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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Scaling Down Methodology for Composite Cab Front Prototype Using Resin Transfer Moulding Process
Swati Neogi, September 2013
Most industrial composite parts that are large and complex in geometry are manufactured by the hand layup method. The resin transfer moulding (RTM) process is a better substitute but is not used readily due to the lack of proper manufacturing technology. Development of a proper RTM manufacturing process for a specific application requires a proper mould design. In addition the difficulty in the tooling design and mould fabrication cost increases with size and complexity of the component. The scale down strategy of full scale product avoids bigger size mould requirements prototype production for product testing and quality check at the starting phase of product development. Moreover the scale down strategy can be used to validate the process and the product with less capital input. In this work we propose a methodology to develop a scaled down prototype for a large and complex composite structures based on virtual simulation technique keeping the mold fill time and mold fill pattern unchanged. The methodology has been demonstrated taking a composite cab front that is currently used by the hand layup technique as case study. From the simulations and actual experiments it was found that the injection pressure at the full scale model has to be reduced to the times of reciprocal of square of geometrical mould scale down factor to meet the same mould fill time and mould fill pattern keeping the injection strategy the same.
A Case Study—SMC Consistency: A Data-Based Technique to Quality Improvement
Probir Guha, September 2013
A method to identify root causes of manufacturing quality defects has been developed that allows for the implementation of process and material improvements via a databased analysis system known as “The SMC Consistency Method.” In 2006 a statistical method that ties SMC molding parameters to process and raw material parameters was introduced. The following year an SMC viscosity improvement effort using this method was announced. The current paper presents additional examples that have identified root causes of material and process variations that have resulted in sporadic defects in the molded product. The case study will show how defect data from the molding plant was successfully used to identify key molding compounding and raw material factors. The SMC consistency method utilizes actual production data as opposed to the use of data generated by conducting special DOEs.
Damage and Failure Mechanism Study of Composite Crushtubes during Axial Crush through Progressive Failure Dynamic Analysis
Frank Abdi, September 2013
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is considered to be a good candidate for energy absorption due to its high specific energy absorption (SAE) as the ratio of energy absorbed by the tube mass. However composite damage distribution in the components should be carefully designed to confine damage progression in the load application region and prevent any premature catastrophic failure. This presentation addresses different damage and failure modes triggered in composite crush tubes that have different ply orientation angles. The modeling strategy is validated by experimental quasi-static crush tube experiments and the study contains a comprehensive damage-mode tracking in each ply to identify the effectiveness of the candidates. The correlation between the damage propagation is compared with the overall crash response in terms of crush load vs. crush displacement.
Compatibilizer Additives for Improving the Delamination Resistance of PET/Pa-MXD6 Multilayer Coinjection Stretch Blow Molded Bottles
Kris Akkapeddi, May 2013
The delamination resistance of multilayer PET/ PA-MXD6 coinjection stretch blow molded bottles was found to be significantly improved through the use of small amounts of specific dual-functional compatibilizer additives, blended into the nylon layer during the sequential coinjection molding step. Such modified multilayer PET bottles resist delamination even under stress-concentrated impact testing conditions.
The Effect of Coathanger Die Manifold Symmetry on Layer Uniformity in Multilayer Coextrusion
Joseph Dooley, Hyunwoo Kim, Patrick C. Lee, Robert Wrisley, May 2013
Multilayer coextrusion is a process in which two or more polymers are extruded and joined together in a feedblock or die to form a single structure with multiple layers. This paper will discuss the effect of die manifold channel symmetry of the flow of coextruded structures through coathanger style dies.
Lightweight Fastening Solutions for Thermoplastic Material
Joseph Gobernatz, May 2013
The constant improvement of the suitability of the fastener for light weight design applications is a development focus at EJOT. The DELTA PT® ALU, made of high-strength aluminum, is the answer to the constantly increasing demands on the direct assembly of plastic. The basis for this special fasteners is the proven DELTA PT® screw with the innovative thread geometry. The DELTA PT® ALU can be an alternative for the commonly used steel screws in many applications. Weight saving potentials can be utilized and the easy fastening of the plastic parts is also maintained.
Common Installation Failure Modes for In-Service Plastic Piping Components and Systems
Bryan Hauger, Russ Willacker, Steve Ferry, May 2013
Plastic pipe components are generally constructed into high integrity, high durability systems. However, some poor installation practices occur with sufficient frequency that they have been noted by the authors as recurring in root cause failure analyses. These installation based root causes differ with the application environment and the material of construction. This paper will address poor installation practices for polyethylene, poly vinyl chloride and chlorinated poly vinyl chloride based piping systems.
Innovative Waterborne & UV Resins for Plastics & Automotive Interior Applications
Mouhcine Kanouni, Robert Harrer, Philippe De Groote, Anton Arzt, Marcus Hutchins, May 2013
Innovative Waterborne & UV Resins for Plastics & Automotive Interior Applications
Wetting Measurements for Rapid Qualification of Surface Preparation Processes
Giles Dillingham, May 2013
Surface treatments of metals and polymers are frequently necessary to control properties such as adhesion of paints and sealants. Because surface properties are determined by only the uppermost few molecular layers, measuring these properties in manufacturing environments can be challenging. Water contact angles can be obtained very rapidly and conveniently and provide sensitive, quantitative feedback of surface properties important for adhesion.
Ensure Safe Operation of the GRP Lining Between Overhaul Period
Valeriy G. Makarov, Rakhil Sinelnikova, May 2013
Application of the electrical resistant and diffusion laws is effective way of the estimation of the ensure safe operation of the GRPL between overhaul periods and increase reliability of the technological equipment of concrete, steel or high filler plastic.
Determination of Thermal Conductivity for Industrial Applications
Maximilian Bader, Dirk Schmiederer, Ilonka Maier, Carsten Tuechert, May 2013
The thermal conductivity of various thermally conductive thermoplastics commercially available was determined experimentally and is compared with da-tasheet values. It was found that in most cases the thermal conductivities in-plane and through-plane deviate substantially from the manufacturers' values. The rea-sons as different measurement methods, part geometry and specimen preparation are discussed in detail in this paper. Finally the use of standardized methods is recommended.
Thermal and Morphological Behavior of PLA/PBS/CSW Blends Processed by Vane Extruder
Rongyuan Chen, Jinping Qu, Chengran Wu, Shikui Jia, Zan Huang, Zhitao Yang, May 2013
This work focused on the study of thermal and morphological behavior of degradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and Calcium Sulfate Whiskers (CSW) blends processed by Vane extruder, which is a novel equipment for polymer processing. Different from the shear force field of traditional Screw extruder, the blends produced in elongation force field of Vane extruder were investigated through analytical techniques correlated to their morphology and thermal properties.
Novel Poly (Lactic Acid) Based Emulsion
Naoko Oda, Hideki Tanaka, May 2013
ANTEC 2013 Technical Paper - Biodegradable and biomass base polymers are gaining attention from the view of environmental concern. In this report, novel poly (lactic acid) based multibranched polymers self-emulsified in 100 % water are described.
Comparison between Non-Isothermal Growth Rates of Nodular and Spherulitic Structures of Isotactic Polypropylene
Yousef A. Mubarak, May 2013
Non-isothermal crystallization growth rates of isotactic Polypropylene were determined by Polarized Light Microscopy. For molten isotactic Polypropylene with temperatures <195°C and above its melting temperature, nodules and spherulites morphological formations were obtained from a melt crystallized non-isothermally at different cooling rates. The results show non-linear growth rates for both morphological formations while the spherulite growth rate is higher than the nodule.
Analysis of Organic Colorants in Plastics
Constantinos Nicolaou, May 2013
The use of analytical techniques for analyzing organic colorants in plastics is described. These include spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as mass spectrometry(MS), visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), FTIR, and high performance or ultra performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, UPLC).
Flex Barrier Property Enhancement in Film Structures Using Microlayer Coextrusion Technology
Patrick C. Lee, Joseph Dooley, Jeff Robacki, Steve Jenkins, Robert Wrisley, May 2013
Microlayer coextrusion is a process in which two or more polymers are extruded and joined together in a feedblock or die to form a single structure with multiple layers. This paper describes a multilayer coextrusion process technology to maintain the gas barrier property of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH) barrier films after flexing.
Integrated Process Monitoring and Process Control of Injection Molding Machines and Molds
Stefan Kruppa, Reihard Schiffers, Martin Würtele, Georg P. Holzinger, May 2013
The injection molding process is often exposed to a wide variety of influences that lead to variations in the required product quality. Today there are separate control loops for the machine and the mold. Each system is operated standalone" which leads for example to higher mold and melt temperatures and longer cycle times. The approach is to couple the control of the injection unit with the temperature control of the mold to gain energy efficiency in the overall process."
2PC-Recu-Module for Energy Recovery at Hydraulic Driven Injection Molding Machines
Marco Lenzen, Andreas Unger, Johannes Wortberg, May 2013
In contrast to electrically driven injection molding machines, for hydraulically driven machines energy recovery during the breaking process of the single axis is not state of the art. Particularly in these cases there is the highest capability for energy recuperation. For this reason a new hydraulic drive module has been developed, which is able to recover the kinetic energy of the clamping unit. In this paper the results of the model based investigations are shown.
Blow molding of solid silicone rubber
Christian Hopmann, Anna Funk, May 2013
Complex hollow parts made of thermoplastics are often produced in the extrusion blow molding process. This cost-efficient production technique with a high reproducibility, a high degree of automation and short cycle times has not been adapted for rubber processing until now. At the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) preliminary investigations show the potential for processing solid silicone rubber in blow molding. The blow moldability of solid silicone rubber is analysed thoroughly and a prototype blow molding machine will be built to examine the processing behavior of the adapted material.
Development of a Foaming Technology to Produce Polyurethane Molded Foam Parts Using Co2 as Blowing Agent
Christian Hopmann, Simon Latz, May 2013
The existing technologies to foam polyurethane (PU) in a discontinuous molding process show all several disadvantages regarding to the achievable foam properties. At the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) a physical foaming process has been developed that allows to foam PU molded parts using CO2 as a blowing agent. Two different methods which enable a controlled dissolving process of CO2 out of the reaction mixture and con?sequently a homogenous cell structure have been investigated.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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