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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL SURFACE TREATMENT ON METAL SURFACE MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL INSERT INJECTION MOLDINGS
Tomokazu Sasaki, Yuqiu Yang, Toshikazu, Kazushi Yamada, May 2012
This study is to clarify the adhesion mechanism as target. Various surface treatments on the metal were carried out to investigate its effect on the adhesion property of insert moldings. It is found that the surface roughness of metal could be changed by the chemical agent with different ratio of nitric hydrofluoric acid and immersion time. Optimum surface treatment exists to obtain high adhesion property between polymer and metal.
NEW POLYCARBONATE COMPOSITIONS WITH LOW OSU HEAT RELEASE & SMOKE VALUES FOR AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS
James F. Hoover, Laura G. Schultz-Hume, Paul D. Sybert, May 2012
New polycarbonate blends afford the first UV stable resins with low color, low smoke and low OSU Heat Release values (< 65/65). In addition, the resins can be prepared with good melt flow and excellent ductility. The excellent colorability and UV stability, combined with the compliance to the FAA/OEMs fire, smoke and toxicity regulations, allows for the fabrication of interior opaque components such as interior aircraft windows frames, seat parts, grilles and personal service units.
EVALUATING FRACTURE TOUGHNESS IN DEGRADED POLYMERIC THIN FILMS
Hanxiao Ge, Susan C. Mantell, May 2012
Thin polymer films are under consideration as materials for use in roof top mounted solar thermal collectors. The fracture behavior of these materials is of particular concern for this application. When exposed to UV light, film degradation can lead to reduced fracture toughness. In this paper, a method for evaluating the fracture behavior of thin films as a function of the extent of degradation is described. Pilot study results for fracture behavior of polyethylene film are presented.
EFFECT OF D-LACTIDE CONTENT ON THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYLACTIDE IN PRESENCE OF CO2 DISSOLVED GAS
M. Nofar, W. Zhu, C.B. Park, J. Randall, May 2012
In this study, the effect of dissolved CO2 on the thermal behavior of PLA with various D-contents (with and without talc) has been investigated during the cooling process at atmospheric pressure in a regular differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a high-pressure DSC. The results show that the crystallinity of PLA samples improves by increasing the CO2 pressure, reducing the D-content, and adding talc. Also, Tg and Tm shift to lower temperatures as the pressure increases, due to the plasticization effect of CO 2.
MELT FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF PLA FOAMED USING DIFFERENT DIE ENTRY ANGLES
Lun Howe Mark, Mo Xu, Chul B. Park, May 2012
This investigation focuses on effects of die entry angles on the melt fracture behavior of foamed Polylactic Acid (PLA). PLA is foamed using a physical blowing agent along with four dies with varying entry angles. The dies used in this study have entry angles of 60, 90, 120, and 180 degrees. A camera is placed at the die exit to capture snapshots of the extrudate to examine the nature of melt fracture.
PASSIVE MULTI-SCALE ALIGNMENT AND ASSEMBLY
Mary Moriarty, David Kazmer, Stephen Johnston, Christopher Santeufemio, May 2012
A significant barrier to widespread application of nano-engineered devices is the interfacing of small components. Current macro-manufacturing systems do not have the capability for the precise alignment nano-features require. In this paper, a novel method of self-alignment and assembly is discussed. This approach uses kinematic coupling and elastic averaging across multiple length scales to ensure alignment of the smaller features. Physical realization with ion beam etching, deposition, and thermal imprint lithography are also discussed.
FOAM INJECTION MOLDING OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
Peter U. Jung, Chul B. Park, May 2012
This paper investigates the effects of the processing conditions on the foaming behavior of glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. Composites are injection molded by using an advanced structural foam molding machine with N2 as blowing agent. Samples are prepared with different processing parameters while mold pressure, void fraction and foam morphology are characterized. The results suggest that there is an optimal combination of these processing parameters, which can provide uniform void fraction and high cell density.
THE EFFECT OF CO2 ON THE MELT FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF FOAMED PLA
Lun Howe Mark, Mo Xu, Medhi Keshtkar, Chul B. Park, May 2012
The melt fracture behavior of foamed Polylactic acid (PLA) with the presence of blowing agent is studied in this investigation. A CCD camera is utilized to examine how foaming processing parameters such as blowing agent content, mass flow rate and temperature can affect melt fracture behavior. Images captured are used to analyze severity and nature of extrudate distortion.
FEASIBILITY OF DOUBLE CRYSTAL MELTING PEAK GENERATION IN PLA FOR EXPANDED PLA BEAD FOAMS
Mohammadreza Nofar, Chul B. Park, May 2012
As the EPP and EPE bead foams have two crystal melting peaks, in order to manufacture expanded PLA bead foam (EPLA) with the same strategy, the feasibility of double crystal melting peak creation for PLA has been investigated in this work. The influence of various annealing temperatures and time on the double crystal melting peak creation is investigated for a linear and a branched PLA with two various degrees of crystallinity in a regular differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).
WIPER MOTOR DRIVE GEAR FAILURE ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION
Mark A. Bennett, Todd Stromer, Joseph Kelly, May 2012
The global world of component sourcing offers many benefits to the supply chain, but can create obstacles to resolving quality problems and addressing failures. This paper describes a challenging failure analysis involving overseas manufacturing, extended usage prior to failure, an uncontrolled user environment, and only occasional failures. We discuss the investigation of the product, generation of the failure hypothesis, testing, recommendations and resolution of the issues.
IMPLEMENTATION OF A HIGHLY EFFICIENT MESHLESS METHOD FOR THE THERMAL ANALYSIS OF FOUNTAIN FLOW DURING FILLING IN INJECTION MOLDING
Juliana Restrepo, Iván D. López, May 2012
A computational model using a highly efficient local meshless technique to analyze the temperature development during a 2D slit filling is developed. Moving boundaries and the fountain flow effect are considered. The implementation is validated comparing the results with a finite element solution for a fix domain. The fountain flow thermal effect is studied, comparing the solution considering and neglecting this effect.
MICRO INJECTION MOLDING OF POLYMERS FOR BIOMIMICKRY OF ORGAN TISSUE
John W. Rodgers, Burak Bekisli, John P. Coulter, May 2012
Two types of polystyrene were injection molded into macroscale parts with microscale features. UV photolithography was utilized to create microchannels on the surface of silicon wafers. Higher mold temperatures facilitated filling of the microfeatures. In addition, an undercut microchannel feature promoted pillar elongation. HIPS exhibited greater heights at identical mold temperature conditions. Pillars with heights of 15 µm were molded with an aspect ratio of 9.3. Polymer surfaces could provide control of biological cell activity
ASSESSMENT OF A NOVEL CO-POLYESTER RESIN THAT EXHIBITS EARLY STRAIN HARDENING BEHAVIOR
Mark A. Barger, William J. Harris, May 2012
A hydroquinone modified co-polyester resin has been shown to exhibit early strain hardening behavior relative to conventional PET analogues based on equibiaxial film stretching data. This behavior was hypothesized to offer advantages in specific blow molding processing aspects, especially preform molding. A study was completed to validate this hypothesis and to better quantify the advantages that could be ascribed to early strain hardening behavior. The results of this study are reported herein.
CREATING MOLECULAR REBAR FROM MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES
Kurt W. Swogger, Clive Bosnyak,, May 2012
Multi-wall carbon nanotubes have created much interest in theory but lack till now many applications that can create value. Designed Nanotubes has invented a process to produce high aspect ratio nanotubes in high yields called Molecular Rebar that can interact with materials and dramatically change mechanical, electrical, and heat properties of the materials demonstrating that the theory does work. Applications include tires (in development), batteries, composites and capacitors.
THE EFFECT OF TOOLING ALLOY ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AUTOMOTIVE POLYOLEFINS
David A. Okonski, May 2012
It is common in the automotive industry to produce injection molds from P20 steel. However, several 7,0XX-series aluminum alloys have been identified by GM as P20 alternatives. The high thermal conductivity and excellent machining characteristics of these aluminums are enablers for cost reduction. Cost reduction is only good if there is no adverse effect on quality and performance. This paper will compare and contrast physical properties of samples molded using duplicate P20 and QC10 tooling.
TROUBLESHOOTING TPU EXTRUSION FOR RATE LIMITATIONS DUE TO SOLIDS IN THE EXTRUDATE
Kun Sup Hyun, Mark A. Spalding, May 2012
The extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) resins can be rate limited by the occurrence of solid polymer fragments in the extrudate. This paper will discuss the problem and identify a screw and process design that can mitigate the problem and allow high rates.
DEECOM®: A SUSTAINABLE PROCESS USED IN VARIOUS RECLAMATION PROCESSES
Sue Reynolds, May 2012
Polymer manufacturing utilizes metal parts which are reclaimed for reuse. Traditional reclamation methods utilize solvents and other chemicals which have high energy demand and involve expensive disposal methods. The DEECOM® technology, solvent-free relatively low temperature reclamation technology, is based on pressure swing techniques designed to physically disrupt and remove polymer from parts. The process mechanism results in filter reclamation procedures that have high degree of sustainability and provide opportunity to recycle the removed polymer.
DESIGN INNOVATIONS OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE GRADE RESINS
Sarah E. Patterson, Mark A. Spalding, May 2012
The continued innovations in the molecular design of high density polyethylene resins have resulted in the development of PE 4710 bimodal resins. These high density bimodal resins have improved the physical attributes of polyethylene pipe such as increased durability, longer design life, increased pressure rating, and increased hydraulic capacity for plastic piping systems. In addition, the high performance achieved can be leveraged to various applications that require the same physical attributes.
RIGID POLYMERIC FOAM BOARDSTOCK TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT
Dan Schroer, Michelle Hudack, Mark Soderquist, Inken Beulich, May 2012
Phenolic foam insulation is commercially available in Europe and Asia. Recently, a study was conducted that assessed the performance of European and Asian sourced phenolic foam versus North American extruded polystyrene (XPS), and polyisocyanurate (PIR) insulation products. This paper discusses the performance aspects of Phenolic foam insulation relative to both polyisocyanurate (PIR) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam. The findings are summarized and discussed herein: POLYMER ANALYSIS D33
SUBSTITUTING F-PVC WITH THERMOPLASTIC POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMERS
Lisa Madenjian, Jeff Munro, Jeff Liu Madenjian, Jeff Munro, Jeff Liu, May 2012
Flexible polyvinyl chloride has found suitability in a number of injection molded applications over the last several decades. While the material offers a very good balance of properties and processibility, it has come under scrutiny because of its plasticizer content and recyclability, especially in Europe. As such, there are many active programs to replace f-PVC. This paper will review design considerations beyond the datasheet to use when selecting a thermoplastic olefin elastomer to replace f-PVC.


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