SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Improving Impact Performance of PMMA through Prestress and Orientation
Angela Cugini, Alan Lesser, May 2014
This work studies the optimization of prestressed Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), through equibiaxial compression with increasing amounts of shear and simple shear prestress for improved impact performance. The equibiaxial compression prestress with the slight shear demonstrates the highest performance at low velocity rates. The simple shear prestress is also combined with orientation of PMMA, which improves performance suppressing the large radial crack growth that is inherent for simple shear prestress.
Poly (Lactic Acid)/Polyamide11/Cellulose Multiphase Systems
Vahid Heshmati, Musa R. Kamal, Basil D. Favis, May 2014
Nano crystalline cellulose (NCC) / PLA/bio-Polyamide11 (PA11) blends were prepared at different compositions by melt blending. A homogenous nano-scale NCC dispersion in PLA/PA11 blends was achieved. Both Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) reveal the localization of NCCs in both phases and at the interface. Also, the images show no significant changes in the morphology of the PLA/PA11 blends for up to 2 wt% NCC.
Polypropylene Based Olefin Block Copolymers as Tie Layers for Multilayer Packaging
Yushan Hu, Jeff Bonekamp, Eddy Garcia-Meitin, Gary Marchand, Kim Walton, Rajen Patel, May 2014
Dow has developed a new family of polypropylene (PP) based olefin block copolymers (OBCs), based on proprietary chain shuttling catalyst technology. This novel family of block copolymers offers break-through system performance when used as a component in multilayer structures for combining polyethylene (PE), and PP. These multilayer systems offer customers unique combinations of properties such as exceptional adhesion and temperature resistance. They also enable PE to participate in some traditionally PP applications in packaging.
New Isosorbide-Polycarbonate via Interfacial Polymerization
Jean-Francois Morizur, May 2014
Polymers based on aliphatic diols derived from bio-sources are of great interest in the plastics industry for the preparation of bio-derived products. Such products may show noticeable advantages compared to their oil-based counterpart such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and a low net environmental impact. The present paper discloses the synthesis and basic characterization of a new class of isosorbide-containing polyester carbonates.
Elongation and Shear Deformation of Polymers in a Wedge Slit
Gerhard A. Martin, Kalman Geiger, Eberhard Grünschloss, May 2014
To achieve a good homogeneity of polymer melts in single screw extruders mixing elements are common. There are distributive and dispersive mixing elements available. A dispersive mixing element works better with additional elongational flow in a wedge slit. The elongation and the shear deformation are determined and the total deformation is calculated.
Numerical Study on Deformation Behaviors under Compressive Load when PET Bottles Changed Form
Young Bae Ko, Changoh Kwon, Seunghyun Cho, Gunmyoung Park, Gilsang Yoon, Jongdeok Kim, May 2014
Even though many researches have been carried to reduce thickness of the PET bottle for saving manufacturing cost, but there is challenges to guarantee mechanical strength under top-loading after making the PET bottle of thin thickness. This paper investigates the large deformation characteristics of a PET bottle under compressive load by an experimental and a FEA. The Arc length method is used in nonlinear FEA to understand the buckling phenomenon of the PET bottle.
Assessment of the Changeability of Plastics Processing Systems
Florian Mieth, Hans-Peter Heim, Viola Sauer, May 2014
Changeable production systems are still being developed, especially in the field of plastics processing. Here, the assessment of the changeability is a decisive factor. This investigation deals with the assessment of the changeability of a modular pilot plant, and derives approaches for the further development of an evaluation system, as well as potential means to increase the changeability.
Lean Design of Experiments for Plastics Processing: A Lean Statistical Thinking Case Study
Vinh D. Huynh, Stephen Czupryna, May 2014
Manufacturing companies all over the world have significantly improved their competitive posture by adopting lean philosophies and methods. A logical next step is to apply lean principles beyond the factory floor and extend them to R&D and process engineering. Company managers can ask themselves: • Are my production processes optimized? • Are my process optimization methods lean? • Is my product development process lean? This paper provides some answers to these questions in case study format.
Compatibilization Improvement of Nylon 6/Polypropylene Blends
Ying Shi, May 2014
This paper is a case study of different types of compatibilizers for nylon 6 and polypropylene blends. The compatibilizers that were investigated in this study were maleic anhydride grafted copolymers. The compatibility was evaluated by thermal properties, knit line tensile strength, and other mechanical properties of blends. The blends that exhibited strong knit line tensile strength were considered as highly compatibilized.
Evaluation of Different Heat Transfer Models for 9-Layer Film Blowing Process by Using Variational Principles
Martin Zatloukal, Roman Kolarik, May 2014
In this work, coextrusion experiments utilizing an industrial 9-layer Brampton Engineering coextrusion film blowing line has been performed in order to evaluate three different heat transfer models by using variational principles.
Injection Molding of Highly-Porous Polypropylene Foams
Raymond K. Chu, Lun Howe Mark, Davoud Jahani, Chul B. Park, May 2014
This paper presents the injection molding of highly-porous polypropylene foams with the core-back technique and a crystal-induced strategy. Through introducing the core-back foam expansion process near the crystallization onset of polypropylene, cell nucleation would be promoted, and thereby, increasing the probability of cell wall opening. Foam experiments were conducted over a range of dwelling times to examine the proposed strategy. At the optimal dwelling time of 48s, microcellular open-cell morphologies were achieved.
Fundamentals of Abuse Performance of LLDPE/LDPE Blends in Blown Film Applications
Nilesh Savargaonkar, Rajen Patel, Teresa Karjala, Philip Salibi, Lizhi Liu, May 2014
Blends of LLDPE and LDPE are used in many film applications. This study was undertaken to understand the behavior of LLDPE/LDPE blends over the entire composition range in terms of Elmendorf tear, dart impact, and puncture strengths in order to understand the relationships between these film properties, orientation effects, and intrinsic properties of the blends.
New Polyphenylene Sulfide Compounds
Ke Feng, May 2014
A new technology has been developed to enable polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) to start the recrystallization at a higher temperature with a fast speed. New PPS compounds with this new technology have demonstrated at production scale trials to have several benefits, including shorter cycle time, improved de-molding of parts, and improved flatness and dimensional precision. Laboratory data regarding the recrystallization behavior and production trial results will also be discussed.
Polyester Compositions for Automotive Tube Coatings
Sarah Grieshaber, Lenar Abbasov, Andrew Sics, Scott Davis, Tianhua Ding, May 2014
Polyester blends were evaluated as a replacement for nylon in automotive metal tube coating applications by investigation of long-term chemical resistance and adhesion to metal. Resistance to many common automotive fluids and fuels was observed for up to 5000h of exposure at 60 °C. Adhesion to metal was achieved without the use of a primer, which is an advantage over nylon materials and has potential to facilitate the production process by eliminating the use of primers.
Bioepoxy / Glass Fiber Composites
Johannes Möller, Christopher Kuncho, Daniel F. Schmidt, Emmanuelle Reynaud, May 2014
The present study focuses on the development of bioderived epoxies and their composites. Epoxidized linseed oil has been cured using both amine and anhydride hardeners, with curing time and temperature adjusted to maximize Shore D Hardness in the neat resin. Both resins were then used to manufacture glass fiber composite coupons that were tested in flexure. The properties of the anhydride cured bioepoxy composite were significantly better than the amine cured equivalent, and approached those of a composite based on a high performance petroleum derived anhydride cured epoxy.
Investigation of Scale-Up Methodologies in Twin-Screw Compounding
Graeme M. Fukuda, Daniel Chavez, David I. Bigio, Paul Andersen, Mark D. Wetzel, May 2014
Polymer composites involve the compounding of a base polymer and a solid additive. To maximize the impact of the additive on the polymer matrix, it is critical to have good mixing. However, before the product is processed at an industrial level the materials are often studied at a laboratory scale to save resources. The importance of a consistent product between the two extruders dictates the need for a scale-up rule sensitive to dispersive mixing.
Three Parameter Analysis of Fiber Orientation in Fused Deposition Modeling Geometries
Jason R. Nixon, Benjamin Dryer, Derrick Chiu, Inna Lempert, David I. Bigio, May 2014
The ability to track fiber orientation of a filled polymer matrix in the fused deposition modeling process is critical to the development of variable material properties in 3D printed parts. Using the Moldflow injection molding analysis package, a study has been done on the effects of injection rate, filler volume fraction, and nozzle geometry on final fiber orientation in the extruded strand produced by the fused deposition modeling process.
Gas-Assist Injection Molding of PLA for Foaming Applications
Lun Howe Mark, Raymond K. Chu, Aboutaleb Ameli, Davoud Jahani, Peter Jung, Chul B. Park, May 2014
The integration of gas-assist with foaming technologies was recently unveiled as a new technological development for microcellular foam injection molding. This work investigates the effect gas-assist processing on the final cellular structure of foam injection molded products. Typical gas-assist parameters including the holding pressure, holding time, ramping and start delay were examined. It was found that the application of gas-assist can improve or deteriorate the cellular structure depending on the processing parameters.
New Methods for Producing Energy Savings when Using Hot Runner Systems
Paul Boettger, May 2014
The heat produced by heaters in hot runner systems keeps the resin in melt conveying channels of injection molds molten. The molten resin is then injected into the cavity of the injection mold. Some of the heat produced will be lost to the surroundings. This paper will show how new methods and materials can reduce the amount of energy lost from hot runner systems and result in additional cost savings.
Gas Phase Reaction for Surface Modification of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC)
Vahid Khoshkava, Musa R. Kamal, May 2014
The effect of surface modification on NCC polarity was first studied based on ambient surface energy measurements. NCC film was used as a model system to check feasibility of alkyenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) for this purpose. Both polarity and total surface energy of NCC decreased after surface modification. NCC porous structure consisting of nanofibers was exposed to ASA gas for different exposure times (1 h and 3 h). The reaction between NCC and ASA was confirmed by solid state 13CNMR and ATR-FTIR.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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