The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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A special test device was used to make laboratory measurements of the lateral stress and bulk density of four resin feed polymers: polycarbonate (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polypropylene (PP). Data for lateral stress, lateral stress ratio, and density as a function of primary compressive stress are given, and regression functions are provided. Data for the bulk temperature rise during compression are also provided.
Breanna G. Boyden, Brian C. LaBrec, Vijay Wani, May 2012
This work studied the effect of blending two different grades of thermoplastic polyurethanes with a constant percentage of radiopaque filler (bismuth subcarbonate) and varying percentages of filler. A titanate binding agent was added to the blend to investigate the impact of improved polymer/filler adhesion. The results showed that varying grades of thermoplastic polyurethane in conjunction with different filler loadings can modulate the physical properties of the compound.
Andrea Wibbeke, Volker Schöppner, Miriam Sasse, May 2012
On manufacturing uniaxially stretched film made of polycarbonate, elevated strengths are obtained. In doing this, the molecular chains are aligned parallel to the stretching direction and thereby elevate the strength. The properties of thermoplastics depend on various process parameters. Orientating the molecules causes the molecular chains to lie close together and the stabilising bonds become active. This change can be detected by using x-ray diffractometer investigations as well as photography.
In this study, the foaming of nonwoven fabrics and bulk polymers was investigated. Four different polymers that are commonly used for textiles including were foamed by batch foaming. Among the polymers, TPU seems to be most promising since it possesses the highest cell density. In addition, nanoclay was added to TPU to promote nucleation. Well dispersed nanoclay served as excellent nucleation agents. The cell size decreased to 1?m while the cell density increased to 3*1011cells/cm3.
Fabian Meyer, Jan Philip Plog, Manfred
Feustel, May 2012
A new combination of a rheometer and a FTIR-spectrometer will be presented. The Rheonaut module allows the coupling of the Thermo Scientific HAAKE MARS rheometer with an FTIR-spectrometer. With this set-up, samples can be characterized rheologically while IR-spectra are being recorded simultaneously. To test this concept, polymerization reactions have been followed with the combination of the HAAKE MARS and the Rheonaut module. Details of the instrument set-up as well as selected results will be presented.
The UV-cure segment’s growth can be attributed to the coatings’ many competitive advantages, including low energy costs, no pot life issues, reduced environmental impact and a fast cure speed. In fact, one-component (1K) UV-cure coating technology is one of the fastest chemistries currently available. This paper will discuss trends within the two main UV coating platforms – 100 percent solids UV formulation and waterborne UV systems. Both are sustainable chemistries, having ultra-low-volatile organic compound (VOC) levels.
Blends of soy flour and linear low density polyethylene were melt-compounded at soy loading levels of 0-40% with and without a compatibilizer. Films were formed from the blends through compression molding and were characterized for thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. Measured shifts in the glass transition temperature of the soy component with and without compatibilizer are reported. Oxygen and water vapor permeation rates of the films are also presented and compared to the neat polyethylene film.
PHA biodegradable plastics can be made into biodegradable bottles with reasonable impact and tensile strength. PHBV and P(3HB-4HB) grades of PHA were compounded with processing additives and blow molded into bottles with an extrusion blow molding process. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior processing properties and demonstrated a wide processing window to two other PHA materials. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior tensile and impact properties and superior permeation resistance than two other PHA materials from China.
The creep test was applied to obtain rheological information in low-frequency range that is not reachable by use of the frequency sweep test for polyethylene industrial research and development. The test time scale and the applying stress were considered to make the measurement on a large group of samples. By testing several high molecular weight resins having broad molecular weight distribution or long chain branching, we demonstrated utility of this methodology.
Estanislao Ortiz-Rodriguez, Herman Zuwardie, Linjie Zhu, Costas Gogos, May 2012
The non-Newtonian non-isothermal flow in a capillary die is simulated by means of a 2D axis symmetric model. For the momentum equation, slip as well as no slip conditions are implemented at the wall of the flow geometry, whereas for the energy equation constant wall temperature and constant convective heat flux are specified. The results are analyzed in terms of the resulting temperature profiles arising from the different sets of implemented boundary conditions.
The cleanliness of production facilities is an important quality factor. Higher purity minimizes environmental influences and in this way a better process control can be obtained. Therefore, the use of clean room technology is establishing in industries like automotive more and more. To maintain the controlled contamination throughout the process, injection molds, which are intended for production in clean room environments must be adequate to special needs. Special coatings for lubricant-free manufacturing support these concepts.
Even for lifeline plumbing, plumbing materials are required to be recyclable. It is needed to develop the new plumbing materials with the performance of long lifetime and recyclable. In this study, PE-RT mixed with several stabilizers was tested to evaluate for long life and the new method for evaluating lifetime. As a result, it was found that HALS was very effective and the hydrodynamic pressure test was useful to evaluate the lifetime.
Jiang Ming Jin, Feng Chen, Jian Jiang Yang, Huan Cai Li, Ming Qiang Zhong, May 2012
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on sound absorption and attenuation of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). It is shown that the proposed TPE may provide high acoustic transmission loss (TL) within low frequency range. It is suggested here that the high acoustic TL observed in the low frequency range for a solid plate can be as effective as the cellular system, considering the heterogeneous phase framworks and density dispersion in TPE materials.
An overview of common scale-up issues is presented in this paper. This overview includes descriptions of many common scale-up problems as well as examples and suggestions that can help to reduce or eliminate these problems.
The physical property development of blown film products are dependent on at least four parameters: first, the properties of the base resin, second, the strain and strain rate in the machine and transverse directions, third, the temperature profile of the process from die to the “freeze line,” and fourth the crystallization rate as a function of position above the die. The last three issues will be discussed in this paper since they are related to troubleshooting and scale up.
Composites of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced by melt-mixing in a small scale compounder by varying the screw speed between 25 and 400 rpm at a constant mixing time of two minutes. By that, different levels of dispersions, as assessed by quantitative analysis of area ratio of remaining primary agglomerates from light microscopy, were achieved. With increasing screw speed the state of dispersion increases and levels off starting at about 100 rpm.
A collection of 17 techniques is presented for increasing the performance of twin-screw extruders. Processors may be aware of some of these tips, but many are not well known. All are based on solid scientific principles, and have been proven in dozens of extruder installations. Also, all techniques presented are easy to apply, so the benefits can be realized quickly.
Alexander Chudnovsky, Zhenwen Zhou, Haiying Zhang, May 2012
Short-term tests are used in many branches of Science and Engineering to predict future outcomes of long-term processes. It is important to ascertain criteria of similarity between the short-term test and real life events. The criteria for predicting lifetime must reproduce the mechanisms of field failures and have a technically sound procedure for extrapolation of a relatively short test data. A quantitative modeling approach as an alternative to “empirical” extrapolation is proposed in this paper.
Payman Sharifi, Nick Henwood, Chris Liauw, Graham Lees, May 2012
This paper describes a program to assess degradation effects on polyethylene, the most common polymer used in rotomoulding. Polyethylene was compounded with a variety of antioxidant (AO) combinations, pulverized to a powder and then rotationally moulded. The impact strength of samples cut from the rotomoulded parts was correlated with assessments of material condition made using Carbonyl Index (CI) and Yellowness Index (YI). Significant differences were observed between different AO formulations.
This paper describes four basic flow properties of powders and bulk solids and how these properties may be used in diagnosing flow problems in existing handling processes. Included are cohesive strength, frictional properties, permeability, and segregation tendencies. Examples of common flow problems in typical handling systems are provided as well as how a specific flow property may be the controlling factor. Using these properties, a system may be evaluated, and corrective actions developed to eliminate the flow-related problems.
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Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:
Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.