The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Dry food packaging typically contains a combination of polyethylene resins to provide toughness and barrier with a sealant layer to provide a specific shelf life. Development of the materials and resulting structures requires fundamental knowledge of structure / property relationships as well as the ability to tailor properties for in-use performance. Dow has been developing both resins and novel testing methodology to help expedite the development process, focusing on the consumer needs and benefits.
Epoxy-based liquids with adjustable viscosities were prepared by curing a two-component resin mixture at variable mixing ratios and their rheological properties were then characterized using a parallel plate rheometer. The viscosity was found to decrease as the portion of amine compound component decreased. Moreover, the rheological properties of such liquids were found to be highly thermally sensitive. At last, the authors proposed a possible mechanism to explain the viscosity change at different resin mixing ratios.
Joseph Dooley, Hyunwoo Kim, Patrick C. Lee, Robert Wrisley, May 2014
Multilayer coextrusion is a process in which two or more polymers are extruded and joined together in a feedblock or die to form a single structure with multiple layers. This paper will discuss the effect of experimentally measured multilayer rheology on the flow distribution in a coathanger style die.
Mohammad Meysami, Prashant Mutyala, Shuihan Zhu, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2014
Scrap EPDM rubber crumb was continuously devulcanized using supercritical CO2 in an industrial-scale twin screw extruder. A reasonably high throughput extrusion process has been developed and the effect of processing conditions has been studied. A central composite design with two factors was used to study the effects of screw speed and feed rate on the sol and gel fractions, degree of devulcanization, and Mooney viscosity of devulcanized rubber.
The GITBlow process, a combination of gas-assisted injection molding (“GIT”) and blow molding (“Blow”), allows the production of parts with complex functional geometries and thin-walled hollow spaces directly inside the mold. Part properties can be controlled by selective construction of characteristic part elements and modern methods for cooling control in the mold. Small variations of part geometry or of mold temperatures already show a positive influence on the resulting wall thickness distribution.
Kun S. Hyun, Myung-Ho Kim, Kyoo Ik Noh, Jeff A. Myers, May 2014
This paper introduces a new Engineering approach to improve and develop the manufacturing process of XPS Polystyrene form. The success in this process will trickle down to other foam processes to improve the productivity and energy savings.
Measuring the strength of a seal while it is still in the semi-molten state is important in determining if a film is suitable to withstand high loads at high packaging speeds. Without high hot tack strength, the contents of the package may break through the seal during the filling process. In this report, we will utilize Six Sigma methodology to: compare two different separation force hot tack testing machines, identify key variables in testing, and develop a set of standard testing conditions.
This paper will review the newest color and effect pigments that have been recently introduced to the marketplace including features benefits and comparisons to traditional products that have been used in the past few years. The paper will also review color trends for teletronics, aviation, sporting goods and toys for 2010.
Co-extrusion enables the combination of attributes of different polymeric resins to create films having unique and tailor-made properties. In this study we show that the proper selection and the correct placement of different polyethylene resins in co-extruded structures enables one to produce films having improved toughness and optical properties in a cost effective way. It was concluded that using single-site linear low density polyethylene in film structures makes this possible.
Gerald R. Berger, Dieter P. Gruber, Gernot A. Pacher, Johannes Macher, Walter Friesenbichler, May 2014
Different aspects on surface quality of injection molded parts have been researched in Leoben in the last decade. This paper will give a short overview on our research work, considering rapid heat cycle molding, surface topography and visual appearance of polymer part surfaces with special focus on weld lines, sink marks, and gloss differences, respectively.
Alexander Bakharev, Zhiliang Fan, David Astbury, May 2014
Uneven distribution of melt flow around a core pin during injection molding can result in core shift. Many real life injection molds establish one-side constraints for the cores then the core is free to deform in one direction but cannot deform in the opposite direction. In the article we present algorithms and results of mold filling simulations that take into account one-sided constraints on deformation of the mold cores.
This study investigates the residence time in micro extruders for low output applications. The micro extruders that were analyzed included extruder diameters between 12mm and 25.4mm. This study will show the effect of extruder screw speed on the residence time and compare that to theoretical calculations. Additionally, the study also demonstrates the change in molecular weight for a fixed output rate on the different extruder diameters.
While light curing technology provides many benefits to manufacturers, careful product selection and planning are needed to assure a smooth change over from existing, slower curing processes. Manufacturers must carefully weigh a variety of process variables to assure a smooth transition from older adhesive technologies when setting up a new light curing process like choosing the light source, understanding the substrates, opacity of materials, implementing process monitoring, adhesive selection and numerous other factors.
The lateral stress ratio of the solid feed resin has been shown to be a key factor in solids conveying. The lateral stress ratio has also been measured to be a function of primary stress, and it can vary significantly. Modeling of solids conveying is done to illustrate the effect of different stress ratio functions of polyethylene on solids conveying. Experimental results are used to validate the model and the fact that normal variations in lateral stresses are significant in solids conveying performance.
Yan Li, Hui Wang, Md Deloyer Jahan, Changchun Zeng, May 2014
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COC)/ multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites of different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) concentration were prepared by melt blending. The dispersion of the CNTs in the polymer matrix was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rheological property and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites were studied. In addition, the nanocomposites were foamed by carbon dioxide, and the effects of the CNTs on the foam cell morphology were investigated.
A self-optimizing injection process can compensate temperature fluctuations. But viscosity fluctuations are not considered in this concept, yet. Modifying the injection flow rate can balance the shrinkage potential but results although in varying residual stresses.
Matt Orlando, Masayuki Nagai, Satoshi Nagai, May 2014
Nowadays low gloss Polyacetal (POM) materials are required for automotive interior parts. In this study, new low gloss POM was developed. Original organic particles having effective interaction with POM, was developed as the matting agent. Consequently, excellent low gloss appearance with a good balance of mechanical properties is obtained. In addition, weather resistant and low VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emission technology could be applied to this low gloss POM.
Guthrie Gordon, David O. Kazmer, Robert X. Gao, Zhaoyan Fan, Xinyao Tang, May 2014
An infrared temperature sensor is detailed using a thermopile with an incorporated thermistor into a standard Dynisco snout. A testing apparatus was built to measure the temperature of a heated polymer at steady state. The apparatus was also used to validate the response time of the multivariate senor. Results show the multivariate sensor can accurately measure temperature with a response time of approximately 200 milliseconds.
This paper discusses the use of virtual prototyping for industrial extrusion die. We used numerical simulation to analyze the flow behavior in a PVC extrusion die. First, 3D isothermal simulation is used to investigate the flow uniformity at the outlet section of an extrusion die for 3 different internal geometries. Then, 3D non isothermal simulation will be used to see the impact of specific temperature profile at the entrance of the die on the flow uniformity. The shape of a flow channel was evaluated and the reason of a flow problem in practice was found by using this software.
Semra Senturk-Ozer, James Day, Viggy Mehta, May 2014
Flexil™ is a novel modified organosilicon based additive developed and marketed by Polymer Dynamix, LLC in South Plainfield, NJ. Flexil™ provides properties of flexibility to polyamides over a wide range of temperatures from less than -50°C to greater than 300°C. The results demonstrate that Flexil™ can replace various traditional plasticizers in polyamide compositions.
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Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:
Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.