SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Effect of Polycarbonate Oligomer on Internal Structure and Mechanical Property of Injection Molded Polycarbonate
Masaki Hirono, Satoshi Nagai, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2014
In this study, the effect of polycarbonate oligomer (PC-O) addition on thermal properties, internal structure and weld properties of injection molded polycarbonate (PC) were investigated. It’s suggested that PC-O addition to PC is effective to flowability increase and improving surface roughness of V notch maintaining good mechanical properties compared with PC which has equivalent flowability.
Some Physico-Chemical Structural Factors Affecting the Performance of Oxygen Scavenging Additives in PET
Kris Akkapeddi, Jack Cavicchio, Yang Zhong, May 2014
The structural and morphological factors affecting the reactivity and performance of some oxygen scavenger additives in PET blends are reviewed. Role of the catalyst action and the effect some activators in oxygen scavenger chemistry have also been briefly investigated.
Factors Impacting Formulation Development of Extruded Polystyrene Foam
Roy Smith, Jeffrey Alcott, Michael Mazor, May 2014
Extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam has been a useful and cost-effective thermal insulation for commercial and residential buildings for over 50 years. Producers have responded to a variety of factors, such as, environmental regulations, building codes, and energy costs, to obtain effective alternative XPS products. This paper reviews XPS insulation formulations with blowing gases, HFC-134a and HFC-152a, that have long-term thermal performance to meet or exceed current codes. The developed XPS insulations have zero ozone depletion potential and provide a sustainable benefit to society.
New Technology for the Coloring of Rotationally Molded Products
Scott Aumann, May 2014
This paper will describe a new technology for the coloring of rotomolded plastic parts that will contain a pearlescent effect pigment and show a superior finished look to dry blended materials in the past.
Properties of Co-Extruded Multilayer Packaging Films from Biopolyethylene and Milled Soy Flour
Christopher T. Thellen, Corey Hauver, Jo Ann Ratto, May 2014
Multilayer packaging films from bio-polyethylene/soy flour composites were produced via co-extrusion processing through feedblock technology. Three layer films were produced containing up to 20% milled soy flour in the core layer, with neat polyethylene skins. Oxygen permeability of the films decreased by as much as 38% with the addition of soy flour to the core layer, but tensile strength values decreased by 29% in comparison to the neat multilayer control.
What Consumers & Customers Want in Sustainability
Surendra H. Agarwal, May 2014
Today everyone is concerned about Sustainability - protecting today's environment for future generation. Sustainability has become major initiative by all companies. Consumers want sustainable/ Green packaging but most of them do not want to pay more for Green Packaging. Consumers & Customers want 'Cost-effective Sustainable' Packaging”. It's responsibility of everyone in supply chain to work together to meet demands of their consumers and customers.
Effect of the Localization of Silica Particles on the Morphology of Poly(Lactic Acid)/ Polyethylene Blends
Ebrahim Jalali Dil, Basil D. Favis, May 2014
In this study, the effect of the addition of spherical silica particles on the morphology of poly (lactic acid)/polyethylene blends is studied. It is shown that the silica particles are selectively localized in the PLA phase. The effect of silica particle concentration in the PLA phase on the overall morphology of the blend structure is studied in detail.
Relaxation Zones in Extrusion Dies
Gerhard A. Martin, Kalman Geiger, Andreas Sobotta, May 2014
When designing extrusion dies very often only the flow in the die is balanced. To avoid polymer depositions in the die the wall shear rate and the wall shear stress are calculated. For minimal internal stresses in the extrudate a relaxation zone upstream of the land length is helpful. The characteristic values for designing the relaxation zone are the relaxation time and the critical shear rate. The calculation used is the finite volume element method.
Melt Spinning Polyethylene Terephthalate Nanofibers
Sudheer Bandla, Jay C. Hanan, May 2014
The process of making nanofibers using centrifugal forces was explored for melt spinning of Polyethylene Terephthalate. Processing boundaries were established for PET fibers from low viscosity resin. An average diameter of 4300 nm was achieved with a stable process. The effect of process variables and the role of viscosity in controlling the fiber diameter were discussed.
Material Selection Based on Feel: A Methodology for Technical Evaluation
Eric R. Larson, May 2014
This paper discusses the use of feel as an evaluation method for plastic material selection. This method is intended to complement existing material selection methods.
PPE Macromonomers - Use in Anhydride Cured Epoxy
Edward N. Peters, Eylem Tarkin-Tas, May 2014
Polyphenylene ether (PPE) telechelic macromonomer and hexahydrophthalic anhydride were used to cure epoxy resins. This unique combination different curing agents resulted in single phase morphologies over the compositional range studied. Broad enhancements in performance were noted compared to anhydride cured epoxy resins. Indeed, there was an increase in glass transition temperatures (Tg), impact strength, flexural strength, fracture toughness. In addition, the dielectric properties were lower and there was a decrease in moisture absorption.
Amphiphilic PPE-PHE Block Copolymers as Compatibilizers for Polyester Blends
Edward N. Peters, Joseph Flanagan, Olivier Guise, May 2014
Unique amphiphilic polyhydroxy ether-polyphenylene ether (PPE) block copolymers were evaluated as compatibilizers between thermoplastic polyester and polyphenylene ether. Variables studied were PPE content and MW in the block copolymer on morphology and physical properties. Overall there were broad performance enhancements, which included significant increases in toughness.
Die Drool Phenomenon in Polymer Extrusion
Martin Zatloukal, Jan Musil, May 2014
In this work, breakthrough works in the field of unwanted die drool phenomenon occurring in the polymer extrusion processes are reviewed with specific attention to the role of die design and processing conditions.
Improving Impact Performance of PMMA through Prestress and Orientation
Angela Cugini, Alan Lesser, May 2014
This work studies the optimization of prestressed Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), through equibiaxial compression with increasing amounts of shear and simple shear prestress for improved impact performance. The equibiaxial compression prestress with the slight shear demonstrates the highest performance at low velocity rates. The simple shear prestress is also combined with orientation of PMMA, which improves performance suppressing the large radial crack growth that is inherent for simple shear prestress.
Poly (Lactic Acid)/Polyamide11/Cellulose Multiphase Systems
Vahid Heshmati, Musa R. Kamal, Basil D. Favis, May 2014
Nano crystalline cellulose (NCC) / PLA/bio-Polyamide11 (PA11) blends were prepared at different compositions by melt blending. A homogenous nano-scale NCC dispersion in PLA/PA11 blends was achieved. Both Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) reveal the localization of NCCs in both phases and at the interface. Also, the images show no significant changes in the morphology of the PLA/PA11 blends for up to 2 wt% NCC.
Polypropylene Based Olefin Block Copolymers as Tie Layers for Multilayer Packaging
Yushan Hu, Jeff Bonekamp, Eddy Garcia-Meitin, Gary Marchand, Kim Walton, Rajen Patel, May 2014
Dow has developed a new family of polypropylene (PP) based olefin block copolymers (OBCs), based on proprietary chain shuttling catalyst technology. This novel family of block copolymers offers break-through system performance when used as a component in multilayer structures for combining polyethylene (PE), and PP. These multilayer systems offer customers unique combinations of properties such as exceptional adhesion and temperature resistance. They also enable PE to participate in some traditionally PP applications in packaging.
New Isosorbide-Polycarbonate via Interfacial Polymerization
Jean-Francois Morizur, May 2014
Polymers based on aliphatic diols derived from bio-sources are of great interest in the plastics industry for the preparation of bio-derived products. Such products may show noticeable advantages compared to their oil-based counterpart such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and a low net environmental impact. The present paper discloses the synthesis and basic characterization of a new class of isosorbide-containing polyester carbonates.
Elongation and Shear Deformation of Polymers in a Wedge Slit
Gerhard A. Martin, Kalman Geiger, Eberhard Grünschloss, May 2014
To achieve a good homogeneity of polymer melts in single screw extruders mixing elements are common. There are distributive and dispersive mixing elements available. A dispersive mixing element works better with additional elongational flow in a wedge slit. The elongation and the shear deformation are determined and the total deformation is calculated.
Numerical Study on Deformation Behaviors under Compressive Load when PET Bottles Changed Form
Young Bae Ko, Changoh Kwon, Seunghyun Cho, Gunmyoung Park, Gilsang Yoon, Jongdeok Kim, May 2014
Even though many researches have been carried to reduce thickness of the PET bottle for saving manufacturing cost, but there is challenges to guarantee mechanical strength under top-loading after making the PET bottle of thin thickness. This paper investigates the large deformation characteristics of a PET bottle under compressive load by an experimental and a FEA. The Arc length method is used in nonlinear FEA to understand the buckling phenomenon of the PET bottle.
Assessment of the Changeability of Plastics Processing Systems
Florian Mieth, Hans-Peter Heim, Viola Sauer, May 2014
Changeable production systems are still being developed, especially in the field of plastics processing. Here, the assessment of the changeability is a decisive factor. This investigation deals with the assessment of the changeability of a modular pilot plant, and derives approaches for the further development of an evaluation system, as well as potential means to increase the changeability.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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