SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Gas Phase Reaction for Surface Modification of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC)
Vahid Khoshkava, Musa R. Kamal, May 2014
The effect of surface modification on NCC polarity was first studied based on ambient surface energy measurements. NCC film was used as a model system to check feasibility of alkyenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) for this purpose. Both polarity and total surface energy of NCC decreased after surface modification. NCC porous structure consisting of nanofibers was exposed to ASA gas for different exposure times (1 h and 3 h). The reaction between NCC and ASA was confirmed by solid state 13CNMR and ATR-FTIR.
Accelerated Weathering Insights into ASA Polymers UV Resistance
Steve Blazey, Brian Struchen, May 2014
ASA polymers (Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate) represent one family of weatherable polymers often used in outdoor applications requiring long term color and physical properties retention. Their resistance to UV degradation is achieved through the selection of the ASA rubber modifier, choice of SAN (Styrene Acrylonitrile) copolymer, colorants, antioxidants and UV stabilizers along with other additives optimized for the application performance. Accelerated weathering testing offers valuable insights into the UV resistance of colored ASA polymers.
Optimization of Number of Gates in Injection Molding
Won-Gil Ryim, Byung-Gi Pyo, Hyung-pil Park, May 2014
In designing mold for bigger part it is important to determine number of gates. Excessive gates make loss of resin in gates and runners. Mold with many gates does not guarantee better mold filling condition. Automatic optimization system for number of gates is developed with objective function which represents the efficiency of gate. This paper discusses about the factors which are considered in development of optimization system and some application cases are followed.
M2M, Big Data and Injection Molds
Thomas Knight, May 2014
This paper will observe how advancements in M2M interaction, coupled with advancements in data storage and analysis (Big Data), are changing the way that businesses make decisions. We will examine how M2M and Big Data advancements can be applied to plastic injection molds to optimize output and to increase the mold’s reliability.
Overview of Different UV-Techologies, Piano Black Surfaces and Other Potential Colourings
Dagmar Ehmann, Logan Mays, May 2014
Overview of different UV technologies
Effect of Ground Calcium Carbonate Particle Size Distribution, Milling Method and Impurities on Abrasion Properties of Highly Filled Vinyl Formulations
Lane G. Shaw, David Yu, May 2014
Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC) is composed of a relatively soft mineral known as calcite with a Mohs hardness of 3. However, all ground calcium carbonate contains small amounts of harder minerals such as dolomitic limestone (dolomite) and/or silica. These materials may or may not increase the abrasiveness of the ground calcium carbonate at any given particle size dependent on the concentration, morphology and particle size of the impurity.
Thermal Conductivity Improvements for Plastics Through the Use of Engineered Boron Nitride
Steve E. Amos, May 2014
Most plastic materials are insulators having very low thermal and electrical conductivity. Many different types of fillers are added to provide increased thermal conductivity but they can have deleterious effects on physical properties or cause increased electrical conductivity which may not be desired. New grades of hexagonal boron nitride are introduced that can provide increased thermal conductivity with improved physical properties. Thermal conductivity is improved without significantly changing the electrical conductivity.
Novel Approach in Fabrication of Printed Metal Tooling
Liezl Wee Sit, Carol Barry, John Shearer, Joey Mead, Mayur Kumbhani, Josue Acevedo, May 2014
A novel additive manufacturing approach was investigated for fabrication of steel tooling with microstructured surfaces. Varying processing parameters (printing pressure and speed) as well as material viscosity provided better control of microfeature height and width. Viscosity significantly affected feature uniformity, with higher viscosity materials producing narrow lines and more uniform feature heights. This tooling was unchanged after 5000 injection molding cycles, and so, has great potential as microstructured tooling for microfluidic devices.
Cemented Tungsten Carbide: An Innovative Material for Custom Core Pins in the Plastic Injection Molding Industry
Frank Rymas, May 2014
Cemented tungsten carbide has revolutionized productivity in many applications throughout many industries and when used as a material for core pins has proven to reduce cycle time, increase core pin rigidity and extend core pin life in the plastic injection molding industry resulting in significant cost savings. To achieve profitability in the increasingly competitive global marketplace plastic injection molding companies must operate with maximum efficiencies and minimal unplanned downtime.
From Single Batch Process Control to Multiple Batch Processes Control: A Review and a Perspective for Injection Molding
Furong Gao, Zhixing Cao, Jingyi Lu, Yi Yang, May 2014
This paper discusses control problem on batch processes, especially takes injection molding as an example. In the first part of the paper, the achievements about controlling single injection molding are reviewed. Motivations, advantages and challenges on controlling multiple batch processes together are addressed in the second part. Some detailed discussions from different perspectives of multiple batch processes control are illustrated as well to shed some light on future research.
Using Rheology to Understand Silcone Elastomers
Mary A. Krenceski, Huiping Zhang, May 2014
Silicone thermoset elastomers are increasingly being used in over-molding or co-molding applications with thermoplastic polymers. Understanding the fundamental properties of silicone formulation components and the material property changes that occur during crosslinking is essential to successful molding and use. Rheological and dynamic mechanical characterization are outstanding tools for building an understanding of silicone thermal and elastic properties, as well as the cure reaction chemistry that takes place during silicone molding processes.
Enabling Durable Polymer Sheet and Films for Building and Construction Applications
Stephen M. Andrews, Markus Grob, Wiebke Wunderlich, May 2014
This paper will review the development and attributes of next generation UV-light blocker technologies for engineering plastic glazing, sheet, and film used in the building & construction industry. Performance data in various polymer families will be reviewed to demonstrate the value of these products in enabling polymer materials to achieve the longevity required for durable weatherable applications.
Recycled Polymers in Injection Molded PP Ridge Vents
Sudhir B. Railkar, Walter Zarate, Peter Campbell, Charles Lake, Jeffrey Avitabile, Leslie Peels, May 2014
Injection molded accessory products are widely used in residential and commercial roofing systems. These products generally require complex polymeric formulations to meet roofing functionality. With the growth of polymeric accessory products, significant post-consumer recycled streams are available. The goal of this paper is to discuss performance of several post-consumer recycled PP streams in injection molded PP formulations while maintaining performance attributes.
Modified PEBA for Direct Adhesion to EFEP
Sabine Fleming, John Felton, May 2014
New modified (Polyether Block Amides) offer tubing manufacturers a means of producing multi-layer fluoropolymer catheters via a co-extrusion method instead of the traditional manner of hand building a catheter. The ability to manufacture catheters without the need of etching or an adhesive layer provides for ease in manufacturing, reduction in costs, and improved adhesion between the different layers. In providing a modified PEBA which adheres directly to EFEP increases the catheter manufacturers the opportunity to produce safe, durable products.
Resin Selection for the FRP Products
Valeriy Makarov, Rakhil Sinelnikova, May 2014
For scrubbers, ducts, pipes and other FRP (Fiberglas Reinforced Plastics) products the cost of resin accounts for over half of the manufacturing expense. The selection process of searching for the best available resin for FRP product is made more reliable and easier with the diagram: the optical density coefficient (the Hammett acidity function) in the acidity environments - the top allowable temperature of the resin.
Engineering Modeling of Laboratory Internal Mixer
Tatianny S. Alves, João E. Silva, Laura H. Carvalho, Eduardo L. Canedo, May 2014
An engineering model for processing of stable molten resins in a laboratory internal mixer (torque rheometer) was developed. The model allows the prediction and correlation of torque and temperature in the steady-state processing stage, based on mixing chamber geometry, material properties, and operating conditions. Transient behavior was also analyzed, in order to predict the time to reach the steady-state. Experimental data to validate the model and to estimate the polymer-side heat transfer coefficient are presented.
Manufacturing Tougher PLA by the Liquid Feeding of Cellulose Nanofibers and Plasticizer
Natalia Herrera Vargas, Aji P. Mathew, Kristiina Oksman, May 2014
A polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite with 9 times higher toughness than neat PLA was prepared by compounding extrusion using cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) as an additive and glycerol triacetate (GTA) as a plasticizer. Liquid feeding was used to incorporate the CNFs and the liquid plasticizer into the extruder. Both additive and plasticizer were used to improve the PLA toughness and the plasticizer was also used to facilitate the dispersion and distribution of CNFs in the PLA matrix.
Hybrid Composite Materials Made of Polypropylene with Wood and Polyethylene Terephthalate Fibers
Annette Rüppel, Abdullah Al Mamun, Hans-Peter Heim, May 2014
We aim to manufacture injection molded components which consist of thermoplastics reinforced with fibers and which have improved properties (high strength and high notched impact strength). Thus, we intend to access new application fields for the not readily visible area of the automobile interior.
The Role of Rheology in Non-Pressurized Polymer Foaming Systems
Maryam Emami, John Vlachopoulos, Michael Thompson, May 2014
This work explores the influence of rheological properties on polymer foam development in non-pressurized systems. To understand the complex contributions of rheology on different stages of the foam processing in such systems, visualization studies were conducted using a polymer-foaming microscopy setup. Morphological analysis was used to determine the rheological processing window in terms of shear viscosity, elastic modulus, melt strength and strain-hardening, intended for the production of foams with greater foam expansion and more uniform bubble size distribution.
Rheology and Slot Die Coating Technology
Mark D. Miller, May 2014
Slot die coating technology is a function of the coating process, auxiliary system and fundamental technique. The decision to utilize a coating technology needs to be analyzed against these functions to determine best fit. In the era of clean, thin and precise converting operations, a customized coating system is necessary to have a technical edge. Building the system from the material up to the process sets the stage for a high precision tool designed around the process needs. This material up building process begins with the rheology of the fluid. Rheology is the study of flow. When you talk about squeezing, spreading, or lubricating a fluid, you are talking rheology. When you apply a force that causes a fluid to move, rupture, or flow you are describing a rheological force. Understanding rheology is fundamental to building fluid coating processes and inparticular a slot die coating head. The dramatic increase in the expectations of coated products, in areas as diverse as optical films to battery technology, has put substantial pressure on the systems used to produce the next generation of coated products. With increased speeds, thinner coatings and increased functional performance, awareness of coating techniques and technologies is required. The world is changing and new tools are needed to compete in the changing world markets. An awareness of coating techniques, technologies and systems allow for novel adaptations and application to new market opportunities. Rheological understanding and an application to slot die technology provides innovative tools that will help coating companies improve precision, tackle new markets, and develop new processes.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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