SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Wei Yan, Shuhao Quo, Minmin Zhang, Jie Yu, May 2010
In this article, polyamide 6(PA6)/Organoclay masterbatch were prepared by melt mixing, and then acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS)/polyamide 6(PA6)(70/30,w/w) nanocomposites were prepared by the melt mixing of PA6, ABS and organoclay. The effect of organoclay platelets on dispersion of ABS/PA6/organoclay ternary nanocomposites had been investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphology analysis revealed that organoclay platelets were selectively dispersed and exfoliated in PA6 phase, but some were located in interface of PA6 and ABS phase.
Jason C. Baird, Ph.D. | John P. Christiano,, May 2010
A comprehensive study was conducted using three different types of extruder drive and motor configurations for a single screw extruder under identical conditions to compare the energy efficiency. Sound emission data was also measured and compared. Two systems of a conventional design used an AC or DC motor in combination with a mechanical gear reducer and were compared to a Direct Drive system using only a torque motor. The study showed that the Direct Drive system operated at higher energy efficiency and produced lower sound emissions compared to the AC & DC conventional systems. The results show that at the base speed of the drive train, the DC system consumed 10% more energy (kW) than the AC system, and the Direct Drive system consumed between 12 and 15% less energy than the AC system, depending upon the torque required.
Chan I. Chung, MoonKi Choi, Lee Gunning, Eberhard Gruenschloss,, May 2010
Plasma processes constantly gain importance in the field of plastics processing. They are influenced by production parameters on one hand and the substrate itself on the other hand. The properties of polymers vary substantially depending on their processing conditions or their history. This paper describes investigations on the plasma modification of polyamide (PA6) and polypropylene (PP). This includes the examination of the influence of absorbed water in the surface near regions of the bulk material as well as the interaction with the polymeric microstructure. The knowledge of this interaction between plasma and thermoplastic surface can be used for the process development or quality assurance in terms of plasma-assisted modification of polymers.
Renewable Resource-Based Composites for the Automotive Industry
Dejan Andjelkovic, September 2009
The incorporation of renewable resources in composite materials is a viable means to reduce environmental impact and support sustainability efforts in the composites industry. This paper will focus on unsaturatedpolyester resins prepared from renewable resources and their use in composite materials. Applications of these resins in the automotive industry will be described including a comparison of properties and performance vs. typical petroleum-based resins.
Development of Injection Moldable Composites Utilizing Annually Renewable Natural Fibers
Ellen Lee, September 2009
In order to advance the commercialization of natural fiber reinforced plastics for automotive use a partnership was formed between academia natural fiber processor material supplier and OEM. This partnership improved the communication along the supply chain and resulted in optimized material properties to meet OEM specifications and application part performance. Several products have been developed that meet current material specifications offer significant weight savings over conventional mineral- and glass-reinforced composites and are competitively priced.
Economical Preform Production for Conventional & Natural Fiber Composites
Anthony Mascarin, September 2009
This paper presents an independent cost analysis for a novel slurrybased preform technology in order to understand its potential benefits across a range of component and reinforcement scenarios. Specifically the economics for small medium and large automotive composites reinforced with glass carbon and natural fibers through the use of manual sprayup automated P-4 and slurry preforming are examined and compared through technical cost analysis. The molding economics of SMC RTM and SRIM are also addressed in detail.
Renewably Sourced Engineering Polymers for High-Performance End-Use Applications
Richard Bell, September 2009
External trends have continued to drive end users in consumer and industrial applications to seek renewably sourced and sustainable solutions to use in more and more demanding applications. To meet this need a portfolio of renewably sourced engineering materials was developed. The products are designed to provide performance and functionality equivalent to or better than today’s petroleumbased materials while reducing the environmental footprint. The portfolio includes glass-reinforced thermoplastic grades for high strength and stiffness.
Improved Matrix Materials for High-Performance Carbon Fiber Aromatic Thermosetting Copolyester
Zeba Farheen Abdul Samad, September 2009
The use of new aromatic thermosetting copolyester (ATSP) is described and compared to the best available epoxies for high performance composites. ATSP oligomers display liquid crystalline behavior which was identified using optical microscopy with cross-polarizers.ATSP tailored to have a liquid crystalline structure has reduced stresses at the fiber/matrix interface and better thermal fatigue resistance compared to epoxy.
Low Temperature Cure Polyurethane Adhesive for Primerless" Composite Bonding "
Michael Barker, September 2009
A new polyurethane adhesive has been developed that provides excellent adhesion to SMC HSU and RTM without surface preparation and requiring only a room-temperature cure or greatly reduced postbake temperatures. This presentation will review where such an adhesive will find application its general chemistry and supporting data.
Bentley Motors Develops Unique Directional Carbon Fibre Preforming Process for Chassis Rails
Antony Dodworth, September 2009
Details are presented on an automated process for manufacturing net-shape charges for compression moulding using a spray-deposition technique. The novel process uses a resin-spray technique and magnetic fibre to position and hold fibres onto the tool face. The process is intended for producing structural components using discontinuous bundles for medium-volume applications.
Reducing Setup Costs: Tooling Force Prediction in Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) & Compression RTM
Andrew Wabran, September 2009
Mould tools used for processes such as RTM and compression RTM must withstand significant forces generated by the fluid resin and the fibrous reinforcement. Prediction of these forces will allow for optimizations in setup costs and time and maximize the usage of the capabilities of peripheral equipment (such as presses). SimLCM is being developed at the University of Auckland as a simulation package with the capability to predict clamping forces and stress distributions during complete moulding cycles for RTM and CRTM.
Pushtrusion™ Direct In-Line (D-LFT) Compounding Technology versus LFT Pellets & GMT Sheet
Eric Wollan, September 2009
PlastiComp’s direct in-line (D-LFT) compounding process provides processors of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics a simple and affordable alternative to pre-compounded pellets and GMT sheet while yielding equivalent and in some cases slightly higher mechanical properties. This paper summarizes a comparative study of the properties of D-LFT vs. traditional LFT pellets in an injection-molding process as well as D-LFT vs. GMT sheet in a compression-molding process.
A Formulation Study of Long Fiber Thermoplastic Polypropylene (Part 1): The Effects of Coupling Agent Type & Properties
Creig Bowland, September 2009
The relationship between the resin and fiber properties in polypropylene long fiber thermoplastics is further analyzed in the second part of this work. The properties of the maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene additives (coupling agents) are studied and correlations between the maleic anhydride content melt flow and base polymer used is presented. Polypropylene long fiber thermoplastics pellets were compounded with various coupling agents. The materials were then molded and tested. The results of the study are presented.
High Performance Reinforcement: A Pathway to Density Reduction while Maintaining Physical Properties of Polyolefin Composites
David Lake, September 2009
To achieve significant part weight reductions of 15-20% Milliken Chemical's high performance reinforcing (HPR) additive may be an excellent choice for the replacement of talc and other mineral fillers in polypropylene composites. For instance vs. talc HPR will typically provide comparable or superior performance with only about one-third of conventional talc concentrations. Furthermore these improvements may be realized without any detrimental effects on aesthetic properties.
Innovative PPS Blow-Molded Air Duct for Turbocharged Diesel Engine
Duane Emerson, September 2009
A new patented in-mold assembly process forms an optimized assembly using a combination of blow molding and injection molding for a turbo-charged diesel charge air duct. The process incorporates a 15%-GF-reinforced blow-molding grade and a 30%-GF-reinforced injection molding grade of polyphenylene sulfide. PPS was the material of choice due to its superior heat and chemical resistance.
Advances in Thermoplastic Composites Using CBT
Fred Deans, September 2009
The use of cyclic-polybutylene terephthalate (C-PBT) for manufacturing high-performance composites is taking on new roles. Advances in injection molding RTM molding pultrusion and composite tooling are benefiting from the use C-PBT thermoplastic resins leading to the development of new C-PBT technologies and applications.
Alternative Methods to Enable the Powder Priming of SMC
Hamid Kia, September 2009
Previous work has shown that the newly developed SMC systems are powder-primer ready in straight-through operations. However after an extended stoppage in the operation – such as July shutdown – the success of the powder application depends on the severity of temperature ramp in the oven. To overcome this issue alternative methods are proposed such as 4 min. of preheating in the oven at 180°C or 3 min. of IR exposure.
The Influence of SMC Formulation Inner Panel Thickness & Bond Stand-Offs on Bond-Line Read-Through Severity
Kedzie Fernholz, September 2009
Two experiments designed to understand the relationship between material and process factors and bond-line read-through (BLRT) severity will be discussed. Regression analyses of the data collected in these experiments were able to establish relationships between the experimental factors and BLRT severity with at least 80% correlation.
Flexibility in the Direct Strand Moulding Compound (D-SMC) Process
Tobias Potyra, September 2009
In order to improve quality issues as well as to establish an integrated and continuous process for compression-moulded parts a direct processing technology has been developed. This presentation should demonstrate the flexibility of the new direct-SMC technology in terms of use of alternative and new raw materials and formulations.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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