SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Lightweight Sustainable Substrate Materials for Automotive Interiors
Matt Barr, September 2013

This presentation provides a global overview of natural fiber composite materials and processes highlighting current research as well as the next generation of lightweight automotive interior substrates. It discusses both pros and cons of various lightweight sustainable substrate materials (including the wide family of resinmatrixed composites with an assortment of fibrous additives ranging from wood to flax) taking into account material suitability for automotive interior substrate applications. The goal of this talk is to encourage discussion of uses and benefits of natural wood composites to reduce weight and increase product sustainability.

High Performance Moldable Bamboo Fiber-Epoxy Composites
Senat Mohanty, September 2013

Auto-rickshaws or motorized tricycle passenger taxis are a common form of transportation in India. These vehicles are often used at loads beyond specifications and under difficult road conditions. Part failures negatively affect earnings of the operators who play at the bottom of the economic pyramid. Use of bamboo fiber–epoxy composites has been nvestigated in these applications. The composites typically contain 30-40 wt-% fibers although loadings to 60 wt-% fiber can be used and fillers such as carbon black and fly ash can also be added. The composites exhibit tensile strengths of 140 MPa flexural strengths of 160 MPa and notched Charpy Impact strengths of 60 kJ/m2. These composites were subsequently molded into auto body parts (dashboarddoors and panels) and are under investigation with an auto-rickshaw manufacturer. Additionally helmets made with these composites were taken through drop tests similar to Snell Memorial Foundation Test Standards (ISO 17025 and American Association for Laboratory Accreditation A2LA). Bamboo-fiber composites positively impact the socio-economic health of the local community since bamboo is a renewable source it need not be chemically processed it reduces the petrochemical component of the composite and is known to help in waste-land reclamation and for combating soil erosion.

Toughening PLA Composites with Natural Fibers and ENR
Abdul Shakoor, September 2013

Biocomposites are recent advancements used to develop cost-effective sustainable materials for numerous applications in response to the mounting needs to find substitutes for polymers based on fossil fuels. Polylactic acid (PLA) is an aliphatic and is the most promising in the bioplastics’ family although its use can be constrained by its poor mechanical properties lower thermal stability and processing difficulties. The objective of this research was to investigate and improve mechanical and thermal properties of PLA by developing PLA composites reinforced with hemp natural fibres results of which are discussed in this presentation.

Protein Polymer with Cellulosic Filler Compatible in Various Thermoplastic and Thermoset Systems
Tim Bearnes, Raymond Schenk, September 2013

Distillers grain a by-product of the ethanol process has been used to produce thermoset and thermoplastic polymers that can replace a portion of and/or enhance traditional petroleum-based resins in various plastics manufacturing processes. The process results in unique characteristics and allows inclusions into finished plastics products at rates of up to 40% final bio content. The pellets produced are consistent with the standard feedstock materials used by plastic manufacturers in thermoplastics and currently are being tested with polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) and the bio-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polylactic acid (PLA) resins in some applications. Trials are underway in injection molding rotary molding and extrusion molding. Test results have indicated improvements in some properties of finished goods with good processing characteristics when run at temperatures below 193C. Further testing in thermoset bulk-molding compound (BMC) has resulted in lower specific gravity while retaining physical properties and good surface finish.

Application of Vacuum-Assisted High-Pressure RTM-Process for the Series Production of CFRP Components for Car Bodies* NOTE: this is a PowerPoint Show.
Patric Winterhalter, September 2013

Lightweight design with CFRP is not just a catch phrase. A South German car maker has installed a total of ten lines for the large-scale series production of CFRP-parts used in a passenger cell for e-cars made of CFRP. On these lines the vacuum-assisted high pressure RTM-method is applied on parallelism-controlled 36000 kN presses equipped with twin-shuttle moving bolsters. This presentation begins by exploring the motivation for CFRP lightweight design continues with an explanation of the applied vacuum- assisted high-pressure RTM method including both press and automation technology that complies with the special requirements of the RTM process and the logistics of both preformed and final parts. The presentation ends with a systems overview of the complete RTM process chain leading from the production of preform parts via automation to the final pressed CFRP part and the introduction of a new development in press technology.

Carbon Fiber Engine X-Brace
Leland Decker, James Truskin, September 2013

This presentation will discuss the design development and performance refinement of the 2013 SRT Viper carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) X-brace. The single-piece all CFRP X-brace was developed from lightweight carbon fiber composite material to maximize weight reduction opportunities and meet the stringent vehicle performance targets of the all-new Viper. The design process was driven extensively by virtual engineering which applied computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis and results to optimize the design and improve the design efficiency. A close partnership between Chrysler Body Engineering Chrysler Product Design Office and tier 1 Plasan Carbon Composites lead to the completion of this part which will be sold in the aftermarket by Chrysler’s Mopar parts division.

The Application of Composite Design Principles for Light Weighting Structural Components using Discontinuous Carbon Fiber Materials
Tim Langschwager, Matt Kaczmarczyk, September 2013

The primary focus of this presentation will be the use of lightweight carbon fiber-reinforced thermoset compounds (AMC®Advanced Molding Compounds) for a comprehensive approach to design and validation of structural components. Discussion will include the use of discontinuous carbon fiber sheet molding compound (CF- SMC) for light weighting structures. The presentation also will cover variations in high-flow vs. low-flow compression molding mechanical properties and variation in carbon fiber tow size as it relates to mechanical properties and notch sensitivity. Also covered will be applications for CF-SMC and how they compare with competitive technologies.

Development of Molding Process of Hollow Sections in PCM (Prepreg Compression Molding) Technology
Koichi Akiyama, September 2013

Development of Particle-Core Compression Molding CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is a proven material that can significantly reduce vehicle weight although it has not been widely used for automotive applications due to the lack of a high-cycle production process. Recently PCM (Prepreg Compression Molding) based on rapid-cure prepreg suitable for compression molding was introduced as a high-cycle compression molding process. The PCM process can produce high quality parts like the autoclave process with equally high efficiency as compression molding which has long been used for high volume production in automotive applications. The PCM process can also provide high mechanical properties required for automotive structural applications. Hollow sections can effectively stiffen structures without adding much mass. but it has traditionally been difficult to mold hollow sections by compression molding because of high molding pressures. This presentation discusses development of removable particle core technology a new molding technology to produce parts with hollow sections by the PCM process which enables molding of hollow section by high-cycle compression molding greatly increasing the stiffness of PCM parts.

Alternative Precursors for Sustainable and Cost-Effective Carbon Fibers usable within the Automotive Industry
Hendrik Mainka, September 2013

Lightweight design is an essential part of the overall Volkswagen strategy for reducing the CO2 emissions. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) offers an enormous lightweight potential. The use of CFRP is limited in mass series applications by the costs of the conventional C-fiber precursor Poly-Acrylic-Nitrile (PAN). The investigation of novel alternative precursors enabling a significant reduction in the costs of CFRP automotive parts is essential to make carbon fibers ready for a mainstream use within the automotive industry

High Performance Composite Body Panels via the Resin Spray Transfer Process
Dale Brosius, September 2013

The increasing need to reduce mass in automobiles is driving interest in newer materials like carbon fiber composites. While the use of prepregs and autoclave processing is acceptable for racing cars and high cost supercars a need exists for processes that can deliver higher volumes in much faster cycle times and lower costs. Compression molding and high-pressure RTM are options for highest volume applications that can justify the high equipment and tooling cost. For volumes in the 2000 to 25000 vehicles per year segment Resin Spray Transmission (RST) offers a balance of low material costs low tooling costs and cycle times under twenty minutes per part while delivering a Class A finish straight out of the mold for thin carbon fiber body panels. This presentation will cover materials and process development associated with the novel RST solution.

A Study of the Effects of Rapid Cycling Pressurized Water Heating/Cooling on Composite/Injection Mold Tool Temperatures
Kip Petrykowski, September 2013

There have been several technologies used to bring mold surface temperatures above/to a polymer’s glass transition temperature (Tg) in order to improve part finish appearance and mechanical properties. Steam cartridge heaters induction and high-temperature pressurized water have all been successfully applied. Due to the inherent energy savings high-temperature spectrum precise temperature control and fast ramp rates pressurized water offers numerous advantages over these systems when applied to composite and injection molding of various materials.

High-Pressure Compression RTM — A New Process for Manufacturing High Volume Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites
Raman Chaudhari, September 2013

The current paper addresses High Pressure Compression Resin Transfer Molding (HP-CRTM) for the manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced composites with high fiber volume content. The HP-CRTM process is a combination of resin transfer molding (RTM) and compression molding. In this process the preform is placed into the mold cavity and then the mold is closed partially to obtain a small gap between the mold surface and the fiber preform. The resin is introduced through a suitable injection point into the gap and flows easily over the preform and may partially impregnate the preform as well. Once the required amount of resin is injected into the gap and the injection point is closed the mold closes further and applies high compression pressure to squeeze the resin into the preform. In this step the preform is compacted to achieve the desired part thickness and fiber volume fraction. The objective of the proposed study is to investigate the effects of parameters such as mold opening distance and fiber orientation on the quality of the HP-CRTM components. The influence of these process variables on the component quality and the mechanical properties is analyzed. Finally the applicability of the HP-CRTM process for high volume manufacturing is discussed.

Differential Pressure Molding Process
Jack Van Ert, September 2013

Differential pressure molding (DPM) is a new patented process that was developed to meet the auto industry’s need to produce interior-trim products at remote sites. The process was developed to incorporate low-cost tooling minimum support equipment and simple energy-efficient work cells. The process uses low-pressure compression molding to shape thermoplastic and some thermoset materials. It makes use of thinshell composite molds and applies pressure across the entire tool surface -- either by placing a vacuum inside the tool or placing the mold in a pressure chamber -- which saves on capital equipment and the energy required to run a hydraulic press and cooling system.

Active Thermal Management using the PtFS Process for Rapid Processing of Composite Structure
Ben Halford, September 2013

This presentation will outline the technical commercial and legal requirements for manufacture of high-volume fibre- reinforced structures in the context of fully automated lights- out production environments. Fusing of discrete technical elements will be shown to deliver order of magnitude gains in cycle time precision energy efficiency and quality for thermoset and thermoplastic components. With reference to prismatic and fully developed forms the presentation: identifies methodologies for using fully integrated production solutions to achieve 95% reductions in cycle time and 50% - 95% reductions in energy consumption; outlines benefits whereby highly integrated composite structures with varying section thicknesses can be processed optimally using local thermal control; explores opportunities for in- mold residual stress correction reductions in ply count increased feedstock tolerance and optimisation of part surface finish; and examines the benefits of 100% in-process quality assurance from a production and legal perspective (i.e. insurance crash & repair).

Temperature Control in Manufacturing Self Reinforced Polymers (SRPs): A Smart Way to Keep Cool
David Lowe, September 2013

Self Reinforced Polymer (SRP) composites use a reinforcement and matrix from the same polymer group to make lightweight impact-resistant and easily recyclable products. However the processing requires very tight process control and in some cases an in-tool cycle of cool-hot-cool (so-called isobaric or variotherm processing). To achieve optimum cycle times when heating and cooling tools the European Esprit project used the Regloplas dual-channel heating system which utilizes advanced valve systems pressurised circuits and a novel ‘energy battery’ to mold SRP composite parts.

Progressive Forming of Thermoplastic Laminates
Uday Vaidya, September 2013

Thermoplastic composite laminates can be post-manufactured by progressively thermoforming them to generate contoured parts from prior flat panels. This process is attractive for expanding the potential usage of composite materials in next generation transportation infrastructure marine and military sectors for part replacement and structural applications. Thermoforming has proven to be an efficient means for creating parts of complex geometries. Accurately predicting material properties and temperatures prior to forming is of utmost importance to minimize waste and reduce cost for mass-production applications. This paper presents a finiteelement modeling approach to establish the manufacturing parameters for locally formed thermoplastic composite plates.

Thin Wall and Superior Surface Quality Processing Method of Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic for Cosmetic Applications
José Feigenblum, September 2013

The induction heating capabilities allow high-heat molding of the tool to obtain a resin-rich surface of the final part and avoid forming issues or surface defects while also keeping cycle time and energy consumption at acceptable levels. This presentation will discuss some design rules describing key points such as: steel selection inductive integration thermal expansion H&C performance and energy consumption. Finally examples of tool design and associated cycle time will be shared along with trends for large parts in order to propose an out-of-autoclave process

Process Material & Part Characterization of the Innovative Direct SMC Process
Tobias Potyra, September 2013

For manufacturing of compression moulded parts with long fibre reinforcement and thermoset matrix the Direct Sheet Moulding Compound Process (D-SMC) has been developed. In this process the compound is being inline manufactured and subsequently directly moulded. In that way a consistent compounding process with constant material treatment is achieved with very short processing times of minimum 15 minutes from mixing to molding. A prototype manufacturing D-SMC line has been set up in full industrial scale in conjunction with a 3600 tons press. The process control is fully integrated from raw material dosing over compound manufacturing until compression moulding of parts. In this paper the characteristics of this new and innovative process have been investigated with respect to the achievable material and part properties.

New Molding Process Offers Unique Levels of Design Complexity Mechanical Strength Cost Reduction for Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites
Werner du Toit, September 2013

A new technology has emerged that offers significant advantages vs. traditional molding processes through rapid cycles excellent surface finish and 3D design possibilities in a closed molding process similar to injection molding while producing parts with material properties similar to compression molding by keeping post-mold fibers longer – typically 10 mm / 0.4 in. in very-complex designs and up to 50 mm / 2 in. in simpler structures. This paper summarizes the research and results of a comprehensive 10-year study on the effects and benefits demonstrated by this new molding process through an analysis of its design flexibility material formulation cycle-time reduction strength improvement aesthetic enhancement and weight-saving capabilities.

Aerospace Process Control for Automotive Composites: Defect Prevention Data Collection and Documentation
Scott Blake, September 2013

As the automotive industry makes the transition from metal parts to high-performance composite materials in critical structures it will encounter many of the problems that the aerospace industry has already grappled with and resolved. The systems used in aerospace composites to verify and document acceptable fiber orientation absence of FOD (Foreign Objects or Debris) accurate vacuum and debulk out time and material batch are described. Current development efforts to extend capabilities to automatically address wrinkles and other forms of fiber distortion are also discussed.

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