The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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DIGITAL PRINTING OF PLASTICS A NEW FRONTIER FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT DECORATION
Piezo inkjet technology offers microprinting and macroprinting processes new and exciting product applications. This technology offers opportunities unparalleled in markets for entrepreneurial manufacturers and specialty printers.
TRANSFER EFFICIENCY VERSUS COATING WASTE REDUCTION
This paper will discuss published transfer efficiency of a spray applicator versus the real transfer efficiency of the spray applicator. The testing protocols used to determine the published transfer efficiency of a spray applicator will be discussed in relation to actual use of the spray applicator in a manufacturing coating process. The most common sources of material waste and the methods to reduce them to acceptable levels will be used to guide the reader to maximize the real transfer efficiency of their spray application system.
PVC REPLACEMENT IN RF MEDICAL DEVICE PLASTICS WELDING
This paper will provide an overview and options for plastics sealing/welding, and also the limitations of each heat sealing method. Further discussion will focus specifically on radio frequency (RF) welding. Next, this presentation will cover the trends toward eliminating PVC, specifically in the medical device industry. Tom will discuss various ways to eliminate both PVC and PU, using RF welding techniques. Finally, the presentation will cover medical device clean room best practices and the FDA and regulatory requirements in plastics welding of medical equipment, supplies or devices.
CALCIUM SULFATE WHISKERS(CSW)REINFORCEMENT OF POLYMERS - A REVIEW
Calcium sulfate whiskers (CSW) were patented in 1974. But then the price was too high. In the last 5 years, interest in CSW as reinforcement has grown due to availability and low cost relative to polymers. Surface treated CSW have been found to increase notched Izod impact properties of polypropylene by 60%. CSW increase strength, stiffness and HDT in PA6, PA66 and PBT. CSW improves friction materials based on phenolics, PA66/PVDF blends, and PTFE.
LATERAL STRESS AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR PC, ABS, HIPS, AND PP BULK RESIN FEED STOCK
A special test device was used to make laboratory measurements of the lateral stress and bulk density of four resin feed polymers: polycarbonate (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polypropylene (PP). Data for lateral stress, lateral stress ratio, and density as a function of primary compressive stress are given, and regression functions are provided. Data for the bulk temperature rise during compression are also provided.
PREDICTION OF THE FLASHING MOMENT BY THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE MOLDING ANALYSIS
The contact-pressure-sensor detected the mold deformation caused by cavity pressure, but failed to predict the flashing moment. In this work, we tried to predict the flashing moment by the structural analysis in conjunction with the molding analysis. The pressure from the molding analysis was input to the structural analysis. The strain at the sensor location showed a close trend of the change. The stress at the parting edge showed the possible moment of the flashing.
IN-SITU COMPATIBILIZATION OF HDPE-FUMED SILICA COMPOSITES: MORPHOLOGY, RHEOLOGY AND FILM BARRIER PROPERTIES
In the present study, HDPE-fumed silica (FS) composites were prepared by melt-mixing with different filler loading and in presence of PE-g-MA compatibilizer. Dynamic rheological properties and morphological analyses of the composites supported the plausible interfacial interaction between reactive groups of PE-g-MA and surface silanol groups of FS. Oxygen and water vapor permeability of the films made from composites were increased due to presence of FS as well as due to compatibilization.
RHEOLOGICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER BLENDS, RADIOPAQUE FILLERS AND COUPLING AGENT
This work studied the effect of blending two different grades of thermoplastic polyurethanes with a constant percentage of radiopaque filler (bismuth subcarbonate) and varying percentages of filler. A titanate binding agent was added to the blend to investigate the impact of improved polymer/filler adhesion. The results showed that varying grades of thermoplastic polyurethane in conjunction with different filler loadings can modulate the physical properties of the compound.
SELF-REINFORCEMENT OF UNIAXIALLY STRETCHED POLYCARBONATE FILM
On manufacturing uniaxially stretched film made of polycarbonate, elevated strengths are obtained. In doing this, the molecular chains are aligned parallel to the stretching direction and thereby elevate the strength. The properties of thermoplastics depend on various process parameters. Orientating the molecules causes the molecular chains to lie close together and the stabilising bonds become active. This change can be detected by using x-ray diffractometer investigations as well as photography.
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE FOAM FOR TEXTILE APPLICATIONS
In this study, the foaming of nonwoven fabrics and bulk polymers was investigated. Four different polymers that are commonly used for textiles including were foamed by batch foaming. Among the polymers, TPU seems to be most promising since it possesses the highest cell density. In addition, nanoclay was added to TPU to promote nucleation. Well dispersed nanoclay served as excellent nucleation agents. The cell size decreased to 1?m while the cell density increased to 3*1011cells/cm3.
FOLLOWING CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITH RHEOMETRY AND SIMULTANEOUS FTIR-SPECTROSCOPY
A new combination of a rheometer and a FTIR-spectrometer will be presented. The Rheonaut module allows the coupling of the Thermo Scientific HAAKE MARS rheometer with an FTIR-spectrometer. With this set-up, samples can be characterized rheologically while IR-spectra are being recorded simultaneously. To test this concept, polymerization reactions have been followed with the combination of the HAAKE MARS and the Rheonaut module. Details of the instrument set-up as well as selected results will be presented.
DOSABLE SISAL FIBRES FOR THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES
The aim of this work was to improve the dosability of sisal fibers by coating sisal yarns with a film former prior to cutting, to yield dosable fiber bundles, which can be processed with standard plastics processing equipment and to evaluate the effectiveness of such fibers in a thermoplastic matrix. We found, that it is possible to produce such fiber bundles, which are properly dosable and yielded good properties in polypropylene matrix composites, although there is room for improvement via the selection of a film former, which is more compatible with the matrix.
LATEST UV COATING TRENDS
The UV-cure segment’s growth can be attributed to the coatings’ many competitive advantages, including low energy costs, no pot life issues, reduced environmental impact and a fast cure speed. In fact, one-component (1K) UV-cure coating technology is one of the fastest chemistries currently available. This paper will discuss trends within the two main UV coating platforms – 100 percent solids UV formulation and waterborne UV systems. Both are sustainable chemistries, having ultra-low-volatile organic compound (VOC) levels.
MELT EXTRUSION AND FILM PROPERTIES OF SOY FLOUR/POLYETHYLENE BLENDS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATIONS
Blends of soy flour and linear low density polyethylene were melt-compounded at soy loading levels of 0-40% with and without a compatibilizer. Films were formed from the blends through compression molding and were characterized for thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. Measured shifts in the glass transition temperature of the soy component with and without compatibilizer are reported. Oxygen and water vapor permeation rates of the films are also presented and compared to the neat polyethylene film.
PHA BIODEGRABLE BLOW-MODLED BOTTLES: COMPOUNDING AND PERFORMANCE
PHA biodegradable plastics can be made into biodegradable bottles with reasonable impact and tensile strength. PHBV and P(3HB-4HB) grades of PHA were compounded with processing additives and blow molded into bottles with an extrusion blow molding process. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior processing properties and demonstrated a wide processing window to two other PHA materials. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior tensile and impact properties and superior permeation resistance than two other PHA materials from China.
PRACTICAL USE OF CREEP TEST TO OBTAIN THE RHEOLOGICAL DATA AT LOW FREQUENCY RANGE FOR POLYETHYLENE
The creep test was applied to obtain rheological information in low-frequency range that is not reachable by use of the frequency sweep test for polyethylene industrial research and development. The test time scale and the applying stress were considered to make the measurement on a large group of samples. By testing several high molecular weight resins having broad molecular weight distribution or long chain branching, we demonstrated utility of this methodology.
PRACTICAL HEAT TRANSFER IMPLICATIONS OF SLIP BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
The non-Newtonian non-isothermal flow in a capillary die is simulated by means of a 2D axis symmetric model. For the momentum equation, slip as well as no slip conditions are implemented at the wall of the flow geometry, whereas for the energy equation constant wall temperature and constant convective heat flux are specified. The results are analyzed in terms of the resulting temperature profiles arising from the different sets of implemented boundary conditions.
INJECTION MOLDS IN CLEANROOM ENVIRONMENTS
The cleanliness of production facilities is an important quality factor. Higher purity minimizes environmental influences and in this way a better process control can be obtained. Therefore, the use of clean room technology is establishing in industries like automotive more and more. To maintain the controlled contamination throughout the process, injection molds, which are intended for production in clean room environments must be adequate to special needs. Special coatings for lubricant-free manufacturing support these concepts.
EVALUATION OF NON-CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE PIPES FOR HEATING
Even for lifeline plumbing, plumbing materials are required to be recyclable. It is needed to develop the new plumbing materials with the performance of long lifetime and recyclable. In this study, PE-RT mixed with several stabilizers was tested to evaluate for long life and the new method for evaluating lifetime. As a result, it was found that HALS was very effective and the hydrodynamic pressure test was useful to evaluate the lifetime.
LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ABSORPTION AND ATTENUATION OF THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on sound absorption and attenuation of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). It is shown that the proposed TPE may provide high acoustic transmission loss (TL) within low frequency range. It is suggested here that the high acoustic TL observed in the low frequency range for a solid plate can be as effective as the cellular system, considering the heterogeneous phase framworks and density dispersion in TPE materials.
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