The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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SIMULATING THE PARISON GEOMETRY IN EXTRUSION BLOW MOLDING WITH VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MODELS
In this study the molding step in extrusion blow molding is simulated using different viscoelastic material models. The material parameters are determined and material, throughput, temperature as well as the die geometry are varied during simulations. The quality of the parison geometry prediction is evaluated by comparing the computed results of the parison geometry with experimental data. In addition, an evaluation of the suitability of the different viscoelastic material models is performed.
ANALYSIS OF THE FLUID ASSISTED INJECTION TECHNIQUE BY USING ULTRASONIC
The gas assisted and water assisted injection molding technique are well-established processes for the production of parts with (functional) hollow space. The quality of these parts highly depends on the internal part properties such as the residual wall thickness. Hence this paper deals with the online use of ultrasonic measurements to visualize the hollow space formation and to determine the residual wall thickness of the molded parts.
BATCH FOAMING BEHAVIOR OF TPU MATERIAL
This paper investigates the foaming behavior of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) in a customized foaming system using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a physical blowing agent. Foams with different cellular morphology have been obtained depending on different TPU material and foaming conditions. The influence of different TPU material and foaming conditions (pressure, temperature and time) on the expansion behavior and the foam structure are discussed.
ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS COMPOUNDS BASED ON SYNERGETIC FILLER COMBINATIONS
Electrical conductive plastics compounds based on one type of filler show limited electrical conductivities. By combining different fillers synergetic effects can be obtained regarding not only the electrical conductivity but also the mechanical properties or processability. In this paper the synergetic effect of carbon fibers combined with carbon black, carbon nanotubes and a low melting metal alloy in a polypropylene matrix is discussed
A FULLY THREE DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL APPROACH SIMULATING THE MELTING ZONE IN A SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDER
This paper presents a fully 3D numerical approach to simulate the melting process in a single screw extruder using the software Fluent distributed by ANSYS, Inc. The model predicts the melting length, pressure build?up and the velocity and temperature distribution within the channel. The screw geometry is modeled as a helical shaped channel and the principle of reversed kinematics is applied. The solid bed is modeled as a fluid with a very high viscosity.
TROUBLESHOOTING COEX FILM PROBLEMS BY CONSIDERING PROCESS-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS
Coextrusion is a complex process where many processing and structure design factors affect performance. As a result, problems can be difficult to troubleshoot. This paper explores some of the recent advances in the science of coextrusion with a focus on using this knowledge to prevent and troubleshoot problems. Issues involving multilayer film design and properties (compared to monolayer films), curl and adhesion are discussed.
MEASUREMENT OF THE STRAIN-DEPENDENT POISSON'S RATIO FOR THE CRASH SIMULATION OF TECHNICAL THERMOPLASTICS
In order to predict the crash behavior of thermoplastic parts an adequate material description is needed. For this purpose plastics?specific material models have been developed. The calibration of these requires extensive material data. Besides the knowledge of the Young’s modulus and the flow curves also that of the strain dependent Poisson’s ratio is crucial for a high simulation quality. This paper deals with the measuring techniques and the measured contraction behavior of different thermoplastics.
EFFECT OF MATERIAL VISCOSITIES ON PURGING IN EXTRUSION PROCESSES
Material changeovers steadily grow in importance in the context of the sinking batch sizes in extrusion plants. For understanding the influences on material changeovers, the changeover performance of polyolefins in a simple round strand die has been examined. In this regard the viscosity of the material turned out to be the key factor.
APPLICATION OF MODELING TO SPEED FLEXIBLE PACKAGE DEVELOPMENT
Models developed by DuPont or found in the literature are described that help the package engineer design new package structures by optimizing package performance, minimizing cost and ensuring the film or laminate can be fabricated on converting equipment. A case study is presented to illustrate how the use of these tools can speed up new package development.
DESCRIPTION BY DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE WALL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE TWO-STAGE GITBLOW PROCESS
In the special injection molding process GITBlow, it is possible in a second stage to further inflate the hollow area produced by gas injection. This article sets out to identify the most important material, geometry and process parameters, and to relate them to the wall thickness homogeneity using dimensional analysis. With the aid of the model, users of the GITBlow technology are now able to estimate the expected wall thickness distribution for specific parameter settings.
USE OF X-RAY TOMOGRAPHY FOR EFFICIENT PACKAGE DESIGN
With the current trend for lightweighting, accurately modeling the complex interactions between the closure and bottle is critical for a package design. X-ray Microtomography, a non-destructive technique is shown as a tool for studying design and geometrical features of beverage packaging. It allows seeing through the assembly, to determine actual dimensions to a micron resolution and reconstruct a real 3D geometry for FE analysis. This technique also helps identify critical locations for better material distribution.
CRYSTALLIZATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN/POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) MIXTURES
A model drug acetaminophen was mixed with PEO, and the morphology, nucleation numbers, and crystallization kinetics of PEO were altered accordingly. The spherulitic growth rate and isothermal DSC endotherm were analyzed by Hoffman-Lauritzen theory and Avrami theory, respectively. It was found that the fold surface free energy increased significantly with increasing drug content, indicating the chain folding of PEO became much more difficult in the presence of the small molecule drug.
THEMOPLASTIC STARCH AND POLYETHYLENE BLEND FOR BLOW MOLDED BOTTLE
HDPE was blended with TPS and blow molded into bottles. The packaging related GHG emissions were reduced 80 percent. The method involved two extruders. The first converted the starch into TPS, while the second mixed the HDPE and TPS for a co-continuous morphology. Further dilution during the melt forming stage resulted in fine droplets of TPS dispersed throughout. The TPS was used in various layer combinations without sacrificing the appearance or performance of the bottles.
EXPLOITING CHAOS: SHOULD POLYMERIZATION REACTORS BE CHAOTIC?
This study established the benefits of chaotic mixing in polymerization of two immiscible components by considering one-step synthesis of thermoplastic polyurethanes from aliphatic diisocyanate, chain extender, and a soft segment diol. The efficient mixing in chaotic flow reduced the time scale of mixing and led to faster polymerization.
SELECTING DISPERSING AGENTS FOR THERMOSET/CARBON NANOTUBE MASTERBATCHES
This work presents an approach for preparing long-term stable suspensions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in different components of thermoset resins with the goal of developing a strategy for preparing master batches. Suspensions of CNTs in different components of epoxy, VE and PU systems have been prepared using a tip sonicator and different amounts of block copolymers. The resistance to sedimentation of MWCNTs in various media was systematically investigated by using a centrifugation technique.
THE GOLDEN TRIANGLE: A STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTING SUCCESSFUL PRODUCTS FOR THE MASTERBATCH INDUSTRY
As the competitive landscape for the coloration of plastics rapidly contracts, expands and moves in new directions, new products are required to meet the demands of the marketplace. This paper will outline some strategic methods that can synergize to meet these demands. Some of these strategies have been used by different industries but this paper will use strategies from different types of businesses that will provide a novel perspective on the masterbatch industry and will have implications for other industries as well.
CONTROLLING ADHESION OF DIGITAL UV DECORATING TECHNIQUES
Many experiments have been performed globally to investigate ways of controlling and improving adhesion of energy curable UV paints, inks and coatings utilized to decorate structural polymers. This paper discusses a new class of atmospheric surface activation systems, appropriate measurements of wettability and adhesion, over-treatment effects and surface analysis techniques relative to optimizing the adhesion of UV inks, paints, coatings and adhesives to structural polymer surfaces. Recommendations for improved activation by substrate and application are discussed.
MAXIMIZING TALC BENEFITS IN DURABLE PLA APPLICATIONS WITH LUZENAC HAR®
The use of talc in PLA compounds for durable applications has been studied, and it is shown that talc could significantly increase stiffness, reduce thermal expansion (CLTE), and enhance thermal stability and HDT of crystallized PLA compounds. The high aspect ratio Luzenac HAR talc could be used to maximize these functions or to achieve desired mechanical properties at lower talc loadings, which may be desirable for compostability or other requirements.
LASER DIRECT STRUCTURING OF THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS: AN INNOVATIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPROACH
Thermally conductive polymers open up a vast range of design concepts for the thermal management of optoelectronic systems based on high-brightness light emitting diodes. This paper presents an innovative material approach for manufacturing three-dimensional thermoplastic circuit carriers, combining a selective, laser-assisted metallization technology and highly filled polymers with thermal conductivities up to 8 Wm-1K-1.
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