SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Simulating Orientation of Long Semi-Flexible Glass Fibers in Three-Dimensional Injection Molded Thermoplastic Composites
Mark Cieslinski, September 2013
In this presentation a comparison between rigid and semi- flexible fiber-orientation models are assessed for long semi- flexible glass fibers in an end-gated plaque. Simulations were done under non-isothermal conditions taking into account entry effects and the fountain-flow behavior at the advancing front. Orientation predictions are compared to experimental data measured in the gate and mold cavity both along and away from the centerline.
Repairs for Advanced Composite Structures
Lou Dorworth, September 2013
This presentation provides a short overview of current repair methodologies used to restore structural integrity in advanced composites in aerospace and how these practices might be transferred to the automotive industry.
Progress with Polyurethane Matrix Resin Technology: High-Speed Resin Transfer Molding Processes and Application Examples
Stefan Kreilingr, Frank Fetscher, September 2013
Novel polyurethane matrix resin enables manufacturing of automotive composite parts via high-speed resin transfer molding (RTM) processes. Due to its inherent fracture toughness the polyurethane technology can offer superior fatigue resistance. Technical insights into the mass production of an automotive composite leaf spring will be given. In addition painting and assembly of composites via adhesive bonding are important steps along the process chain where further efficiencies can be realized.
The Influence of Bond Dam Design and Hard Hits on Bond-Line Read-Through Severity
Kedzie Fernholz, September 2013
An experiment to investigate the root causes of adhesive-induced distortion in Class “A” panels was completed. This experiment showed that features in the inner panel that change the thickness of the adhesive across the bead width are responsible for the visible distortions in the outer panel surface. In addition a visible distortion occurs in the surface only when there is adhesive between the inner and outer panels.
Predicting Performance of Thermoplastic Composites Taking into Account the Fiber Orientation Effects Utilizing ULTRASIMTM Technology — Part I: Methodology
Marios Lambi, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Implementation of Advanced Composite Design Software and Practices
James Salerno, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
CAD: Composites Are Different — Moving Beyond Yesterday’s CAD Tools to Accelerate Adoption in Mass-Produced Autos
Rani Richardson, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Multi-Scale Modeling of Creep of Reinforced Plastics Parts with DIGIMAT
Laurent Adam, September 2013
This paper deals with the prediction of the overall behavior of polymer matrix composites and structures based on mean-field homogenization. We present the basis of the mean-field homogenization formulation and illustrate the method through the analysis of the creep properties of fiber-reinforced structures. The present formulation is part of the DIGIMAT software and its interface to FEA packages enabling multi-scale FE analysis of these composite structures.
Assessment of the Slowdown in Fiber Orientation Evolution in a Center-Gated Disk
Gregorio Manuel Vélez-García, September 2013
Recent modifications to the standard Folgar-Tucker model aim to slow down the evolution of fiber orientation and have been shown to improve orientation predictions in shear flow experiments. However assessment of these models in injection-molded geometries in which shear and extension are both present is very limited. In this work researchers have assessed the evolution of orientation using the newly developed models in a center-gated disk which provides a good injection molding test case combining both shear and extension.
Class A Surface Finishing of Composites via Powder in-Mold Coatings
Thomas Schmidt, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Injection Molding Fiber Orientation Property Predictions & Failure Analysis
Robert Sherman, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
DIGIMAT for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites
Roger Assaker, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
New SMC Application for Automotive Seat
Mahmut Bingöl, September 2013
Thermoset-based sheet-molding compound (SMC) with an unsaturated polyester matrix was used to develop a new glass-fiber reinforced material. Specimens were cut from newly molded SMC plates and subjected to 3-point flexure and tensile tests. FEM models of an SMC seat-connection element have been generated and analyzed. then compared with physical testing results.
Multi-Scale Modeling of Fatigue of Fiber Reinforced Plastics with DIGIMAT
Michael Parrott, September 2013
PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition
Understanding of Aerospace Composite Design Principles for Structural Fittings
Richard Schaake, September 2013
CFRP technology is currently being extended to structural fittings and future use of the technology for automotive applications is under investigation. The design and production of such products is typically a manual process. The result of one such design method for 3D parts has been analyzed using analytical models to understand the role of resin and fiber in these designs paving the way for the use of materials more suitable for mass production than the well established epoxy 914/T300 composite. It was concluded that the design principle investigated is effective in maximizing tension in fibers and compression in the resin while minimizing shear in parts that are subject to out-of-plane loads. Good agreement with bending and shear tests was found.
Biocomposites Based on Regenerated Cellulose Fiber & Bio Matrix
Sunil Kumar Ramamoorthy, September 2013
Wood pulp-based regenerated cellulose fibers like Lyocell and viscose which are from natural origin have high and even quality and can be used to develop superior composites with good properties. In this project Lyocell and viscose fibers were used as reinforcements ina chemically modified soybean-based bio-matrix of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and formed by the compression-molding technique. Mechanical properties of the resulting composites were characterized by tensile flexural and impact tests dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was used to evaluate viscoelastic performance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to provide morphological analysis. In general Lyocell composites had better tensile and flexural properties and better elastic and viscous response than viscose-based composites. Hybrid composites also were formed by fiber blending and these showed better impact strength. The results show the good potential of these composites to be used in automotives and construction industries.
Design of Thermoplastic CF Composites for Low Pressure Molding
Takeshi Ishikawa, September 2013
The design of a thermoplastic carbon fiber composite which induces high moldability is presented. The composite design of controlled carbon fiber length and its orientation is established by the regularly laminated prepreg sheet which has well designed with a slit pattern. Since the flowability of composite is improved by the slit pattern — not only in the in-plane direction but also in the lamination direction — the process requires relatively low pressure even if a large amount of fiber is contained. The material can be formed by compression molding and several kinds of thermoforming processes. The short cycle time of this thermoplastic composite process is an advantage for high-volume production of vehicular parts. Structural performance can also be controlled in a similar manner via flow design. This allows for tailoring and balancing of composite weight flowability and mechanical performance.
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Waste: An Environmental Assessment of Recycling Energy Recovery & Landfilling
Jan-Anders Månson, September 2013
The environmental benefits of recycling carbon fiber- reinforced plastic (CFRP) waste are assessed against other end-of-life (EOL) treatments. Recycling via pyrolysis incineration with energy recovery and disposal via landfilling are compared. To account for physical changes to materials from use and recycling equivalence between recycled and virgin materials is calculated based on the ability to produce a short-fiber composite beam of equivalent stiffness. Secondary effects of using cecycled carbon fiber (RCF) in a hypothetical automotive application are also analyzed. Results underline the ecological constraints towards recycling CFRPs and demonstrate that benefits from recycling are strongly linked to the impacts of the selected recovery process the materials replaced by RCF in a secondary application and also to the type of secondary application in which they are used.
What’s the Difference: Thermoset vs. Thermoplastic Carbon Fiber Composites?
Allan James, September 2013
The challenge of improved fuel economy or lower CO2 emissions is unrelenting. The transportation industry is seeking ways to lower the mass of their vehicles realizing lower weights can result in the reduction of the size and hence mass of other components. Two classes of materials are vying for applications on the automobile: thermoset and thermoplastic carbon fiber-reinforced composites. This presentation explores the fundamental differences between thermoplastics and thermosets and evaluates the resultant effect when implemented on an application on a vehicle

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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