The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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The global world of component sourcing offers many benefits to the supply chain, but can create obstacles to resolving quality problems and addressing failures. This paper describes a challenging failure analysis involving overseas manufacturing, extended usage prior to failure, an uncontrolled user environment, and only occasional failures. We discuss the investigation of the product, generation of the failure hypothesis, testing, recommendations and resolution of the issues.
A computational model using a highly efficient local meshless technique to analyze the temperature development during a 2D slit filling is developed. Moving boundaries and the fountain flow effect are considered. The implementation is validated comparing the results with a finite element solution for a fix domain. The fountain flow thermal effect is studied, comparing the solution considering and neglecting this effect.
A hydroquinone modified co-polyester resin has been shown to exhibit early strain hardening behavior relative to conventional PET analogues based on equibiaxial film stretching data. This behavior was hypothesized to offer advantages in specific blow molding processing aspects, especially preform molding. A study was completed to validate this hypothesis and to better quantify the advantages that could be ascribed to early strain hardening behavior. The results of this study are reported herein.
Multi-wall carbon nanotubes have created much interest in theory but lack till now many applications that can create value. Designed Nanotubes has invented a process to produce high aspect ratio nanotubes in high yields called Molecular Rebar that can interact with materials and dramatically change mechanical, electrical, and heat properties of the materials demonstrating that the theory does work. Applications include tires (in development), batteries, composites and capacitors.
It is common in the automotive industry to produce injection molds from P20 steel. However, several 7,0XX-series aluminum alloys have been identified by GM as P20 alternatives. The high thermal conductivity and excellent machining characteristics of these aluminums are enablers for cost reduction. Cost reduction is only good if there is no adverse effect on quality and performance. This paper will compare and contrast physical properties of samples molded using duplicate P20 and QC10 tooling.
The extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) resins can be rate limited by the occurrence of solid polymer fragments in the extrudate. This paper will discuss the problem and identify a screw and process design that can mitigate the problem and allow high rates.
The continued innovations in the molecular design of high density polyethylene resins have resulted in the development of PE 4710 bimodal resins. These high density bimodal resins have improved the physical attributes of polyethylene pipe such as increased durability, longer design life, increased pressure rating, and increased hydraulic capacity for plastic piping systems. In addition, the high performance achieved can be leveraged to various applications that require the same physical attributes.
Phenolic foam insulation is commercially available in Europe and Asia. Recently, a study was conducted that assessed the performance of European and Asian sourced phenolic foam versus North American extruded polystyrene (XPS), and polyisocyanurate (PIR) insulation products. This paper discusses the performance aspects of Phenolic foam insulation relative to both polyisocyanurate (PIR) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam. The findings are summarized and discussed herein: POLYMER ANALYSIS D33
This paper describes an innovative apparatus and method that uses electromagnetic energy in the microwave frequency range to volumetrically examine dielectric materials, including high density polyethylene piping fusion joints. This paper describes the theory of use and presents several HDPE inspection case studies. Specifically, this paper describes the mechanics of cold fusion joint detection and in several cases the inspection results are compared to mechanical test results that confirm the accuracy of the examination.
Co-rotating twin screw extruders are the industry standard for processing filled resins. Rapid wear to high pressure sections in the extruder lowers product quality and increases downtime to change worn elements. More wear resistant element materials have been developed to lengthen the time between machine teardown requirements. A new HVOF method offers up to four times more wear resistance than standard options. This paper compares this new HVOF method of tungsten carbide protection with standard wear resistant options
Polybutylene pipe was once widely used in potable water distribution systems. However, problems occurred with the pipe's performance. It was claimed that the root cause of PB water pipe failures was in-service oxidative degradation of the material. These allegations ignored major problems with the installation of the PB water lines. This paper will show that installation issues far outweighed PB oxidation as the root cause of failure of PB water service lines.
In this work, a new process -Gas Jet Fibers (GJF)- that uses a high speed jet of gas to produce nanofibers from a nozzle is presented. In operation, a continuous layer of fiber precursor is fed on a flat surface, whereby the material is stretched and fibers are launched by the action of the high speed air flow field of the jet. Fiber morphology, diameter, and length can be easily controlled by varying the jet conditions, nozzle geometry, and fiber precursor physical properties.
Capillary die swell of high molecular weight HDPE resins was measured and compared to the prediction based on various rheological models. The predictions based on stress ratio per Leonov model tend to overestimate the capillary die swell while those through Wagner model underestimate. Predictions per Doi- Edwards model were applicable only at low shear rate. This study reveals the need to further assess damping parameters in addition to the relaxation spectrum.
This study was conducted to understand the degradation mechanisms of GFRP at hot water. Surface and cross section of immersed in hot water samples were observed in detail, and weight change rate and bending strength were researched. The samples were also conducted ultrasonic wave inspection to understand degradation nondestructively. Then, the ultrasonic echo parameter V value was used, and it was understood that V value could show generation or growth of debondings or delaminations.
This paper explores the performance of a grade of Mold-In-Color PMMA used for automotive applications. The focus is improvement vs. traditional PMMA and coating technologies during various scratch and mar abrasion evaluations. Information on solvent stress craze resistance is also reviewed. Various scratch and mar evaluation methods used during this investigation are compared.
Innovation is one of the most misused and poorly defined terms when discussing economic growth and development. It’s a buzzword used by politicians with hopes that by just saying it will somehow magically break free us from the mire of the current global economic downturn. There’s no mystery to innovation and at the surface it is rather simple. Innovation simply stated is people implementing ideas to create value. It is easy to understand yet vastly more challenging to do well.
A prototype of a vacuum thermoforming machine was designed and built at the Metal Industries Company Limited and was commissioned in December 2009. The need for the capability of plastics thermoforming at the Metal Industries Company Limited is described together with the basis for the thermoforming machine design.
ANTEC 2012 Technical Paper - The applications of lasers for welding polymers in industry are slowly increasing but the main problem to date is that joints may only be welded by the transmission welding technique and this significantly reduces design flexibility.
As consumers in mature and growing geographical markets become more sophisticated and discriminating, the color and appearance of products such as home appliances, consumer electronics, or vehicle interiors has become a dominant criterion in consumers’ buying decisions. This fundamental trend requires that not only functional design, but that color, appearance, and finish differentiate successful products’ brand identities and quality from their competitors.
Waste plastics usages are increasing all over the world every day. People are consuming plastics in their daily life for all necessary purposes. After they are used all plastic become garbage and its goes to land fill or incineration facilities. It’s creating environmental problem. Waste plastic can be transform into alternate or renewable energy for electricity or feedstock refinery. The thermal degradation process applied with mixture waste plastics of high density polyethylene (HDPE-2), low density polyethylene (LDPE-4), Polypropylene (PP-5) and Polystyrene (PS-6) using stainless steel reactor has been successful in converting into liquid fuel. The polymer has been selected for the experiment 100% HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS by weight. The temperature used for degradation ranges from 150-400 °C and the experiment takes about was 5 -6 hours. The obtain products are liquid fuel, light gas and black carbon residue. Various techniques such as, (Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer, FT-IR and DSC) are used for obtain the analysis of the fuel purposed. GC/MS result indicates hydrocarbon compound in the produced fuel ranges from C3-C28 and also present C1-C4 light gases. Also further fractional distillation process was used to obtain different 5 (Gasoline, Naphtha, Aviation, Diesel and Fuel Oil) category liquid fuel by using different temperature profiles. All of the fraction fuels have different carbon range and contain long chain hydrocarbon like alkane and alkene and some aromatic compound.
Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:
Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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