The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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BIOMASS MATERIALS, SHAPE MEMORY POLYURETHANE
In this study, the aliphatic or aromatic isocyanates and poly-alcohols was used to synthesize polyurethane with shape memory function, which the polyol was derived from the biomass polylactic acid (PLA). The recycled PLA was degraded into the low molecular weight PLA (Mw 1,000) and the chain extension agent (1,4-butanediol, BDO) reaction was added to form biomass polyol. The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were proved the synthesis of polyol. The recovery ratio of shape memory and mechanical properties of polyurethane were improved significantly due to the urea structure, the biomass polyurethane with shape memory could be increased up to 95% of recovery ratio. Different isocyanate (hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI, or 4,4- diphenylmethene diisocyanate, MDI) were compared and found that the functional group of aromatic was better than that of aliphatic in the synthesis of polyurethane with shape memory behavior.
INJECTION VELOCITY CONTROL USING 2D MODEL PREDICTIVE ITERATIVE LEARNING ALGORITHM
As a typical batch process, injection molding has the following unique features compared to traditional continuous processes: repeatability, two-dimensional dynamics and stages based operations. A sophisticated control algorithm shall exploit all these features. In this paper, a systematic two-dimensional model predictive iterative learning control algorithm is introduced to control the injection molding process with the injection velocity as an application example. The experimental results prove that the control algorithm has good performance and robustness.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF PLA/PP POROUS FILM
Polylactic acid and polypropylene were melt blended and extruded into 3-10 mil films. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed the polymer blends, unlike the neat PP and PLA materials, exhibited crystallization exotherm in heating scans with a crystallization point varied with the ratio of PLA to PP. This melt crystallization behavior was enhanced with the increase of the content of PLA from 25 to 75%. The polymer blends also showed multiple melting points ranging from approximately 140 to 175°C depending on the ratio of the two polymers and the heating rate. The formation of a new crystallization temperature, the shifting of the melting points, and/or the formation of new melting points suggested some compatibility between PP and PLA. Upon uniaxial stretching, the originally translucent films showed strong stress-whitening phenomena with widespread porous structure developed in the whitened region. SEM showed fibrils with a typical diameter of 2 micron and voids or pores of approximately 5 micron developed in the whitened region. The partial compatibility between PLA and PP could have contributed to the homogeneity of the stress-whitening and the porous structure in the film. The porous films provided two folds or higher increase in oxygen transmission rate depending on the material composition and draw ratio. The structural development and the potential use of the porous PLA/PP films in packaging application are discussed.
DECISION TREE CLASSIFIER FOR ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS ASSOCIATION CAUSING POLYMER COLOR MISMATCH
Nowadays, most manufacturing companies store their data electronically. The selection of the appropriate data mining algorithm for exploration of this data can quickly identify issues leading to process improvement and cost reduction. In this paper, The Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) is used for plastic color mismatch parameters analysis. Especially, the relationship between polymer grade, color, type, line of production, and ingredients supplier is analyzed. DTC Results showed interesting and evident relationships between certain parameters.
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR OF POLY(VINYLIDENE FLUORIDE)/GRAPHENE COMPOSITES WITH LOW PERCOLATION THRESHOLD
Poly(vinylidene ?uoride) (PVDF)/graphene composite was successfully fabricated by a solution-cast and hot- pressing method. The composite material with graphene as conductive ?ller exhibited a very low percolation threshold (0.0018 volume fraction), but the dielectric constant was enhanced signi?cantly. The largest dielectric constant of 7940 was observed for the PVDF/graphene composite with 0.0177 graphene volume fraction at 100 Hz. Large enhancements of the ac conductivity and loss tangent were also observed for the composites with graphene content near the percolation threshold. The percolation theory was used to explain the dielectric behavior of the composite.
THE EFFECT OF FEEDING PROFILE IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHAINS COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF STYRENE/BUTYL ACRYLATE EMULSION COPOLYMERS
A semicontinuous process was used to prepare copolymers varying the feed composition profile, to vary in a gradual manner the composition of the copolymer chains being formed through an emulsion reaction, for the (50/50, w/w) styrene/butyl acrylate system. With the cumulative composition of the copolymers (1H-NMR), the weight distribution of chains composition (WCD) was estimated, constructing a histogram that is used to elucidate the mechanical behavior (DMA, stress-strain and, impact strength) of the synthesized copolymers.
EVALUATION OF DEGRADATION OF BACK-SHEET FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS
To expand use of photovoltaic generation, there is a real need for reducing cost of generating by photovoltaic panels. One of cost-cutting of power generation is to prolong its service life. It is very important to prevent moisture from penetrating the back-sheet for insuring the long-life operation of photovoltaic panels. In this study, the correlation was evaluated between mechanical property and partial discharge of degraded polyethylene terephthalate film for the back-sheet.
POLYMER COMPOSITES WITH HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES: PROCESSING, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
Reducing the weight of thermoplastics and rubber parts has been a paramount objective in various industries such as transportation, aerospace, hand-held electronics and sports and leisure. 3M ™ Glass Bubbles (hollow glass microspheres) are light weight micro additives specially engineered to withstand temperature, stress, and deformation gradients in a wide range of polymer processes ranging from liquid phase polymer processing to high viscosity melt compounding and high pressure injection molding. We will present factors influencing glass bubble survival and discuss processing methodologies to achieve the highest level of bubble survival for a given polymer grade, specifically during twin screw extrusion compounding and injection molding. We will then analyze application examples and demonstrate how the plastics industry and associated OEMs can exploit the light weight advantages of these novel additives while improving the processing and end-product properties without resorting to costly equipment modifications.
VALVE GATE OPTIMIZATION FOR INJECTION MOLDING OF AN AUTOMOTIVE INSTRUMENT PANEL
Injection pressure, an important factor in injection molding process, should be minimized to enhance injection molding quality. In this study, we decided the locations and open timings of valve gates to minimize the maximum injection pressure. To solve this problem, we integrated MAPS-3D (Mold Analysis and Plastic Solution-3Dimension), a commercial injection molding analysis CAE tool, using the file parsing method of PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation and Optimization) as a commercial process integration and design optimization tool. In order to reduce the time for obtaining the optimal design solution, we performed an approximate optimization using a meta-model that replaced expensive computer simulations. To generate the meta-model, computer simulations were performed at the design points selected using the optimal Latin hypercube design as an experimental design. Then, we used micro genetic algorithm available in PIAnO to obtain the optimal design solution. Using the proposed design approach, the maximum injection pressure was reduced by 35.1% compare to the initial one, which clearly showed the validity of the proposed design approach
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/CELLULOSE MICROFIBRIL COMPOSITES
Banana microfibrils were prepared from banana fibre obtained from the pseudo stem of the banana plant by steam explosion process. Alkali and acid treatment coupled with high pressure defibrillation was found to be effective in the depolymerization and defibrillation of the fibre to produce the microfibrils. The different stages of steam explosion process were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Atomic Force microscopy studies (AFM) revealed that the surface of the microfibrils were rough. The prepared micro fibrils were subjected to chemical treatments with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and benzoyl chloride. Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/microfibril composites were prepared by injection molding. The dielectric and mechanical properties of composites and chemically treated microfibril composites were investigated. Dielectric constant of LDPE/microfibril composite was found to be greater that of neat LDPE. Chemical treatments reduced the dielectric constant of the composite. The mechanical properties were found to be increasing upto 20% microfibril loading. Chemical treatments further enhanced the mechanical properties of the composite.
RAPID HEATING AND COOLING SIMULATION FOR THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
In recent years, injection molding technologies have been developed which use variable mold heating and cooling to improve surface finish and general part quality without significantly increasing cycle time. Simulation of these processes requires a transient time dependent mold thermal analysis. This paper presents the further development of a 3D finite element based transient mold cooling simulation capability to include the rapid heating and cooling cycling of the mold. The various rapid heating and cooling stages are explained as well their effect on the part during filling.
INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL-POLYMER FILAMENT FOR FUSED DEPOSITION M0DELLING
POM or polyoxymethylene is an engineering resin used primarily for injection molded parts that replace metal. POM’s usefulness is derived from the combination of strength, stiffness, toughness, creep resistance, and lubricity. POM homopolymer and copolymer compete in this market space. Homopolymer grades have some mechanical advantages while copolymer grades have better thermal and chemical stability. In 2010 Ticona introduced a new high strength, high viscosity POM copolymer with the mechanical properties of a typical homopolymer, while maintaining copolymer stability. This paper introduces an improved flow, high strength POM copolymer, its property profile, salient features and potential applications.
DURABILITY, RELIABILITY AND SAFETY STUDY OF POLYMERS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of damp heat (DH) and ultraviolet light (UV) exposures on the properties and performance of polymeric materials in photovoltaic (PV) modules. The study covers the evaluation of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, TPE (PVF/PET/EV A) substrate, and laminate coupons and modules as a function of exposure time to DH (85°C, 85% RH), and UV (100W/m2, ~2 suns UV irradiance). The results showed that DH exposure had a greater aging effect than UV, and the materials exhibited a greater degree of degradation with increasing exposure time.
EFFECT OF PROCESS VARIABLES ON THE PROPERTIES OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 FOAMED PS/GRAPHITE NANOCOMPOSITE FOAM
Polystyrene / nano-graphite nanocomposite foams were made by melt compounding and in-situ polymerization. The foam was made by batch foaming. The cell morphology was improved with the advanced dispersion of the nanoparticles. In-situ polymerization provided better dispersion and the resulting nanocomposite foam had fine cell size. Adding nanoparticles as a nucleating agent can make foams at a lower foaming pressure. This discovery creates a new route to produce microcellular foams at a low foaming pressure.
DESIGN OF INDUCTION HEATING MODULE FOR UNIFORM CAVITY SURFACE HEATING
Electromagnetic induction heating has many advantages such as fast heating, low energy consumption and environmental pollution reduction. Using induction heating for rapid tool heating is more economic and efficient than any of the tool heating technique. Previous studies using electromagnetic induction heating for rapid tool heating indicate that the temperature uniformity on cavity surface is not easy to be achieved no matter with surface or insert type induction heating. In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of temperature uniformity on mold cavity surface for different induction heating coil. The parallel type coil and magnetic flux concentrators were adopted to form the induction heating device. According to the results of heating experiments, the surface temperature of 10 mm thickness hot work die steel (JIS SKD61) could rise from 50°C to 150°C in 15 seconds and the temperature uniformity of the heated zone reached 94%~95%.
FABRRICATION OF HIGHLY TUBULAR POROUS CHITOSAN/POLY (DL LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) (PLGA) NANOCOMPOSITE STRUCTURES INTENDED FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING SCAFFOLD APPLICATIONS
In this study, highly tubular porous chitosan/poly (DL lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocomposite structures were produced via electrospinning and unidirectional freeze drying techniques. The 3D porous structure of chitosan/PLGA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of the chitosan/PLGA nanocomposite, including porosity, water absorption, and mechanical properties, were investigated. The results showed that a highly tubular porous structure with nano-topography was formed and the compressive modulus increased greatly due to the addition of PLGA nanofibers.
ACCELERATED CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESISTANCE AGAINST CRACK INITIATION AND SLOW CRACK GROWTH OF POLYETHYLENE FOR GEOMEMBRANE APPLICATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA
Two different HDPE-grades were investigated concerning media-resistance. Cyclic tests with CRB-specimen were conducted under three different configurations, tests on exposed and unexposed specimens and tests in a special glass cell with a liquid environment. Additionally conventional immersion-tests with subsequent tensile-tests, OIT-measurement and Infraredspectroscopy were done. A swelling effect of both media and a skin-deep chemical aging was evidenced. Cyclic CRB tests showed comparable results with more pronounced effects for the results of the media cell.
MELT EXTRUSION OF A PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUND CONTAINING A POORLY SOLUBLE THERMOLABILE DRUG
Solid dispersions of the poorly soluble, thermolabile drug Artemisinin in a polymer matrix have been developed using twin screw extrusion. Artemisinin is a particularly challenging drug to use in melt extrusion due to its inherently temperature and process sensitive nature. A co-polymer developed for pharmaceutical extrusion was used as the matrix material and experiments were performed to assess the suitability of this drug-polymer combination at a range of drug loadings and process conditions. The drug was found to act as a plasticizer during extrusion and to be miscible in the polymer matrix. Artemisinin was found to be susceptible to degradation at extended residence times at process temperature. A half length extruder screw configuration was used to minimize degradation of the drug and this yielded optimum drug release rates.
BIO-BASED POLYAMIDES WITH INNOVATIVE FIBRES FOR ENGINEERING PARTS MATERIALS – PROCESS – CHARACTERIZATION - APPLICATIONS
Bio-based polyamides, such as PA 6.10/ Nylon 6.10 and PA 10.10, were compounded with different cellulosic fibers for injection molding applications. PA 6.10 is partly bio-based (>60%) and possessing properties very similar to those of common PA 6. The melting point of PA 6.10 is 220°C and therefore compounding with thermally sensitive cellulose fibres is a challenge. A compounding process for engineering polymers, like polyamide with cellulose fibres, was developed and optimized. It is gentle to the fibers, even at temperatures above 200°C. Furthermore, the molding process parameters were also optimized. Different mechanical properties were studied. The high impact behavior and lightweight potentiality were analyzed for bio-composites with cellulosic fibres.
PREDICTION OF ELASTIC MODULUS OF HYBRID INJECTION MOLDED COMPOSITE
The main drawback of natural fiber reinforced composite is their low mechanical properties. In order to overcome this problem, the hybridization of natural fiber with synthetic fiber was proposed. This work is focused on evaluation of mechanical properties in particular elastic modulus of short glass-jute fiber hybrid polypropylene composite. The specimens have been fabricated by injection molding with different jute/glass fiber hybrid ratios. Experimentally, the tensile modulus of hybrid composite increased with increasing jute fiber content. Theoretically, the elastic modulus is predicted by using classical lamination theory (CLT). The fiber orientation was determined from the fracture surface observation method. Prediction by CLT showed close agreement with experimental values with a maximum deviation of about 5.6%.
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