The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF GFRP AT HOT WATER
This study was conducted to understand the degradation mechanisms of GFRP at hot water. Surface and cross section of immersed in hot water samples were observed in detail, and weight change rate and bending strength were researched. The samples were also conducted ultrasonic wave inspection to understand degradation nondestructively. Then, the ultrasonic echo parameter V value was used, and it was understood that V value could show generation or growth of debondings or delaminations.
ALKYD RESIN COATING SYNTHESIZED FROM POST-CONSUMER PET BOTTLES FOR WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITE
Three formulas of alkyd resins were prepared from phthalic anhydride, glycerol, linseed oil, and ethylene glycol or glycolysis product from post-consumer PET bottles. Linseed oil content of 50 wt% was selected aiming to be suitable for WPC. Surface chemistry was studied by contact angle. Coating properties such as drying time, hardness and adhesion strength were studied. It is found that alkyd resin film from glycolysis-product alkyd resins had better than those of conventional alkyd resins.
IMPROVED SCRATCH AND CHEMICAL RESISTANCE ACRYLIC FOR AUTOMOTIVE MOLD-IN-COLOR APPLICATIONS
This paper explores the performance of a grade of Mold-In-Color PMMA used for automotive applications. The focus is improvement vs. traditional PMMA and coating technologies during various scratch and mar abrasion evaluations. Information on solvent stress craze resistance is also reviewed. Various scratch and mar evaluation methods used during this investigation are compared.
ENTREPRENUERSHIP, INNOVATION, AND MANAGEMENT
Innovation is one of the most misused and poorly defined terms when discussing economic growth and development. It’s a buzzword used by politicians with hopes that by just saying it will somehow magically break free us from the mire of the current global economic downturn. There’s no mystery to innovation and at the surface it is rather simple. Innovation simply stated is people implementing ideas to create value. It is easy to understand yet vastly more challenging to do well.
THE DESIGN OF A PROTOTYPE VACUUM THERMOFORMING MACHINE
A prototype of a vacuum thermoforming machine was designed and built at the Metal Industries Company Limited and was commissioned in December 2009. The need for the capability of plastics thermoforming at the Metal Industries Company Limited is described together with the basis for the thermoforming machine design.
IMPROVED GLASS-FILLED HIGH PERFORMANCE THERMOPLASTIC POLYIMIDE COMPOSITES
High performance polymers such as thermoplastic polyimide (TPI), polyetherimide (PEI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) can be reinforced with glass fillers to improve performance. Novel reinforcing strategies, namely the use of new polyimide (PI) sized glass fibers to significantly improve thermal stability, and use of high strength glass fibers (e.g. S-glass) to enhance mechanical properties of the composite have been developed. Performance to commercially available glass-filler with proprietary sizing chemistry, and conventional E-glass based composite is compared respectively.
EFFECT OF RECYCLE ON PROPERTIES SABIC
It is well known that there can be significant sacrifices in properties of recycle containing products. Properties such as color, impact, consistency, and long term aged properties, are commonly reduced in recycled products. We will discuss reasons for loss in properties; showing how these can be modeled with Monte Carlo simulations. Examples will be given to illustrate these property loss effects in polycarbonate, polyester, and in polymer blend products. It will be shown how recycle content products can be designed to have acceptable property profiles.
2 UM FIBER LASERS FOR WELDING OF OPTICALLY CLEAR POLYMERS
ANTEC 2012 Technical Paper - The applications of lasers for welding polymers in industry are slowly increasing but the main problem to date is that joints may only be welded by the transmission welding technique and this significantly reduces design flexibility.
IMPROVING QUALITY AND REDUCING COSTS BY STATE-OF-THE-ART COLOR AND APPEARANCE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
As consumers in mature and growing geographical markets become more sophisticated and discriminating, the color and appearance of products such as home appliances, consumer electronics, or vehicle interiors has become a dominant criterion in consumers’ buying decisions. This fundamental trend requires that not only functional design, but that color, appearance, and finish differentiate successful products’ brand identities and quality from their competitors.
HYDROCARBON FUEL OBTAIN FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS USING STAINLESS STEEL REACTOR
Waste plastics usages are increasing all over the world every day. People are consuming plastics in their daily life for all necessary purposes. After they are used all plastic become garbage and its goes to land fill or incineration facilities. It’s creating environmental problem. Waste plastic can be transform into alternate or renewable energy for electricity or feedstock refinery. The thermal degradation process applied with mixture waste plastics of high density polyethylene (HDPE-2), low density polyethylene (LDPE-4), Polypropylene (PP-5) and Polystyrene (PS-6) using stainless steel reactor has been successful in converting into liquid fuel. The polymer has been selected for the experiment 100% HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS by weight. The temperature used for degradation ranges from 150-400 °C and the experiment takes about was 5 -6 hours. The obtain products are liquid fuel, light gas and black carbon residue. Various techniques such as, (Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer, FT-IR and DSC) are used for obtain the analysis of the fuel purposed. GC/MS result indicates hydrocarbon compound in the produced fuel ranges from C3-C28 and also present C1-C4 light gases. Also further fractional distillation process was used to obtain different 5 (Gasoline, Naphtha, Aviation, Diesel and Fuel Oil) category liquid fuel by using different temperature profiles. All of the fraction fuels have different carbon range and contain long chain hydrocarbon like alkane and alkene and some aromatic compound.
SIMULTANEOUS MILLING, COATING AND COAT-CURING OF PARTICULATES IN A FLUID ENERGY MILL VIA PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION
In conjunction with UV technology, a fluid energy mill (FEM) was demonstrated to simultaneously and in-situ achieve several functions, namely: size reduction of pre-coated coarse micron-sized particles with UV-curable chemicals into smaller (ca. 1~10?m) particles, coating of UV chemicals onto the milled particles, and curing of the UV chemicals. IR analysis showed that the double bond conversion was up to 71% and 93% using air and nitrogen as motive gas, respectively.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE/MICRONIZED RUBBER POWDER COMPOSITES
This investigation focuses on understanding the effects of particle size and surface area of cryogenically- ground micronized rubber powders (MRP) on the properties of MRP/polypropylene (PP) composites. Comparisons are made with ambient-ground rubber powders and its PP composites. The morphology of the fracture surfaces of the composites is studied in relation to the effects of particle size on mechanical properties. In addition, this paper discusses utilizing a compatibilizer with MRP in improving the mechanical performance of the PP composites for its use in various market segments, such as automotive, consumer and, construction.
PROCESSING-STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH NEAT POLYPROPYLENE
Solid-state shear pulverization is a unique, emerging processing technique for mechanochemical modification of polymers, compatibilization of polymer blends, and exfoliation and dispersion of fillers in polymer composites. The instrumentation is a modified twin-screw extruder, where the barrels are continuously cooled below the transition temperatures of polymers. Using a model system of neat polypropylene, the effects of various processing parameters, such as barrel dimensions and temperature, screw design, and material feed rate, are correlated to output morphology, structure and properties.
GENERATION OF AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO DESCRIBE THE EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION OF DRAG RATIO FOR A TWO PHASE HORIZONTAL PIPE FLOW OF NON-NEWTONIAN LIQUID (CARBOPOL)/AIR MIXTURE
The prediction of the pressure drop gradient and the evaluation of the drag reduction phenomenon observed during the piping multiphase flow of a Carbopol/Air mixture have been investigated. Viscous flow tests in rotational rheometers and pressure drop measurements in pipe lines have been carried out with both smooth and rough surfaces. The Power law model is used to predict the pressure drop gradient. The pressure drop gradient in the intermittent multiphase flow regimes can be predicted by modifying the classical approach of Lockhart and Martinelli with an empirical correction factor. An Empirical model with quadratic equation has been proposed to describe the experimental evolution of drag ratio as a function of Re'L / Re'TP.
CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRONIZED RUBBER POWDERS WITH COST EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS
Micronized Rubber Powder (MRP) is classified as dry, powdered elastomer in which a significant proportion of particles are less than 100 microns. It is used as a compound extender to offset the spiraling prices of natural and synthetic virgin rubber materials. MRP is typically made from cured elastomer feedstock via a cryogenic process at a temperature below the Tg of the polymer. A better understanding of MRP surface properties is needed to facilitate efforts to utilize the material as a high value, sustainable material for use in various industrial and consumer rubber products. An update on MRP characterization is presented, including surface morphology by SEM, surface chemistry by XPS, surface area by Kr BET, and particle size distribution by laser diffraction. An example is given that demonstrates how the surface chemistry can be used to explain the effect of MRP on cure and physical properties in rubber compounds.
MULTIFUNCTIONAL COMPOUNDS USING CARBON NANOSTRUCTURE ENHANCED GLASS REINFORCEMENTS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY APPLICATIONS
A new class of thermoplastic reinforcements was recently developed using technology whereby carbon nanostructures (CNS) are grown on the surface of glass fibers. This hybrid reinforcement results in specialized, multifunctional thermoplastic compounds that exhibit 60 dB of electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. This paper will discuss the recent research that has been conducted in incorporating the carbon nanostructure/glass fiber hybrid into polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) and polyamide-6,6 (PA-6,6) and give a highlight of the material properties of the resulting compounds.
AN OVERVIEW OF SIZING CHEMISTRY AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN COMPOSITE PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES
Sizing is applied to carbon and glass fiber during manufacturing to protect the fiber during and after production, impart processability, enable composite fabrication and provide interfacial adhesion between the fiber and matrix resin. If the sizing’s only function was to improve processability then it would be possible for one sizing to “fit all”, however interfacial adhesion is critical and for every matrix resin a different sizing chemistry is required. This presentation will provide an overview of sizing chemistries available and examples of their impact on processing and mechanical properties.
COMPARISON OF MASS TRANSIT MATERIAL FLAMMABILITY REQUIREMENTS AND TRENDS FOR AIRCRAFT AND TRAIN APPLICATIONS IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
Establishing meaningful and reliable flame, smoke and toxicity (FST) requirements for aircraft and train components made from engineering thermoplastics is an ever-evolving task for the mass transit authorities throughout the globe. This paper attempts to clarify the current state of the US and EU regulations, the associated test methods and typical FST performance of the polymeric materials used today in the mass transit markets. Pending improvements to current FST requirements by the US FAA and the EU EASA regulating bodies, including provisions for heat release and smoke density, are also discussed.
RHEOLOGY AND MELT FRACTURE OF BIODEGRADABLE POLY (?-CAPROLACTONE) POLYESTERS
The viscoelastic behaviour of a number of commercial and newly synthesized linear biodegradable polyesters - poly (?-caprolactone) (PCLs) with different molecular characteristics was investigated using both rotational and capillary rheometry. The variation of the zero-shear viscosity and relaxation spectrum with molecular weight was studied in detail. The PCL processing instabilities were studied by capillary extrusion using a number of capillary dies having various diameter and length-to- diameter ratios. Sharkskin and gross melt fracture was observed at different shear rates depending on the molecular characteristics of the resins and the geometrical details of the capillary dies.
UNDERSTANDING THE IMAPCT OF PIGMENT LOADING LEVEL ON INJECTION MOLDED COMPONENTS
Pigment loading level is one of the most critical factors, governing the properties of the injection molded components. Changing the ratio of the pigment (Colorant) to the base resin could result in failure of the molded component. Material characterization such as Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) can be conducted to determine the pigment loading level and correlate the failure with functional characteristics of the molded component. Higher concentration of the pigment results in loosing mechanical property of the plastic and thus resulting failure during end use of the product.
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