SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Novel Plasticizer Alternative for Polyamide Polymers
Semra Senturk-Ozer, James Day, Viggy Mehta, May 2014
Flexil™ is a novel modified organosilicon based additive developed and marketed by Polymer Dynamix, LLC in South Plainfield, NJ. Flexil™ provides properties of flexibility to polyamides over a wide range of temperatures from less than -50°C to greater than 300°C. The results demonstrate that Flexil™ can replace various traditional plasticizers in polyamide compositions.
Reaction Extrusion of Polyurethane Based on Renewable Sources
Jinhai Yang, David Kingsley, Jeffery Wiggins, May 2014
This manuscript studies the reaction extrusion of polyurethanes based on both polytetramethylene ether glycol (C4) and polytrimethylene ether glycol (C3) polyols using a twin screw extruder. Polyurethanes (TPU) with hardness of 70A, 85A and 50D were fabricated. The two polyols showed comparable reaction kinetics with methylene diphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI). C3 polyol polyurethanes showed slightly lower tensile stress at the same hardness level. But they showed comparable tear strength. C3 polyol TPUs needed slightly higher hard block to obtain the same hardness.
3D Characterization of Compression Molded HDPE/Wood Fiber Composites
Usman Saeed, Ghaus Rizvi, May 2014
The fiber orientation distribution in a material sample was analyzed. A micro tomography reconstruction of the sample was used to derive the components of a fabric tensor from an evaluation of the global anisotropy parameter. This parameter proved to be an efficient tool for the analysis of the structure of fiber reinforced composites. The local variations of the degree of anisotropy (ratio of the maximum and minimum eigen values of the fabric tensor) from the shell to the core layers of the sample can be captured and information about the local average fiber orientation angle can be obtained.
Production of Bio-Based Polyethylene from Sugar Beets
Joseph Greene, Lisa Ott, Kate Isganitis, Reta Betar, May 2014
A 22% solution of sucrose derived purely from sugar beets was dissolved in water and hydrolyzed with an invertase enzyme to produce glucose. This glucose was fed to champagne yeast and fermented to produce ethanol in yields of approximately 15 %. The ethanol was catalytically dehydrated to ethylene with a HZSM-5 catalyst in a small batch reactor. The ethylene was converted to poly(ethylene) using a Ziegler-Natta type catalyst. This poly(ethylene) should be suitable for use in plastic products like plastic bottles, containers, and grocery bags.
Modification of Melt Strength of Polypropylene via UV Radiation
Yasaman Amintowlieh, Costas Tzoganakis, Savvas Hatzikiriakos, Alexander Penlidis, May 2014
Melt strength (MS) of polypropylene (PP) has been modified by utilizing benzophenone (BPH) as photoinitiator along with UV radiation. Processing conditions were manipulated to promote long chain branching (LCB). Formation of long chain branches and/or crosslinks was confirmed using linear viscoelastic (LVE) measurements, extensional rheometry, gel content, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Results clearly indicate that MS of PP has been successfully modified without significant gel formation.
Tunable Synergistic Property Enhancements in Green Polypropylene Composites with Waste Paper and Cardboard via Solid-State Shear Pulverization: Size Reduction and Dispersion
Krishnan A. Iyer, Amanda M. Flores, Philip J. Brunner, John M. Torkelson, May 2014
Synergistic green composites of polypropylene (PP) with cardboard and waste paper are produced via solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) without any compatibilizers or surface modification. The property enhancements are comparable to those from more expensive forms of cellulose. Additionally, optimization of SSSP processing, commercial viability and melt processability of the composites are evaluated.
Wire Sweep Analysis in Transfer Molding and Compression Molding Process for Semiconductor Chip Encapsulation
Sejin Han, Franco Costa, May 2014
A simulation program for prediction of wire-sweep during transfer molding and compression molding of thermoset materials for semiconductor chip encapsulation has been developed. The flow simulation necessary for wire-sweep analysis is based on a three-dimensional model. The simulation results were compared to the experimental results from an industrial case of transfer molding. A method to reduce wire sweep during transfer molding and compression molding is also discussed.
Surface Energy of a Polyurethane as a Function of Film Thickness
Meiyu Zhai, Gregory B. McKenna, May 2014
The segmented polyurethane, Estane is a polyester-urethane (poly(butylene adipate)-poly(4,4'diphenylmethane diisocyanate-1,4 butanediol. In the present paper, conventional contact angle experiments have been performed and the surface energies of the Estane sample as a function of film thickness have been determined. In addition, thermal analysis has been used to measure the calorimetric glass transition (Tg) for this segmented elastomer. Moynihan’s area matching method was used to determine the limiting fictive temperature.
Effect of Polycarbonate Oligomer on Internal Structure and Mechanical Property of Injection Molded Polycarbonate
Masaki Hirono, Satoshi Nagai, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2014
In this study, the effect of polycarbonate oligomer (PC-O) addition on thermal properties, internal structure and weld properties of injection molded polycarbonate (PC) were investigated. It’s suggested that PC-O addition to PC is effective to flowability increase and improving surface roughness of V notch maintaining good mechanical properties compared with PC which has equivalent flowability.
Some Physico-Chemical Structural Factors Affecting the Performance of Oxygen Scavenging Additives in PET
Kris Akkapeddi, Jack Cavicchio, Yang Zhong, May 2014
The structural and morphological factors affecting the reactivity and performance of some oxygen scavenger additives in PET blends are reviewed. Role of the catalyst action and the effect some activators in oxygen scavenger chemistry have also been briefly investigated.
Factors Impacting Formulation Development of Extruded Polystyrene Foam
Roy Smith, Jeffrey Alcott, Michael Mazor, May 2014
Extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam has been a useful and cost-effective thermal insulation for commercial and residential buildings for over 50 years. Producers have responded to a variety of factors, such as, environmental regulations, building codes, and energy costs, to obtain effective alternative XPS products. This paper reviews XPS insulation formulations with blowing gases, HFC-134a and HFC-152a, that have long-term thermal performance to meet or exceed current codes. The developed XPS insulations have zero ozone depletion potential and provide a sustainable benefit to society.
New Technology for the Coloring of Rotationally Molded Products
Scott Aumann, May 2014
This paper will describe a new technology for the coloring of rotomolded plastic parts that will contain a pearlescent effect pigment and show a superior finished look to dry blended materials in the past.
Properties of Co-Extruded Multilayer Packaging Films from Biopolyethylene and Milled Soy Flour
Christopher T. Thellen, Corey Hauver, Jo Ann Ratto, May 2014
Multilayer packaging films from bio-polyethylene/soy flour composites were produced via co-extrusion processing through feedblock technology. Three layer films were produced containing up to 20% milled soy flour in the core layer, with neat polyethylene skins. Oxygen permeability of the films decreased by as much as 38% with the addition of soy flour to the core layer, but tensile strength values decreased by 29% in comparison to the neat multilayer control.
What Consumers & Customers Want in Sustainability
Surendra H. Agarwal, May 2014
Today everyone is concerned about Sustainability - protecting today's environment for future generation. Sustainability has become major initiative by all companies. Consumers want sustainable/ Green packaging but most of them do not want to pay more for Green Packaging. Consumers & Customers want 'Cost-effective Sustainable' Packaging”. It's responsibility of everyone in supply chain to work together to meet demands of their consumers and customers.
Effect of the Localization of Silica Particles on the Morphology of Poly(Lactic Acid)/ Polyethylene Blends
Ebrahim Jalali Dil, Basil D. Favis, May 2014
In this study, the effect of the addition of spherical silica particles on the morphology of poly (lactic acid)/polyethylene blends is studied. It is shown that the silica particles are selectively localized in the PLA phase. The effect of silica particle concentration in the PLA phase on the overall morphology of the blend structure is studied in detail.
Relaxation Zones in Extrusion Dies
Gerhard A. Martin, Kalman Geiger, Andreas Sobotta, May 2014
When designing extrusion dies very often only the flow in the die is balanced. To avoid polymer depositions in the die the wall shear rate and the wall shear stress are calculated. For minimal internal stresses in the extrudate a relaxation zone upstream of the land length is helpful. The characteristic values for designing the relaxation zone are the relaxation time and the critical shear rate. The calculation used is the finite volume element method.
Melt Spinning Polyethylene Terephthalate Nanofibers
Sudheer Bandla, Jay C. Hanan, May 2014
The process of making nanofibers using centrifugal forces was explored for melt spinning of Polyethylene Terephthalate. Processing boundaries were established for PET fibers from low viscosity resin. An average diameter of 4300 nm was achieved with a stable process. The effect of process variables and the role of viscosity in controlling the fiber diameter were discussed.
Material Selection Based on Feel: A Methodology for Technical Evaluation
Eric R. Larson, May 2014
This paper discusses the use of feel as an evaluation method for plastic material selection. This method is intended to complement existing material selection methods.
PPE Macromonomers - Use in Anhydride Cured Epoxy
Edward N. Peters, Eylem Tarkin-Tas, May 2014
Polyphenylene ether (PPE) telechelic macromonomer and hexahydrophthalic anhydride were used to cure epoxy resins. This unique combination different curing agents resulted in single phase morphologies over the compositional range studied. Broad enhancements in performance were noted compared to anhydride cured epoxy resins. Indeed, there was an increase in glass transition temperatures (Tg), impact strength, flexural strength, fracture toughness. In addition, the dielectric properties were lower and there was a decrease in moisture absorption.
Amphiphilic PPE-PHE Block Copolymers as Compatibilizers for Polyester Blends
Edward N. Peters, Joseph Flanagan, Olivier Guise, May 2014
Unique amphiphilic polyhydroxy ether-polyphenylene ether (PPE) block copolymers were evaluated as compatibilizers between thermoplastic polyester and polyphenylene ether. Variables studied were PPE content and MW in the block copolymer on morphology and physical properties. Overall there were broad performance enhancements, which included significant increases in toughness.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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