a dye that was doped into the resin. Anisotropy measurements were made as a function of machine stretching ratios.
Residual Strength-Based Lifetime Prediction of Polymeric Composite Materials
In this work, we present the philosophy of a lifetime prediction scheme for polymeric composite materials based upon damage accumulation concepts that allow the calculation of the residual strength. Key features of the method are that it readily admits the effects of multiple damage mechanisms and can be used to develop design guidelines based upon reliability concepts.
Reverse Engineering of Polymeric Materials
Introduction The real value of polymer/additive analysis becomes apparent when it is put to solve relevant industrial problems, to study important materials or to control vital processes. At a par with Manufacturing or Operational Excellence programs industry also strives for Analytical Excellence. In this paper we present best industrial practices related to the analysis of additives in polymers.
A Review of Recent U.S. Utility Patents on Tamper-Evident Resealable Push-Pull Bottle Closures
A review of design options, disclosed in recent U.S. utility patents, for tamper evidence in resealable push-pull bottle closures is presented. Each of the selected patents is analyzed with regard to choice of location and nature of tamper evidence means.
Rheological and Tensile Strength Characteristics of Polymer Melts
Cogswell  and Wagner  methodology was employed to determine the rheological and tensile strength properties of two LDPEs and two metallocene LLDPEs resins through capillary and Haul-off (Rheotens-like) measurements. It has been shown that the tensile strength properties obtained by both methods yield almost the same values. Moreover, these values can be correlated to the drawability in tubular film blowing for corresponding materials.
Rheological and Thermoanalytical Investigations of a Class A" LP-SMC Paste"
Because of the good light-weight potential, the good resistance against corrosion and a good permeability for electro-magnetic waves more often SMC parts will be used in european automotive applications. As a result of varying qualities of the SMC prepreg or paste there exist still problems during the compression molding process.The paper discusses the used measuring methods for quality control and the influence of aging effect, which occurs during the storage of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC), on the viscosity and the curing behavior of a LP-SMC paste.
Rheological Behavior of Blends Based on Polypropylene and Commercial Ethylene-Octene Copolymers
Rheological studies were performed on polymer blends of different grades of commercial ethlene-octene copolymers (EOCs) and polypropylene (PP). The oscillatory flow properties of EOC, PP and EOCs/PP blends were analysed using a Rheometrics Dynamic Stress rheometer, SR 200. The results showed that the systems with different grades of elastomers presented different rheological behaviors. This fact probably is related to the differences in molecular weight and long chain branch present in the copolymers.
Rheological Properties of Phosphate Glass (Inorganic)-PS-LDPE (Organic) Ternary Hybrids
Binary and ternary hybrids of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polystyrene (PS), and a low Tg tin- based phosphate glass (Pglass) were prepared at compositions ranging from 0 - 50 (vol)%. Phase behavior, rheology and morphology of the PS-LDPE blends and binary and ternary Pglass-polymer hybrids were investigated. Four-region" steady shear flow behavior and transient rheology was observed for the hybrids. Optical shearing and SEM micrographs were employed in order to confirm the evolution of this microstructure under particular shear conditions."
Rigid Toughening of Polyolefin with Calcium Carbonate Particles
Most engineering polymers are toughened by impact modifiers/rubbers and it is known that some inorganic fillers have to be used to enhance the toughness-stiffness balance. Recently, it is reported that toughness-stiffness balance of high-density polyethylene can be enhanced by blending with rigid particles such as calcium carbonate. The objective of this work is to examine the rigid toughening concept and its applications in polyolefins. The toughness stiffness balance of several HDPE/CaCO3 and PP/CaCO3 blends and the rigid toughening mechanisms in these systems are discussed.
Root Cause Analysis; Fundamentals and Applications
This paper discusses the fundamentals of root cause analysis in identifying a failure, investigating its causes, and suggesting the corrective actions. Examples of hinge failure analysis are discussed. A descriptive statement of each failure is formulated followed by the suggestion of its probable causes and their investigation. Finally, the most probable causes are identified and recommendations are made. The cases at hand discuss the importance of material choice and part design to hinges failure.
Routes to and Properties of Intercalated Silicate Nanocomposites
Recent work in layered silicate nanocomposites has focused on the exfoliated morphology wherein the clay platelets are homogenously dispersed within the matrix polymer with no registry between silicates. The intercalated morphology, however, wherein individual platelets retain strong registry, is thought to have the potential for properties unavailable to the exfoliated morphology, including flame retardance, fracture toughness and true polymer-ceramic behavior. Routes to the manufacture of such hierarchical laminates and their potential property enhancements are discussed.
Sailing Unknown Waters
Doing business in a different culture represents a formidable challenge. This paper is a case study covering marketing chemical products from post-Communist region of the former Czechoslovakia in the USA and Western Europe. Both positive and negative factors as well as lessons learned will be discussed.
Scratch Behavior of Polypropylene-Based Blends
Scratch behaviors of model polypropylene (PP) based blends are investigated. The model PP blends are PP, PP/ethylene-propylene rubber/talc, and PP/styrene-butadiene-styrene/clay. The effects of filler and rubber additions on the scratch behavior are correlated with material property and morphology of the PP blends. The PP/SBS/clay system, which contains sub-micrometer size clay inside the rubber particles, exhibits the best scratch resistance. Material parameters and surface characteristics that contribute to improvements in scratch resistance in PP blends are discussed.
Screws for Plastics Processing
Maintenance of a single screws dimensions during its service life is discussed due to the magnitude of the dimensional deterioration on overall process performance. Proper choice of materials of construction for screws can greatly increase service life. A simplified analysis for determining when to replace a screw is presented to assist in proper maintenance.
Seal through Contamination Performance of Metallocene Plastomers
Metallocene plastomers are well known for providing superior toughness and excellent heat sealing performance in many high performance flexible packaging films. In a great many form-fill-seal applications it is also a requirement that the film continue to seal well even when the film surface is contaminated with product.This paper presents examples of the excellent sealing performance of plastomers, in particular of their performance when sealing through contaminants. Both laboratory heat sealing experiments and actual VFFS packaging tests are described.
Self-Optimizing MPC of Injection Velocity during Mold Fill
The dynamics involved during mold fill is complex and temperature dependent. Presently, the controllers for achieving a desired injection velocity setpoint profile are independent of processing conditions in plastic injection molding. A generic, online control procedure to re-define the controller parameters was developed from dynamic models to achieve good tracking of injection velocity setpoint profiles during simulations of mold filling. This generic control procedure provided an effective and systematic approach for any plastic material and different processing conditions.
Shear Effects on Extruded Foam Products
Shear has been found an important nucleation parameter in the foam extrusion process. In this paper, further shear effects on foam properties are presented. At increased shear, foam expansion decreases, which suggests die swell promote competing mechanisms. Extension rate was found to correlate with expansion and compression strength. Also investigated was residence time at low shear to restore the shear thinning in the counter-rotating twin screw extruder. Shear and extension rate effects are addressed for foaming and foamed products.
Shrinking Control and Residual Styrene of Unsaturated Polyester Resins Cured at Low Temperatures
In low temperature molding processes, shrinkage control and residual styrene are important concerns. The presence of low profile additives (LPA) can reduce the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester (UP)/styrene (St) resins cured at low temperatures under proper processing conditions. A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of reaction temperature, initiator systems, and modification of the resin system on structure evolution, final resin conversion, and shrinkage control of UP resins with LPA.
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