SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Multi-Scale Modeling of Creep of Reinforced Plastics Parts with DIGIMAT
Laurent Adam, September 2013

This paper deals with the prediction of the overall behavior of polymer matrix composites and structures based on mean-field homogenization. We present the basis of the mean-field homogenization formulation and illustrate the method through the analysis of the creep properties of fiber-reinforced structures. The present formulation is part of the DIGIMAT software and its interface to FEA packages enabling multi-scale FE analysis of these composite structures.

Class A Surface Finishing of Composites via Powder in-Mold Coatings
Thomas Schmidt, September 2013

PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition

Injection Molding Fiber Orientation Property Predictions & Failure Analysis
Robert Sherman, September 2013

PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition

DIGIMAT for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites
Roger Assaker, September 2013

PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition

New SMC Application for Automotive Seat
Mahmut Bingöl, September 2013

Thermoset-based sheet-molding compound (SMC) with an unsaturated polyester matrix was used to develop a new glass-fiber reinforced material. Specimens were cut from newly molded SMC plates and subjected to 3-point flexure and tensile tests. FEM models of an SMC seat-connection element have been generated and analyzed. then compared with physical testing results.

Multi-Scale Modeling of Fatigue of Fiber Reinforced Plastics with DIGIMAT
Michael Parrott, September 2013

PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition

Understanding of Aerospace Composite Design Principles for Structural Fittings
Richard Schaake, September 2013

CFRP technology is currently being extended to structural fittings and future use of the technology for automotive applications is under investigation. The design and production of such products is typically a manual process. The result of one such design method for 3D parts has been analyzed using analytical models to understand the role of resin and fiber in these designs paving the way for the use of materials more suitable for mass production than the well established epoxy 914/T300 composite. It was concluded that the design principle investigated is effective in maximizing tension in fibers and compression in the resin while minimizing shear in parts that are subject to out-of-plane loads. Good agreement with bending and shear tests was found.

Biocomposites Based on Regenerated Cellulose Fiber & Bio Matrix
Sunil Kumar Ramamoorthy, September 2013

Wood pulp-based regenerated cellulose fibers like Lyocell and viscose which are from natural origin have high and even quality and can be used to develop superior composites with good properties. In this project Lyocell and viscose fibers were used as reinforcements ina chemically modified soybean-based bio-matrix of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and formed by the compression-molding technique. Mechanical properties of the resulting composites were characterized by tensile flexural and impact tests dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was used to evaluate viscoelastic performance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to provide morphological analysis. In general Lyocell composites had better tensile and flexural properties and better elastic and viscous response than viscose-based composites. Hybrid composites also were formed by fiber blending and these showed better impact strength. The results show the good potential of these composites to be used in automotives and construction industries.

More Sustainable Non-Woven Fabric Composites for Automotive Using Coir (Coconut) Fibers
Walter Bradley, September 2013

More environmentally friendly composite materials for automotive manufacturing and building construction have been made by substituting coir fibers for the widely used polyester fibers to make non-woven fabric composites of coir fibers and recycled polypropylene fibers that can be compression molded into a wide range of parts or rolled into flat panels. This more environmentally friendly composite has a greater bending stiffness is more resistant to fire less expensive and without the odor problems that accompany many natural fibers.

Design of Thermoplastic CF Composites for Low Pressure Molding
Takeshi Ishikawa, September 2013

The design of a thermoplastic carbon fiber composite which induces high moldability is presented. The composite design of controlled carbon fiber length and its orientation is established by the regularly laminated prepreg sheet which has well designed with a slit pattern. Since the flowability of composite is improved by the slit pattern — not only in the in-plane direction but also in the lamination direction — the process requires relatively low pressure even if a large amount of fiber is contained. The material can be formed by compression molding and several kinds of thermoforming processes. The short cycle time of this thermoplastic composite process is an advantage for high-volume production of vehicular parts. Structural performance can also be controlled in a similar manner via flow design. This allows for tailoring and balancing of composite weight flowability and mechanical performance.

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Waste: An Environmental Assessment of Recycling Energy Recovery & Landfilling
Jan-Anders Månson, September 2013

The environmental benefits of recycling carbon fiber- reinforced plastic (CFRP) waste are assessed against other end-of-life (EOL) treatments. Recycling via pyrolysis incineration with energy recovery and disposal via landfilling are compared. To account for physical changes to materials from use and recycling equivalence between recycled and virgin materials is calculated based on the ability to produce a short-fiber composite beam of equivalent stiffness. Secondary effects of using cecycled carbon fiber (RCF) in a hypothetical automotive application are also analyzed. Results underline the ecological constraints towards recycling CFRPs and demonstrate that benefits from recycling are strongly linked to the impacts of the selected recovery process the materials replaced by RCF in a secondary application and also to the type of secondary application in which they are used.

What’s the Difference: Thermoset vs. Thermoplastic Carbon Fiber Composites?
Allan James, September 2013

The challenge of improved fuel economy or lower CO2 emissions is unrelenting. The transportation industry is seeking ways to lower the mass of their vehicles realizing lower weights can result in the reduction of the size and hence mass of other components. Two classes of materials are vying for applications on the automobile: thermoset and thermoplastic carbon fiber-reinforced composites. This presentation explores the fundamental differences between thermoplastics and thermosets and evaluates the resultant effect when implemented on an application on a vehicle

Compaction Behaviour and Permeability of Cellulosic Fibre for RTM Applications
Damien Maillard, September 2013

With the current driving force to use more sustainable and/or recyclable materials the automotive market is considering cellulosic fibres and biocomposites with a growing interest. However for those fibres to be used efficiently in thermoset liquid processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) reinforcement compaction response and permeability must be well-known as they govern resin flow injection time and void formation and therefore are key to success. In this presentation the compaction response and permeability of flax and hemp mats were investigated and compared to traditional glass fibers.

Direct Long Biofibre Thermoplastic Composites for Automotive Aerospace & Transportation Industries
Victor Bravo, September 2013

Natural fibres such as flax hemp jute and wood are increasingly being used in various industries as reinforcing materials for composites to reduce weight cost and environmental impact. These fibres can have the added benefit of producing equal or higher stiffness-to- weight ratios than glass fibres. However processing natural fibres presents a number of challenges some of which are common to other types of fibres such as the ability to de-bundle mix and uniformly distribute them throughout the entire volume of a composite part. One particular challenge for natural fibres is the processing temperature limitations determined by their propensity to thermally degrade after long exposure times. This paper deals with the challenges of using biofibres as rein forcing materials for hermoplastic resins. The research work involves the use of short flax fibres in a continuous compounding process and flax fibres in the form of rovings and slivers in a Direct-Long Fibre Thermoplastic (D-LFT) process. The materials were compounded and moulded to produce parts for characterization. Polypropylene (PP) was used as polymer matrix because of its proven performance in automotive applications. Flax fibres were chosen given their combination of good mechanical properties availability and relative low cost compared to other bast fibres. Different formulations using heat stabilizers antioxidants and coupling agents were implemented with the objectives of preventing material degradation and improving bonding between the fibres and the thermoplastic material. Formulations with PP and 20% wt. discontinuous fibres showed an increment of up to 30% in tensile strength and 50% in tensile modulus when compared with virgin PP. Experiments using commercial flax rovings and slivers (continuous fibres) in conjunction with glass fibres (i.e. hybridizing of fibres) on an industrial large scale D-LFT line showed the viability of the processing technique for the manufacturing of hybrid reinforced the

Eco-Friendly Acrylic Copolymers Offering Clean Manufacturing Reduced VOC Emissions Excellent Performance
Gero Nordmann, September 2013

A new (to North America) family of cross-linkable acrylic-copolymer binder resins is providing unique new opportunities for the production of durable eco-friendly composites with comparable or improved performance vs. common thermoplastic and thermoset offerings in a variety of industries. Already used in Europe for automotive interior components cork flooring and various nonwoven fabrics the technology is thermoplastic in its “B-stage” and of very-low viscosity allowing for easy impregnation of a wide variety of fibrous and particulate reinforcements. This in turn may be used to produce either nonwoven fabrics or thermoplastic prepregs or semi-finished goods which subsequently are cured to form very-durable thermoset composites with excellent thermomechanical and physical properties. Unlike most thermosets these polymers neither contain any hydrocarbon solvents or other volatile-organic compounds (VOCs) nor produce toxic emissions during cross-linking so no special airhandling equipment is required during processing. In fact the only reaction by-product is water. This presentation will provide an overview of the technology and how it is typically used. 15 2010 A b s tract s of Spea k er P re s entation s

Lightweight Bio-Composites with Acrodur® Resin Technology
Henning Karbstein, September 2013

The technical performance and sustainability value of natural fiber/thermoset acrylic composites has been demonstrated over the past few years. Recent development updates and further value-chain improvements in North America support further cost efficiency towards economical competitiveness. Local North American sources of natural fibers disconnected from Asian sources are now being established and offer greater reliability and affordability for the industry. New inline processing equipment to coat and dry nonwoven natural fiber or glass mat also has entered the market allowing for improved energy-efficiency and small production footprint plus higher quality process stability as well as other opportunities. The combination of these advances enables sustainable bio-composites that offer tremendous lightweight potential at competitive costs today.

Lightweight Sustainable Substrate Materials for Automotive Interiors
Matt Barr, September 2013

This presentation provides a global overview of natural fiber composite materials and processes highlighting current research as well as the next generation of lightweight automotive interior substrates. It discusses both pros and cons of various lightweight sustainable substrate materials (including the wide family of resinmatrixed composites with an assortment of fibrous additives ranging from wood to flax) taking into account material suitability for automotive interior substrate applications. The goal of this talk is to encourage discussion of uses and benefits of natural wood composites to reduce weight and increase product sustainability.

High Performance Moldable Bamboo Fiber-Epoxy Composites
Senat Mohanty, September 2013

Auto-rickshaws or motorized tricycle passenger taxis are a common form of transportation in India. These vehicles are often used at loads beyond specifications and under difficult road conditions. Part failures negatively affect earnings of the operators who play at the bottom of the economic pyramid. Use of bamboo fiber–epoxy composites has been nvestigated in these applications. The composites typically contain 30-40 wt-% fibers although loadings to 60 wt-% fiber can be used and fillers such as carbon black and fly ash can also be added. The composites exhibit tensile strengths of 140 MPa flexural strengths of 160 MPa and notched Charpy Impact strengths of 60 kJ/m2. These composites were subsequently molded into auto body parts (dashboarddoors and panels) and are under investigation with an auto-rickshaw manufacturer. Additionally helmets made with these composites were taken through drop tests similar to Snell Memorial Foundation Test Standards (ISO 17025 and American Association for Laboratory Accreditation A2LA). Bamboo-fiber composites positively impact the socio-economic health of the local community since bamboo is a renewable source it need not be chemically processed it reduces the petrochemical component of the composite and is known to help in waste-land reclamation and for combating soil erosion.

Toughening PLA Composites with Natural Fibers and ENR
Abdul Shakoor, September 2013

Biocomposites are recent advancements used to develop cost-effective sustainable materials for numerous applications in response to the mounting needs to find substitutes for polymers based on fossil fuels. Polylactic acid (PLA) is an aliphatic and is the most promising in the bioplastics’ family although its use can be constrained by its poor mechanical properties lower thermal stability and processing difficulties. The objective of this research was to investigate and improve mechanical and thermal properties of PLA by developing PLA composites reinforced with hemp natural fibres results of which are discussed in this presentation.

Protein Polymer with Cellulosic Filler Compatible in Various Thermoplastic and Thermoset Systems
Tim Bearnes, Raymond Schenk, September 2013

Distillers grain a by-product of the ethanol process has been used to produce thermoset and thermoplastic polymers that can replace a portion of and/or enhance traditional petroleum-based resins in various plastics manufacturing processes. The process results in unique characteristics and allows inclusions into finished plastics products at rates of up to 40% final bio content. The pellets produced are consistent with the standard feedstock materials used by plastic manufacturers in thermoplastics and currently are being tested with polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) and the bio-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polylactic acid (PLA) resins in some applications. Trials are underway in injection molding rotary molding and extrusion molding. Test results have indicated improvements in some properties of finished goods with good processing characteristics when run at temperatures below 193C. Further testing in thermoset bulk-molding compound (BMC) has resulted in lower specific gravity while retaining physical properties and good surface finish.

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