The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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RECYCLE TECHNOLOGY OF USED PLASTIC MATERIALS
This paper describes the recycle technology of used plastic materials such as waste HDPE films and containers, waste caps for PET bottles, and used PET bottles with caps and films. The fusion joining strength of extruded sheets of waste HDPE films and containers using a compatibilizer was firstly studied. A compounding technology of used PET bottles with caps and films using a compatibilizer was secondly studied.
A NOVEL FOAM INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS USING GAS-LADEN PELLETS
This paper proposes a new foam injection molding process that enables the ease of processing of the chemical blowing agent method with the foaming characteristics of a physical blowing agent, but in a cost-effective fashion. By using gas-laden (CO2 or N2) pellets in injection molding, a simple yet cost- effective dosing method can be achieved. This paper presents this new process and the properties of the injection molded foamed parts.
A CONTRIBUTION FOR QUALITATIVELY MODELING OF FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTICS
Tribological parameters are results of a complex system; therefore their behavior can not easily be predicted. This paper suggests a model for characterizing tribological behavior by the distinct contribution of basic friction, and wear modes. These modes and the transition from one to another are influenced by material, geometric, and other system properties. The presented model is based on broadly accepted, mostly two-dimensional, correlations and supported with own pin-on disc friction and wear experiments.
A SIMULATION OF INJECTION STRETCH-BLOW MOLDING PROCESS BY USING A VISCO-PLASTIC MODEL
A finite element simulation of ISBM (Injection Stretch-Blow Molding) Process was conducted based on visco-plastic material model assumption for PET. ISBM process for obtaining a circular PET bottle was designed in terms of stretch displacement and blow pressure. And parametric study was conducted to examine the effect of visco-plastic properties on the final properties of PET bottle. Based on the finite element simulation results, the predictability and limitations of visco-plastic material model was discussed.
THE INFLUENCE OF TEST FREQUENCY AND ECCENTRIC CRACK GROWTH ON CYCLIC CRB TESTS
The cyclic CRB test was standardized recently as an alternative method to characterize the SCG resistance of polyethylene pipe grades. Open questions like the influence of frequency or eccentric SCG are focused on. To study the impact of hysteretic heating, tests with thermal observation of the crack tip were conducted with different frequencies. Moreover, COD measurements were used to study the eccentricity of SCG. Both investigations confirm high reliability and reproducibility of cyclic CRB tests.
SWELLING OF PLA MELT DUE TO CO2 DISSOLUTION
The superior mechanical properties of microcellular foams such as, heat resistance, lightweight and high performance to weigh ratio, are important factors to be considered with respect to the automotive industry and foaming industries. Therefore, an understanding of the thermophysical and rheological properties of polymer/gas mixtures is critically important. This paper focuses on the pure PLA 3001D volume swelling measurement and its comparison with varying talc content. Effect of D content on swelling ratio is also discussed.
INVESTIGATION OF AIR FILTRATION EFFICIENCY FOR NANOFIBER BASED FILTERS IN ULTRAFINE PARTICLE SIZE RANGE
In this work, 3D filtration modeling utilizing realistic SEM image based 3D structure model has been proposed and used for different polyurethane nanofiber based filters. For the model validation purposes, two polyurethane nanofiber layers prepared by the electrospinning process were combined to form 2 pairs of nanofiber based filters and their filtration efficiency characteristics were determined experimentally in the ultrafine particle size range (20-400 nm).
PREPARATION AND PROPERTY STUDY OF TOUGHENED AND REINFORCED NYLON WITH NON-HALOGEN FLAME-RETARDANTS
The best basic composition of PA66 composites with better flame retardant properties and mechanical properties was determined by orthogonal test. POE-g-MAH was added to enhance impact strength and silane coupling agent KH-550 as surface modifier of Mg(OH)2 (MH) to modify the flame resistance of the basic composites. TGA, DSC, SEM and mechanical property testing equipments were employed to study the properties of PA66 composites. A best formula of PA66 composites was obtained.
STUDY ON PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF POLYLACTIDE/GRAFTED SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES
In this article, epoxy resin with silane coupling agent and bisphenol A epoxy resin were used to graft nanosilica. A comparative study of PLA/nanosilica composites prepared by grafted nanosilica was conducted. The properties were characterized by mechanical properties, FTIR, DSC and SEM. It confirmed that the functional groups has been successfully grafted onto nanoparticles, and improve the properties of PLA. Results show that the nanocomposites with bisphenol A epoxy resin obtain the better properties.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ABS/SPARKLE ALUMINUM COMPOSITES
The Taguchi method was used to study the effect of aluminum content, coupling agent content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the mechanical properties of ABS/sparkle Al composites. Signal to noise ratios for mechanical properties were calculated to obtain the optimum set of processing parameters. It was observed that a lower sparkle Al content, higher coupling agent content, medium screw speed, and medium barrel temperature were desirable for better mechanical properties of ABS/sparkle Al composites.
STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF EXPANDED POLYMER COMPOSITES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
Stress-?strain curves under uniaxial tension have been evaluated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 145 C for glass bead filled polypropylene, glass flake filled polypropylene and unfilled polypropylene. Debonding of the fillers in the elastic regime leads to growing voids in the composites, which affects the yield point and the plastic deformation of the expanded composites. Models were fitted to the elastic and plastic regimes of deformation in the various materials at different temperatures.
AN EASY APPROACH OF MEASURING THE RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION WITH THE USE OF NIR-SPECTROSCOPY
The residence time distribution of polypropylene was determined directly in-line with the help of near infrared spectroscopy and with the use of an UV-absorber as tracer. Different experiment alignments such as screw speed and mass throughput and their influence on mean residence time and especially residence time distribution have been investigated.
JOURNAL OF PLASTIC FILM AND SHEETING - HOW IT CAME TO BE AND TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
The history and growth of the Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting which was founded by James P. Harrington in 1984 will be reviewed along with a film technology overview.
DIFFUSION PROPERTIES IN POLYMER MEMBRANES BY FT-IR-ATR
In order to understand membrane transport and thereby develop suitable membranes for protection and separation, there are a few characteristics of the membrane and the diffusing constituents that must be known. These include the molecular states of the diffusing components, their diffusion coefficients, permeabilities and the membrane selectivity. In general, the fundamental physical property required to design and optimize polymers used as barrier and membranes is the mutual diffusion coefficient.
MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF PLANAR AND UNIAXIAL EXTENSIONAL VISCOSITIES FOR LDPE POLYMER MELT
In this work, novel patent pending rectangle and circular orifice dies have been used in order to determine planar and uniaxial extensional viscosities for extrusion coating LDPE through entrance pressure drop determination on conventional twin bore capillary rheometr. It has been revealed that the uniaxial extensional viscosity/uniaxial extensional strain hardening is higher in comparison with the planar extensional viscosity and recently proposed non-Newtonian fluid model can described the measured rheological data reasonably well.
PREPERATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PP-PET SEA-ISLANDS TYPE BICOMPONENT AS-SPUN FIBERS BY HIGH-SPEED MELT SPINNING
In this study, to investigate characteristic fiber deformation behaviors in high-speed melt spinning process of sea-islands type bicomponent fiber, high-speed melt spinning for PP-PET sea-islands type bicomponent fiber was conducted upto 7 km/min. Overall diameter profiles from nozzle to winder for single- and bi-component fibers could be obtained through on-line measurement of diameter. Structure evolution of obtained as-spun fibers was systematically investigated by using 2D WAXD, DSC, birefringence, and tensile test etc.
PULL AND FOAM - INJECTION MOULDING METHOD: FOAMED RIBS FOR STIFFENING PLANE COMPONENTS
The pull and foam method is a foam injection moulding method which introduces the possibility to partially foam a component. In this way, thin-walled, hardly foamed components with foamed ribs can be made in one processing step, thus also components with graded properties. One the one hand this components possess a high stiffness, one the other hand a high surface quality. The method introduces the advantages of foam injection moulding procedure to new application fields.
A NOVEL METHOD TO PREPARE PET NANOCOMPOSITES BY WATER-ASSISTED MELT COMPOUNDING
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposites were prepared via melt compounding of PET using a twin screw extruder. Water was fed to the extruder to assist in intercalation/exfoliation. The ratio between the water and PET feed rates was varied and Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B and Nanomer I.238E were used. Wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheometry were used to characterize the PET nanocomposites.
DEVELOPMENT OF A RING TENSILE TEST FOR EVALUATING THE CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY OF PLASTIC PIPES
A test method for evaluating the chemical compatibility of plastic pipe has been developed. It is a simple extension of the tensile creep rupture method to ring samples excised from pipes. Simple mechanics equations are used to determine the load required to match the stress to that of a pressurized pipe. Analysis and results of demonstration experiments are provided. This method has the advantage of simulating the real application more realistically than a displacement-controlled test.
ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENT OF FILLER CONCENTRATION
TE Connectivity conducted a joint effort with the Nation Research Council of Canada to investigate using ultrasonic measurement techniques to determine filler concentrations during the extrusion process. The results of that project are presented here. Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity are sensitive to several extrusion factors such as pressure, extrusion rate, carrier material, and filler concentration. We have demonstrated the ability to detect relative changes from a process baseline. The technique shows promise for more improvements.
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