The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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High Intensity Mixing Study: Effect of Blade Design on Powder Properties
High intensity mixing is a preferred way to disperse colorants or additives into resins. Two different blade designs are being evaluated, one being a polyvinyl chloride dry blend and the other a polyethylene dry blend blade, for aggression of particle size in polyethylene powder. The resulting mixtures are evaluated for temperature, particle size distribution, bulk density, and powder flow properties.
Select Properties of a Rotational Molded Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene Composite
Several properties of a rotational molded composite material comprised of polyethylene and a bio-derived fiber reinforcement are investigated and compared with those of the non-reinforced control. This poster presents the effects of the bio-derived reinforcement on tensile and low temperature impact performance.
Crosslinking Recycled Polyethylene For Low End Medical Applications
This experiment determined the most effective technique in crosslinking HDPE to replace PP medical containers. HDPE was crosslinked using silane methods at levels of 2%, 5%, and 10% and irradiation at levels of 21.6kGy, 42.12kGy, and 105.3kGy. After crosslinking, these materials, along with a medical grade PP and a general grade of PE were tested using melt index, stress relaxation, tensile, impact, flexural, HDT, and autoclave sterilization. The e-beam at 21.6kGy yielded the results closest to the PP.
Evaluating The Effects of Conformal Cooling on Core, cavity, and part temperature on Injection Molded Parts with Finite Element Analysis
This study will focus on the effect conformal cooling channels have on cooling time, mold temperature, part temperature and warpage. An infrared camera was used to determine the mold and part temperatures. The processing variables were material and cooling times. Two amorphous materials (HIPS and PC), and two semi-crystalline materials (PP and PA) were used. The conformal cooling layout provided more even cooling and less part warpage. Moldflow was used to verify molding trial results.
Deformation from Ejection for Autodesk Moldflow
A simulation verification study was performed to understand how part ejection can cause deformation during injection molding. Excessive issues that occurred from ejection forces such as surface indentations or part distortion were assessed after altering different processing parameters. OFAT testing was used with a crystalline and an amorphous material in separate part geometries to analyze the most influential factors. Cooling time was the most influential process variable.
Rapid Tooling for Thermoforming Applications
This research explores the possibility of using printed FDM tooling in the thermoforming process to produce prototype parts. Three thermoforming tools with various geometries were designed then printed using a 3D printer. Sheets of Polystyrene were used for testing the molding ability of the tools. The FDM tooling performed well in producing prototype thermoformed parts.
Novel Non-Halogenated Flame Retardants for Polypropylene
Toxicity of some halogenated flame retardants (FR) has resulted in restriction of their use in plastic materials. Therefore, there is significant interest for development of non-halogenated FR with comparable performance. Here, we report a new type of FR additives based on combination of metal oxides and polyphenols. This FR additive is expected to exhibit a combination of char formation behavior and radical scavenging action. Synthesis and thermal characterization of this new class of FR material will be presented.
Options for Your High Volume Color - Blue
If you are coloring plastics for packaging, fiber, or automotive blue is going to one of, if not your highest volume color. When it comes to creating blue colors using organic pigments, today’s formulators have a limited, but high functioning selection to choose from—specifically phthalocyanine (pcn) and indanthrone blue. Pigment Manufacturers have developed a new range of indanthrone pigments for polymers and coatings. This article will review the new Alpha Crystal of Pigment Blue 60 as compared to the “next best alternatives.” You will have all the information you need to select the right blue for your high volume color – blue.
New Scientific Approaches for the Integration of the Statistical Design of Experiments for the Validation of Injection Molding Processes in Medical Technology
The qualification of injection molds for the manufacture of medical products is a requirement of the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) and an elementary component of the quality management in medical technology. The individual steps of the Design Qualification (DQ), Installation Qualification (IQ), Operational Qualification (OQ) and Performance Qualification (PQ) are described in detail. The first-time compilation outlines comprehensively the qualification process. The contents have been adapted especially to the requirements of the injection molding process and implemented with new scientific approaches for the statistical tool of Design of Experiments.
New Approach to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Plastic Parts Using In Mold Coated (IMC) Nanopaper
EMI shielding refers to the reflection/adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by electrically conductive materials, usually metal, or polymer composites. However, metal coatings do corrode and acceptable shielding levels are difficult to achieve using conductive fillers in a thermoplastic matrix. This study presents a new approach to EMI shielding of plastic parts using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a highly conductive top layer. EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) and electrical conductivity were measured.
Effect of Incorporating Nanoparticles into Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
The addition of nanoparticles to polymeric matrices has shown great promise for improving mechanical and thermal properties. In this study, an Advantex® glass fiber(GF) mat was sprayed with carbon nanofibers (CNF) on both sides and an epoxy resin was infused through this mat via vacuum assisted resin transfer molding. Mechanical properties of the CNF composites, sand erosion resistance and permeability were measured. With the addition of 0.5% CNF, mechanical properties improved while permeability decreased. The effect on sand erosion was negligible; we show that if sand erosion resistance is desired, a better alternative is to use a CNF thin film nanopaper on the surface.
Drilling of Composites
Composites have become a more common material choice in many of today’s components; however, little investigation has been done regarding the effects of machining, especially drilling, on the mechanical properties of composites. This has lead to much debate about which combination of variables yields optimal results by causing the least amount of change in the mechanical properties of a laminate. This paper will focus on the effects of drilling open holes into composites in the presence of coolant and utilizing drill bits with varying point angles. Unfortunately, data collected during this experiment does not suggest that point angle has a significant effect on either tensile strength or modulus of carbon fiber and epoxy composite. Only the presence of a hole which forms a stress concentration was found to have an effect. Point angle of the drill bit was, however, found to have a 95% confident statistically significant effect on the delamination caused by drilling into the composite. Also the presence of an oil-based coolant during drilling was found to have a 95% confident statistically significant effect on the flexural modulus of the composite as tested using the 3-pt bend test.
PVC or a Power Plant
Conservation of energy and environment is the call of the day. Every human being is aware of the terrifying rate at which the natural resources are being depleted and very well knows the difficulties in replenishing them, leave alone replenishing them at the same rate. The demand supply gap in the electricity is resulting in load shedding not only in residential areas but also in the industrial sector. On the other hand, serious efforts are being made to augment forest cover by adding to the ‘artificial forest’ with the tree plantation drive across the country, yet the natural forest coverage in India is actually on the decline. Scarce natural resource like wood and energy dependent metals - being major components of construction sector, need of the hour is to select alternatives which are more environment friendly and energy efficient. PVC – well established in the Western Hemisphere and finding increasing acceptance in the developing countries as well - is one such wonderful alternative to many of the conventional materials in the building and construction sector. This has resulted in this material getting designated as “Construction Polymer” – very rightly so! Owing to its excellent inherent resin characteristics and adaptability to numerous compounding ingredients, PVC can be formulated in various ways to meet different end use requirements. Further, technological advancements in processing have also given means to make this commodity polymer meet the ‘engineering’ requirements. A polymer which consumes much lesser energy and creates much lesser environmental impact compared to many of the traditional construction materials and even some of the major polymers during its entire life cycle, PVC has established itself in significant end use applications in the construction sector. This paper makes an honest attempt to critically evaluate the advantages of PVC Pipes & windows in saving energy and environment in a typical house over the cradle to grave co
An Experimental investigation of the Plasticating and Friction behavior of PET chips
An experimental study of the plasticating and frictional behavior of dried and preheated PET chips on a moving, steel surface has been conducted using an experimental apparatus called the Screw Simulator. The Screw Simulator has been specifically designed to reproduce the primary plasticating [melting] and solid conveying mechanisms of single screw extruders. The screw simulator permits the direct observation and measurement of a materials melting and frictional properties. The PET resin plasticating and frictional properties were studied as a function of metal surface temperature, surface velocity, sample width and applied load. In addition the materials bulk density as a function of pressure at several preheating temperatures was measured. These experimental findings have important implications in the design and scale up of single screw designs.
Morphology and Properties of Nylon-6/Epoxy Composites
An innovative approach to process epoxy/nylon-6 composite is demonstrated in this article. Firstly, the solution polymerization of nylon-6 was successfully carried out in N-methylpyrollidone (NMP) as solvent. The structure and morphology of nylon-6 precipitated from NMP was studied. Then several films were prepared from blend by varying the amount of nylon-6 in epoxy resin without Curing agent. All films were fully characterized for thermal and dynamic mechanical properties using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). The addition of nylon-6 showed a plasticizing effect on epoxy. The growth of nylon-6 crystals in epoxy matrix lead to unique spherultic multiphase morphology as observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy.
Halogen-Free Organic Pigments: Considerations for Selecting a Colorant
Certain organic pigments contain aryl?halides and alkyl halides as part of the chromophore structure and in some cases unintentional halogenated byproducts from the manufacturing process. Halogenated compounds can be sources for persistent and bioaccumulative dioxins depending on end?of?life cycle processing and are the subject of certain electronic industry standards. Requests for non?halogenated pigments are also trending in the pigments industry. CI or CAS chemical structures provide an expedient way to determine if an organic pigment contains halogen atoms. Analytical testing is required to parenthetically characterize any organic pigment as halogen?free in accordance with established electronic industry standards. This paper does not provide any original work or experimental findings but is rather intended to provide the reader considerations for organic pigments in view of industry initiatives and legislation aimed at protecting the environment.
Enhancement of Induction Heating Efficiency on Mold Surface Using Ferrite Materials
Mold temperature plays a significant role to the quality of injection molding process. A high mold temperature setting is feasible to enhance the molding quality but prolongs the cooling time. Use of induction heating to heat the mold surface only seems to provide a feasible solution without scarifying the molding cycle. Still, there exist some problems to be resolved in induction heating such as proximity effect. The proximity effect is the sudden interaction of magnetic fields that are generated because of two nearby coils with inverse current directions, affecting the change of flux. It causes significant decrease of heating efficiency and thereby generates non-uniform heating. To eliminate its drawback, this study proposes a novel magnetic shielding induction heating method by employing ferrite materials to enhance both the heat efficiency and uniformity. Comparing to conventional magnetic concentrator, experimental results depict that the proposed method can efficiently improve the influence of proximity effect; thus increases heating rate and obtains more uniform temperature distribution.
Adhesion Improvements of Nanocomposite Interfaces
Attention has recently become focused on the performance advantages of nanocomposites, and particularly polymerbased nanocomposites with respect to incumbent “neat” polymers or metallic materials for lightweighting initiatives. In the interest of sustainability, the specific use of bio-reinforced nanocomposite parts and nanostructured coatings within automotive, aerospace, construction, medical and packaging applications is accelerating. These “green” nanocomposites can provide high mechanical strength at low density, low weight, and low cost while generating low carbon dioxide emissions. However, there are interfacial surface adhesion challenges with these and other nanocomposites, in addition to particle distribution and stability issues, which can inhibit full realization of their mechanical performance advantages. This paper will profile polymeric nanocomposites and nanocoatings, as well as define surface modification protocols using atmospheric pressure plasma technologies to optimize interfacial adhesion to similar and dissimilar materials.
Hybrid TPEs: Combining the Strengths of Olefin Block Copolymers with SEBS
Olefin Block Copolymers (OBCs) are used in a broad range of applications and markets, including soft compounds. Recently, a new grade, INFUSE™ 9010 OBC, was introduced specifically for use in oil- extended compounds. The benefits of this OBC grade on the properties of oil-extended thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have been presented previously . Styrenic block copolymers, such as poly(styreneethylene/ butylene-styrene) (SEBS), are frequently used in TPEs with a broad range hardness and other physical properties. The focus of this paper is on the physical and rheological properties that can be obtained in TPEs formulated using both OBC and SEBS elastomers. In general, these hybrid TPE compounds have properties intermediate between that of TPEs formulated with OBC or SEBS alone.
Excellent properties of a novel composite ?-nucleating agent for isotactic polypropylene
The thermal behaviors and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) with a composite ?- nucleating agent VP-101T has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized optical microscopy (POM) and mechanical measurements. The crystallization temperature did not increase with the further addition of nucleating agent. The relative ?- form content and the total crystallinity increase a lot. By adding VP-101T, the impact strength could be increased by 3~4 times. The heat deflection temperatures are increased as well. With the increasing concentration of VP-101T, the morphologies of ?-crystals change from to cluster of crystalline. The optimal concentration of VP-101T is 0.2%.
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