SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Elongation and Shear Deformation of Polymers in a Wedge Slit
Gerhard A. Martin, Kalman Geiger, Eberhard Grünschloss, May 2014

To achieve a good homogeneity of polymer melts in single screw extruders mixing elements are common. There are distributive and dispersive mixing elements available. A dispersive mixing element works better with additional elongational flow in a wedge slit. The elongation and the shear deformation are determined and the total deformation is calculated.

Numerical Study on Deformation Behaviors under Compressive Load when PET Bottles Changed Form
Young Bae Ko, Changoh Kwon, Seunghyun Cho, Gunmyoung Park, Gilsang Yoon, Jongdeok Kim, May 2014

Even though many researches have been carried to reduce thickness of the PET bottle for saving manufacturing cost, but there is challenges to guarantee mechanical strength under top-loading after making the PET bottle of thin thickness. This paper investigates the large deformation characteristics of a PET bottle under compressive load by an experimental and a FEA. The Arc length method is used in nonlinear FEA to understand the buckling phenomenon of the PET bottle.

Assessment of the Changeability of Plastics Processing Systems
Florian Mieth, Hans-Peter Heim, Viola Sauer, May 2014

Changeable production systems are still being developed, especially in the field of plastics processing. Here, the assessment of the changeability is a decisive factor. This investigation deals with the assessment of the changeability of a modular pilot plant, and derives approaches for the further development of an evaluation system, as well as potential means to increase the changeability.

Lean Design of Experiments for Plastics Processing: A Lean Statistical Thinking Case Study
Vinh D. Huynh, Stephen Czupryna, May 2014

Manufacturing companies all over the world have significantly improved their competitive posture by adopting lean philosophies and methods. A logical next step is to apply lean principles beyond the factory floor and extend them to R&D and process engineering. Company managers can ask themselves: • Are my production processes optimized? • Are my process optimization methods lean? • Is my product development process lean? This paper provides some answers to these questions in case study format.

Compatibilization Improvement of Nylon 6/Polypropylene Blends
Ying Shi, May 2014

This paper is a case study of different types of compatibilizers for nylon 6 and polypropylene blends. The compatibilizers that were investigated in this study were maleic anhydride grafted copolymers. The compatibility was evaluated by thermal properties, knit line tensile strength, and other mechanical properties of blends. The blends that exhibited strong knit line tensile strength were considered as highly compatibilized.

Evaluation of Different Heat Transfer Models for 9-Layer Film Blowing Process by Using Variational Principles
Martin Zatloukal, Roman Kolarik, May 2014

In this work, coextrusion experiments utilizing an industrial 9-layer Brampton Engineering coextrusion film blowing line has been performed in order to evaluate three different heat transfer models by using variational principles.

Injection Molding of Highly-Porous Polypropylene Foams
Raymond K. Chu, Lun Howe Mark, Davoud Jahani, Chul B. Park, May 2014

This paper presents the injection molding of highly-porous polypropylene foams with the core-back technique and a crystal-induced strategy. Through introducing the core-back foam expansion process near the crystallization onset of polypropylene, cell nucleation would be promoted, and thereby, increasing the probability of cell wall opening. Foam experiments were conducted over a range of dwelling times to examine the proposed strategy. At the optimal dwelling time of 48s, microcellular open-cell morphologies were achieved.

Fundamentals of Abuse Performance of LLDPE/LDPE Blends in Blown Film Applications
Nilesh Savargaonkar, Rajen Patel, Teresa Karjala, Philip Salibi, Lizhi Liu, May 2014

Blends of LLDPE and LDPE are used in many film applications. This study was undertaken to understand the behavior of LLDPE/LDPE blends over the entire composition range in terms of Elmendorf tear, dart impact, and puncture strengths in order to understand the relationships between these film properties, orientation effects, and intrinsic properties of the blends.

New Polyphenylene Sulfide Compounds
Ke Feng, May 2014

A new technology has been developed to enable polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) to start the recrystallization at a higher temperature with a fast speed. New PPS compounds with this new technology have demonstrated at production scale trials to have several benefits, including shorter cycle time, improved de-molding of parts, and improved flatness and dimensional precision. Laboratory data regarding the recrystallization behavior and production trial results will also be discussed.

Polyester Compositions for Automotive Tube Coatings
Sarah Grieshaber, Lenar Abbasov, Andrew Sics, Scott Davis, Tianhua Ding, May 2014

Polyester blends were evaluated as a replacement for nylon in automotive metal tube coating applications by investigation of long-term chemical resistance and adhesion to metal. Resistance to many common automotive fluids and fuels was observed for up to 5000h of exposure at 60 °C. Adhesion to metal was achieved without the use of a primer, which is an advantage over nylon materials and has potential to facilitate the production process by eliminating the use of primers.

Investigation of Scale-Up Methodologies in Twin-Screw Compounding
Graeme M. Fukuda, Daniel Chavez, David I. Bigio, Paul Andersen, Mark D. Wetzel, May 2014

Polymer composites involve the compounding of a base polymer and a solid additive. To maximize the impact of the additive on the polymer matrix, it is critical to have good mixing. However, before the product is processed at an industrial level the materials are often studied at a laboratory scale to save resources. The importance of a consistent product between the two extruders dictates the need for a scale-up rule sensitive to dispersive mixing.

Three Parameter Analysis of Fiber Orientation in Fused Deposition Modeling Geometries
Jason R. Nixon, Benjamin Dryer, Derrick Chiu, Inna Lempert, David I. Bigio, May 2014

The ability to track fiber orientation of a filled polymer matrix in the fused deposition modeling process is critical to the development of variable material properties in 3D printed parts. Using the Moldflow injection molding analysis package, a study has been done on the effects of injection rate, filler volume fraction, and nozzle geometry on final fiber orientation in the extruded strand produced by the fused deposition modeling process.

New Methods for Producing Energy Savings when Using Hot Runner Systems
Paul Boettger, May 2014

The heat produced by heaters in hot runner systems keeps the resin in melt conveying channels of injection molds molten. The molten resin is then injected into the cavity of the injection mold. Some of the heat produced will be lost to the surroundings. This paper will show how new methods and materials can reduce the amount of energy lost from hot runner systems and result in additional cost savings.

Gas Phase Reaction for Surface Modification of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC)
Vahid Khoshkava, Musa R. Kamal, May 2014

The effect of surface modification on NCC polarity was first studied based on ambient surface energy measurements. NCC film was used as a model system to check feasibility of alkyenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) for this purpose. Both polarity and total surface energy of NCC decreased after surface modification. NCC porous structure consisting of nanofibers was exposed to ASA gas for different exposure times (1 h and 3 h). The reaction between NCC and ASA was confirmed by solid state 13CNMR and ATR-FTIR.

Optimization of Number of Gates in Injection Molding
Won-Gil Ryim, Byung-Gi Pyo, Hyung-pil Park, May 2014

In designing mold for bigger part it is important to determine number of gates. Excessive gates make loss of resin in gates and runners. Mold with many gates does not guarantee better mold filling condition. Automatic optimization system for number of gates is developed with objective function which represents the efficiency of gate. This paper discusses about the factors which are considered in development of optimization system and some application cases are followed.

M2M, Big Data and Injection Molds
Thomas Knight, May 2014

This paper will observe how advancements in M2M interaction, coupled with advancements in data storage and analysis (Big Data), are changing the way that businesses make decisions. We will examine how M2M and Big Data advancements can be applied to plastic injection molds to optimize output and to increase the mold’s reliability.

Overview of Different UV-Techologies, Piano Black Surfaces and Other Potential Colourings
Dagmar Ehmann, Logan Mays, May 2014

Overview of different UV technologies

Effect of Ground Calcium Carbonate Particle Size Distribution, Milling Method and Impurities on Abrasion Properties of Highly Filled Vinyl Formulations
Lane G. Shaw, David Yu, May 2014

Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC) is composed of a relatively soft mineral known as calcite with a Mohs hardness of 3. However, all ground calcium carbonate contains small amounts of harder minerals such as dolomitic limestone (dolomite) and/or silica. These materials may or may not increase the abrasiveness of the ground calcium carbonate at any given particle size dependent on the concentration, morphology and particle size of the impurity.

Thermal Conductivity Improvements for Plastics Through the Use of Engineered Boron Nitride
Steve E. Amos, May 2014

Most plastic materials are insulators having very low thermal and electrical conductivity. Many different types of fillers are added to provide increased thermal conductivity but they can have deleterious effects on physical properties or cause increased electrical conductivity which may not be desired. New grades of hexagonal boron nitride are introduced that can provide increased thermal conductivity with improved physical properties. Thermal conductivity is improved without significantly changing the electrical conductivity.

Cemented Tungsten Carbide: An Innovative Material for Custom Core Pins in the Plastic Injection Molding Industry
Frank Rymas, May 2014

Cemented tungsten carbide has revolutionized productivity in many applications throughout many industries and when used as a material for core pins has proven to reduce cycle time, increase core pin rigidity and extend core pin life in the plastic injection molding industry resulting in significant cost savings. To achieve profitability in the increasingly competitive global marketplace plastic injection molding companies must operate with maximum efficiencies and minimal unplanned downtime.

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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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