The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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NEW METHOD TO DETECT COLD FUSION JOINTS IN HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE
This paper describes an innovative apparatus and method that uses electromagnetic energy in the microwave frequency range to volumetrically examine dielectric materials, including high density polyethylene piping fusion joints. This paper describes the theory of use and presents several HDPE inspection case studies. Specifically, this paper describes the mechanics of cold fusion joint detection and in several cases the inspection results are compared to mechanical test results that confirm the accuracy of the examination.
NEW DEVELOPEMNTS IN CO-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUSION ELEMENTS FOR HIGH WEAR APPLICATIONS
Co-rotating twin screw extruders are the industry standard for processing filled resins. Rapid wear to high pressure sections in the extruder lowers product quality and increases downtime to change worn elements. More wear resistant element materials have been developed to lengthen the time between machine teardown requirements. A new HVOF method offers up to four times more wear resistance than standard options. This paper compares this new HVOF method of tungsten carbide protection with standard wear resistant options
BIO- ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE (BIO-ABS): CREATING A NEW GREEN POLYMER THROUGH MELT BLENDING
In this paper, the method for design of a bio-based green material for use in electronics applications is discussed. The aim is substitution of currently used petroleum-based acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) with a bio-based polymer blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and ABS. In this method, polymers will be melt blended and extruded to test their thermal and mechanical properties. The goal is to achieve performance of the blend equal or better to currently used ABS, as well as be a cost competitive alternative.
POLYBUTYLENE WATER SERVICE PIPE: THE OTHER SIDE OF THE STORY
Polybutylene pipe was once widely used in potable water distribution systems. However, problems occurred with the pipe's performance. It was claimed that the root cause of PB water pipe failures was in-service oxidative degradation of the material. These allegations ignored major problems with the installation of the PB water lines. This paper will show that installation issues far outweighed PB oxidation as the root cause of failure of PB water service lines.
PRODUCING NANO AND MICRO FIBERS BY USING JETS OF GAS
In this work, a new process -Gas Jet Fibers (GJF)- that uses a high speed jet of gas to produce nanofibers from a nozzle is presented. In operation, a continuous layer of fiber precursor is fed on a flat surface, whereby the material is stretched and fibers are launched by the action of the high speed air flow field of the jet. Fiber morphology, diameter, and length can be easily controlled by varying the jet conditions, nozzle geometry, and fiber precursor physical properties.
PREDICTING CAPILLARY DIE SWELL OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT HDPE RESINS FOR BLOW MOLDING APPLICATIONS
Capillary die swell of high molecular weight HDPE resins was measured and compared to the prediction based on various rheological models. The predictions based on stress ratio per Leonov model tend to overestimate the capillary die swell while those through Wagner model underestimate. Predictions per Doi- Edwards model were applicable only at low shear rate. This study reveals the need to further assess damping parameters in addition to the relaxation spectrum.
DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF GFRP AT HOT WATER
This study was conducted to understand the degradation mechanisms of GFRP at hot water. Surface and cross section of immersed in hot water samples were observed in detail, and weight change rate and bending strength were researched. The samples were also conducted ultrasonic wave inspection to understand degradation nondestructively. Then, the ultrasonic echo parameter V value was used, and it was understood that V value could show generation or growth of debondings or delaminations.
ALKYD RESIN COATING SYNTHESIZED FROM POST-CONSUMER PET BOTTLES FOR WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITE
Three formulas of alkyd resins were prepared from phthalic anhydride, glycerol, linseed oil, and ethylene glycol or glycolysis product from post-consumer PET bottles. Linseed oil content of 50 wt% was selected aiming to be suitable for WPC. Surface chemistry was studied by contact angle. Coating properties such as drying time, hardness and adhesion strength were studied. It is found that alkyd resin film from glycolysis-product alkyd resins had better than those of conventional alkyd resins.
IMPROVED SCRATCH AND CHEMICAL RESISTANCE ACRYLIC FOR AUTOMOTIVE MOLD-IN-COLOR APPLICATIONS
This paper explores the performance of a grade of Mold-In-Color PMMA used for automotive applications. The focus is improvement vs. traditional PMMA and coating technologies during various scratch and mar abrasion evaluations. Information on solvent stress craze resistance is also reviewed. Various scratch and mar evaluation methods used during this investigation are compared.
ENTREPRENUERSHIP, INNOVATION, AND MANAGEMENT
Innovation is one of the most misused and poorly defined terms when discussing economic growth and development. It’s a buzzword used by politicians with hopes that by just saying it will somehow magically break free us from the mire of the current global economic downturn. There’s no mystery to innovation and at the surface it is rather simple. Innovation simply stated is people implementing ideas to create value. It is easy to understand yet vastly more challenging to do well.
THE DESIGN OF A PROTOTYPE VACUUM THERMOFORMING MACHINE
A prototype of a vacuum thermoforming machine was designed and built at the Metal Industries Company Limited and was commissioned in December 2009. The need for the capability of plastics thermoforming at the Metal Industries Company Limited is described together with the basis for the thermoforming machine design.
IMPROVED GLASS-FILLED HIGH PERFORMANCE THERMOPLASTIC POLYIMIDE COMPOSITES
High performance polymers such as thermoplastic polyimide (TPI), polyetherimide (PEI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) can be reinforced with glass fillers to improve performance. Novel reinforcing strategies, namely the use of new polyimide (PI) sized glass fibers to significantly improve thermal stability, and use of high strength glass fibers (e.g. S-glass) to enhance mechanical properties of the composite have been developed. Performance to commercially available glass-filler with proprietary sizing chemistry, and conventional E-glass based composite is compared respectively.
EFFECT OF RECYCLE ON PROPERTIES SABIC
It is well known that there can be significant sacrifices in properties of recycle containing products. Properties such as color, impact, consistency, and long term aged properties, are commonly reduced in recycled products. We will discuss reasons for loss in properties; showing how these can be modeled with Monte Carlo simulations. Examples will be given to illustrate these property loss effects in polycarbonate, polyester, and in polymer blend products. It will be shown how recycle content products can be designed to have acceptable property profiles.
2 UM FIBER LASERS FOR WELDING OF OPTICALLY CLEAR POLYMERS
ANTEC 2012 Technical Paper - The applications of lasers for welding polymers in industry are slowly increasing but the main problem to date is that joints may only be welded by the transmission welding technique and this significantly reduces design flexibility.
IMPROVING QUALITY AND REDUCING COSTS BY STATE-OF-THE-ART COLOR AND APPEARANCE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
As consumers in mature and growing geographical markets become more sophisticated and discriminating, the color and appearance of products such as home appliances, consumer electronics, or vehicle interiors has become a dominant criterion in consumers’ buying decisions. This fundamental trend requires that not only functional design, but that color, appearance, and finish differentiate successful products’ brand identities and quality from their competitors.
HYDROCARBON FUEL OBTAIN FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS USING STAINLESS STEEL REACTOR
Waste plastics usages are increasing all over the world every day. People are consuming plastics in their daily life for all necessary purposes. After they are used all plastic become garbage and its goes to land fill or incineration facilities. It’s creating environmental problem. Waste plastic can be transform into alternate or renewable energy for electricity or feedstock refinery. The thermal degradation process applied with mixture waste plastics of high density polyethylene (HDPE-2), low density polyethylene (LDPE-4), Polypropylene (PP-5) and Polystyrene (PS-6) using stainless steel reactor has been successful in converting into liquid fuel. The polymer has been selected for the experiment 100% HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS by weight. The temperature used for degradation ranges from 150-400 °C and the experiment takes about was 5 -6 hours. The obtain products are liquid fuel, light gas and black carbon residue. Various techniques such as, (Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer, FT-IR and DSC) are used for obtain the analysis of the fuel purposed. GC/MS result indicates hydrocarbon compound in the produced fuel ranges from C3-C28 and also present C1-C4 light gases. Also further fractional distillation process was used to obtain different 5 (Gasoline, Naphtha, Aviation, Diesel and Fuel Oil) category liquid fuel by using different temperature profiles. All of the fraction fuels have different carbon range and contain long chain hydrocarbon like alkane and alkene and some aromatic compound.
SIMULTANEOUS MILLING, COATING AND COAT-CURING OF PARTICULATES IN A FLUID ENERGY MILL VIA PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION
In conjunction with UV technology, a fluid energy mill (FEM) was demonstrated to simultaneously and in-situ achieve several functions, namely: size reduction of pre-coated coarse micron-sized particles with UV-curable chemicals into smaller (ca. 1~10?m) particles, coating of UV chemicals onto the milled particles, and curing of the UV chemicals. IR analysis showed that the double bond conversion was up to 71% and 93% using air and nitrogen as motive gas, respectively.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE/MICRONIZED RUBBER POWDER COMPOSITES
This investigation focuses on understanding the effects of particle size and surface area of cryogenically- ground micronized rubber powders (MRP) on the properties of MRP/polypropylene (PP) composites. Comparisons are made with ambient-ground rubber powders and its PP composites. The morphology of the fracture surfaces of the composites is studied in relation to the effects of particle size on mechanical properties. In addition, this paper discusses utilizing a compatibilizer with MRP in improving the mechanical performance of the PP composites for its use in various market segments, such as automotive, consumer and, construction.
PROCESSING-STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH NEAT POLYPROPYLENE
Solid-state shear pulverization is a unique, emerging processing technique for mechanochemical modification of polymers, compatibilization of polymer blends, and exfoliation and dispersion of fillers in polymer composites. The instrumentation is a modified twin-screw extruder, where the barrels are continuously cooled below the transition temperatures of polymers. Using a model system of neat polypropylene, the effects of various processing parameters, such as barrel dimensions and temperature, screw design, and material feed rate, are correlated to output morphology, structure and properties.
GENERATION OF AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO DESCRIBE THE EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION OF DRAG RATIO FOR A TWO PHASE HORIZONTAL PIPE FLOW OF NON-NEWTONIAN LIQUID (CARBOPOL)/AIR MIXTURE
The prediction of the pressure drop gradient and the evaluation of the drag reduction phenomenon observed during the piping multiphase flow of a Carbopol/Air mixture have been investigated. Viscous flow tests in rotational rheometers and pressure drop measurements in pipe lines have been carried out with both smooth and rough surfaces. The Power law model is used to predict the pressure drop gradient. The pressure drop gradient in the intermittent multiphase flow regimes can be predicted by modifying the classical approach of Lockhart and Martinelli with an empirical correction factor. An Empirical model with quadratic equation has been proposed to describe the experimental evolution of drag ratio as a function of Re'L / Re'TP.
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