SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Cavity-Integrated Injection Molded Accoustic Foams
Davoud Jahani, Peter U. Jung, Amir Ameli, Amir Ameli, Chul B. Park, Hani Naguib, May 2013
An injection molding machine enhanced with gas counter-pressure was used to produce cavity integrated acoustic foams using mold opening technique. The cell morphology of the produced foams in different mold opening lengths was studied. An automated perforating system was developed to perforate acoustic foams. Acoustic behavior of the produced foams with and without perforation was studied.
Reliability of Weld Join Under Fatigue Conditions
Haiying Zhang, Zhenwen Zhou, May 2013
This paper focuses on reliability of glass-reinforced polyamide (PA) vibration welded joints with respect to fatigue. It presents a statistical extension of the thermodynamic model of lifetime under creep into reliability model under creep and fatigue. The paper also presents in detail a method of obtaining Weibull distribution parameters employed in the model. The proposed reliability analysis can be easily implemented for weld joint design.
Processing and Characterization of High Speed Extruder for Nanocomposite Formulations
Jacob J. Boone, Gregory Pigeon, Christopher Thellen, Jo Ann Ratto, Robert Whitehouse, May 2013
Ethylene Co-Vinyl-Alcohol (EVOH) blends were compounded on a high speed extruder, with kaolinite loading levels at 0, 3.0, and 7.5%. Extruded samples were processed with varying screw speeds (0 to 3000rpm) and feeder rates, and then characterized for dispersion, thermal, and mechanical properties.
Modeling polyurethane foam flow in a mold with constricted vents
Krishnamurthy Jayaraman, Christopher J. Hershey, James T. McEvoy, May 2013
A computational flow model has been developed that accounts for the volume expansion and viscosity behavior of thermosetting polyurethane foam with water as the blowing agent in pour molding of polyurethane foam. This model was then used to investigate the effects of (a) varying pour distribution and (b) restricted air flow through vents on the merging of expanding flow fronts and air pocket formation in a vented rectangular mold cavity with a rigid rectangular insert.
Basic Day-Night Laser Ablation
Jacob Wieloch, May 2013
Lasers have been used for over 10 years to ablate paint layers in day-night applications. Over this time, there has been a lot of confusion over how laser systems are set up to perform this application. This paper will address different variables that effect how lasers interact with paint and why each variable is important to the process.
Study on the Effect of Material Elasticity on Acoustic Performance and Rheological Properties of Bio-Based PLA and PHA Blend Foams
Shahrzad Ghaffari Mosanenzadeh, Hani Naguib, Chul Park, Noureddine Atalla, May 2013
In this study, open cell foams were fabricated from blends of bio-based polymers to be used as sound absorbers. Different blends of Polylactide (PLA) with two grades of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) where foamed and characterized based on acoustic and mechanical performance. Rheological properties of pure polymers as well as their blends were studied to investigate the effect of material elasticity on the acoustic absorption of the resulting foams.
Lead-Free, Low Smoke Zero Halogen LV Power Cable Jacket
Jason Zhang, May 2013
A new lead-free, low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) low voltage power cable jacket compound was developed based on customer requirements. This jacket was formulated based mainly on an ethylene co-polymer matrix with magnesium hydroxide and other inert inorganic fillers to improve and optimize overall performance. The new jacket shows enhanced dielectric and flame retardant performance with much lower smoke release while maintaining comparable mechanical properties to previous (lead-containing) formulations.
Characterization of CNT Orientation and Diameter Distribution in CNT/Polymer Composites by Image Analysis
Md A. Bhuiyan, Raghuram V. Pucha, Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, May 2013
The focus of this research is to determine the distribution function of CNT characteristics such as orientation and diameter of CNT within the polymer matrix and investigate how these characteristics affect the tensile modulus of the CNT/ polypropylene (PP) composites. An image analysis approach combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a selective etching technique allows for extraction of 3D information that is used as input in a finite element model.
Morphological Characterization of Poly(Ether Ether Ketone)
Lin Jin, Jerry Ball, Tim Bremner, Sue Hung-Jue, May 2013
The crystal structure of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) has been investigated by thermal and morphological characterizations. Spherulites and lamellar structures are revealed by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. A refined crystalline model is proposed to describe lamellae formation in PEEK.
Optimizing Marketing Resource Allocation Through Web Analytics
Jean-Paul Tres, May 2013
This technical paper strives to provide a high-level overview of the underpinnings and application of web tracking technology. From there, we will explore the market for this product space and outline a roadmap for successful adoption of analytics tracking in an organization. This approach can help plastics companies of any size effectively inform priorities ranging from customer relationship management to branding. The central thesis of this paper is that effective data-driven marketing depends on building a corporate culture that “competes on analytics”.
Oxidation Resistance of Polypropylene Random Copolymer Pipe to Chlorinated Water
Donald Duvall, May 2013
Polyolefin pipe is known to be susceptible to oxidative degradation when used in potable water applications. Antioxidants in the polymer are washed away and/or consumed during use, leaving the pipe material susceptible to oxidative degradation. This study presents the results of testing of the resistance of random copolymer polypropylene pipe to chlorinated water and the failure mechanisms observed in the tests.
New High Flow Impact Resistant White & Jet-Black Colorable Polyetherimide-Polycarbonate Blends
Aditya Narayanan, Feng Cao, May 2013
A new class of polyetherimide (PEI) and polycarbonate (PC) blends has been developed. The approach was to create immiscible PEI-PC blends that were designed to have good compatibility thus providing high flow, enhanced impact strength and good weathering performance. Further, owing to the unique immiscible yet compatible blend technology, we present new PEI-PC blends that can be colored to bright white colors.
A Multi-Scale Study Evaluating the Properties of Carbon Micro and Nano Fillers
Anne Lederer, Graeme Fukuda, Bunty Bhatia, Harry Brown, David I. Bigio, May 2013
Microscale and nanoscale fillers are used to create multi-scale polymer composites with enhanced physical properties. An investigation of processing effects on microstructural evolution of the extruded composites, and the associated thermal and mechanical properties as performed. This data can then be used to develop fundamental processing-structure-property models of these multi-scale composites across different concentrations of microscale and nanoscale ingredients.
Liquid Crystal Polymer Films for Use in Food Packaging Applications
Gregory Pigeon, Jo Ann Ratto, May 2013
Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCPs) melt processing remains a challenge. Blown and cast films were processed byextrusion with a counter rotating mandrel die. The die rotation varied from 0 to 30 rpm with the oxygen and water barrier properties being influenced by rotation. Oxygen barrier values as low as 0.057 cc/m2- day was obtained and meets the military specification for oxygen barrier. Thermal, rheological, and mechanical testing were also performed to fully characterize the films.
In-Situ Polymerization of Graphene-Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites
Brian Cromer, Edward B. Coughlin, Alan J. Lesser, May 2013
Isotactic Polyproyplene-Exfoliated Graphene Nanoplatelet (iPP-xGnP?) nanocomposites were prepared through an in-situ polymerization technique. Single site metallocene catalysts polymerized propylene within a dispersion of xGnP nanoparticles. The nanocomposites showed increased crystallization and melting temperatures, along with increased elastic moduli. The 1.3 wt% composite showed an increase in ductility over the neat polymer.
A Mechanism for Solid Bed Breakup in Single-Screw Extruders
Gregory Campbell, Mark Spalding, May 2013
Solid bed breakup in plasticating single-screw extruders can lead to defects in the downstream product, reduced rates, and process instabilities. The literature generally attributes this breakup to pressure gradients emanating from the beginning of the metering section of the screw although little evidence is available. In this paper a new mechanism is proposed that was developed as a result of the physics of the melting mechanism and fluid flows associated with screw rotation physics.
Evaluation of Planar and Uniaxial Extensional Viscosities for Linear and Branched Polyolefins
Martin Zatloukal, May 2013
In this work, planar and uniaxial extensional viscosities for linear and branched polyolefins has been determined through entrance pressure drop technique on conventional twin bore capillary rheometr by using novel circular and rectangle orifice dies and the capability of two different constitutive equations to describe the measured experimental data has been tested.
Simulation of Distributive Mixing in a ZSK-90 Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder
Mahesh Gupta, Ye Yi, Ralf Kuehn, May 2013
Mesh partitioning technique is used for three-dimensional simulation of the flow for 36 different screw orientations in a ZSK 90 co-rotating twin-screw extruder from Coperion. The predicted velocity distribution is used to trace the pathlines for 2034 particles flowing through the extruder. The pathlines are used to determine the spatial distribution of initially segregated particles, which is then used to estimate the Shanon entropy as a measure of the quality of mixing in the extruder.
Sustainability and Plastic Technology
Maggie Baumann, Bonnie Bachman, Shristy Bashyal, May 2013
Sustainability principles are becoming associated with best practices. This paper will cover results of a 2011 survey and implications for Sustainability in the plastics industry. We will also present a few examples from the Plastics Industry that illustrate the principles of sustainability in practice.
Effect of process parameters on properties of devulcanized rubber obtained from a supercritical CO2 assisted devulcanization process
Mohammad Meysami, Prashant Mutyala, Shuihan Zhu, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2013
Continuous devulcanization of tire rubber crumb was performed using supercritical CO2 in an industrial scale twin screw extruder. A reasonably high throughput extrusion process has been developed and the effect of processing conditions has been studied. Using a fractional factorial design in three levels, the effects of process temperature, screw speed, and feed rate on the sol and gel fractions and degree of devulcanization of devulcanized rubber have been investigated.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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