SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
FAILURE ANALYSIS OF A PLASTIC SLIDE VALVE ASSEMBLY
Ahamed Shabeer, May 2008
Premature cracks were observed during service in the slide valve assembly molded from an acrylonitilebutadiene- styrene resin. The investigation focused on the determination of nature and cause of the failure. The results obtained during the evaluation indicated that the failure was due to environmental stress cracking, which occurred as a consequence of the presence of the residual stress and the stress cracking agent. This paper will focus on the testing used to characterize the failure mode and identify the cause of the cracking of the slide valve assembly.
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATOIN OF VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES AND SLIP BEHAVIOR OF THIN FILMS OF N-HEXADECANE IN THE SHEAR FLOW
Chen-Chieh Wang , Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2008
We investigate the viscoelastic properties of chain molecules (n-hexadecane) under steady state and oscillatory shear flow of ultra thin films by molecular dynamics simulation. The stress vs. strain rate diagram of the oscillatory shear flow system is used to determine the range of linear viscoelasticity. In addition interfacial slip is observed and discussed in both cases. The critical shear stress at which slip occurs is also found in our simulation.
RELATION BETWEEN BUBBLE STABILITY IN THE FILM BLOWING PROCESS AND MFI
Erika Palacios-Aguilar , Leonardo Cortés-Rodríguez , Jaime Bonilla-Ríos, May 2008
Several HDPE resins with different bubble film stability were tested in a melt flow indexer using the typical die (L = 8 mm D = 2.095 mm) and a zero die (L = 1.3 mm D = 2.095 mm) at two different loads (21.6 kg and 5 kg). A direct correlation was found between the MFI results and the bubble stability.
RELATION BETWEEN BUBBLE STABILITY IN THE FILM BLOWING PROCESS AND MFI
Erika Palacios-Aguilar , Leonardo Cortés-Rodríguez , Jaime Bonilla-Ríos, May 2008
Several HDPE resins with different bubble film stability were tested in a melt flow indexer using the typical die (L = 8 mm, D = 2.095 mm) and a zero die (L = 1.3 mm, D = 2.095 mm) at two different loads (21.6 kg and 5 kg). A direct correlation was found between the MFI results and the bubble stability.
COST EFFECTIVE TiO2 EXTENSION IN WHITE COLOR CONCENTRATES USING ANHYDROUS CALCIUM SULFATE
Susan Dichter , John Hollendonner, May 2008
Anhydrous calcium sulfate is manufactured from high purity, naturally occurring gypsum deposits in Oklahoma, USA. The final product is a white, fine grind powder which is suitable to extend and replace TiO2 in white color concentrate master batches. The material is heat stable in the realm of plastics processing temperatures and it is compatible with the various resins typically used in this application. Due to its low Mohs hardness, calcium sulfate is easily processed while providing opacity by acting as an efficient and cost effective TiO2 spacer in the concentrate.
ELIMINATION OF DEFECTS FROM INJECTION MOLDED POLYSTYRENE PARTS VIA SCREW MODIFICATIONS
Mark A. Spalding , Joseph R. Powers, May 2008
Many injection molded part defects are caused by improper screw designs. Elimination of the defect and optimization of the process can often be performed via simple modifications to the screw. A case study is presented where a splay defect was caused by a screw with a low compression ratio with regions where resin can stagnate and degrade and with a limited melting capacity. Modification of the screw eliminated the defects and decreased the cycle time by 8% an improved the plant capacity by 14%.
ELIMINATION OF DEFECTS FROM INJECTION MOLDED POLYSTYRENE PARTS VIA SCREW MODIFICATIONS
Mark A. Spalding , Joseph R. Powers, May 2008
Many injection molded part defects are caused by improper screw designs. Elimination of the defect and optimization of the process can often be performed via simple modifications to the screw. A case study is presented where a splay defect was caused by a screw with a low compression ratio, with regions where resin can stagnate and degrade, and with a limited melting capacity.Modification of the screw eliminated the defects and decreased the cycle time by 8% an improved the plant capacity by 14%.
AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO DESIGNING PLASTICATING SCREWS FOR SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS
Mark A. Spalding , Gregory A. Campbell, May 2008
An engineering approach for the design of plasticating screws is presented with a case study. The approach uses a combination of experimental data and numerical simulations.
AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO DESIGNING PLASTICATING SCREWS FOR SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS
Mark A. Spalding , Gregory A. Campbell, May 2008
An engineering approach for the design of plasticating screws is presented with a case study. The approach uses a combination of experimental data and numerical simulations.
POLYCARBONATE HYDROLYSIS
Robert R. Gallucci, May 2008
The hydrolysis of polycarbonate (PC) is compared to polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). Phosphorus additives are shown to accelerate PC hydrolysis. Polycarbonate polyester (PEC) copolymers hydrolyze faster than PC however hydrolysis of the copolymer can be retarded by addition of a hydro stabilizer. Color clarity and mechanical properties are retained.
POLYCARBONATE HYDROLYSIS
Robert R. Gallucci, May 2008
The hydrolysis of polycarbonate (PC) is compared to polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). Phosphorus additives are shown to accelerate PC hydrolysis. Polycarbonate polyester (PEC) copolymers hydrolyze faster than PC, however hydrolysis of the copolymer can be retarded by addition of a hydro stabilizer. Color, clarity and mechanical properties are retained.
MORPHOLOGY STUDY FOR MICROCELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING
Jingyi Xu, May 2008
The morphology of microcellular injection molding is investigated for different materials at different processing conditions in current available equipments. Several morphology models are proposed based on this study. The conclusions provide the guidelines to select the best processing parameters for different materials to make the good morphology of microcellular foam by injection molding with the minimum material property changes.
MORPHOLOGY STUDY FOR MICROCELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING
Jingyi Xu, May 2008
The morphology of microcellular injection molding is investigated for different materials at different processing conditions in current available equipments. Several morphology models are proposed based on this study.The conclusions provide the guidelines to select the best processing parameters for different materials to make the good morphology of microcellular foam by injection molding with the minimum material property changes.
CAE SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON WARP OF AN INJECTION MOLDED PART
Shijun Ni, May 2008
The warpage of an injection molded part was predicted by CAE injection molding simulation software using mid-plane Fusion and true three-dimensional analyses. An Arburg 320S Allrounder 55 ton injection molding machine was used for producing parts. The part deformation was then measured on a CMM. The predicted part warpage among three mesh models was compared to the measurement of part deformation. It was found that the predicted part warp using the true threedimensional model was in a good agreement with the measurement of the part.
CAE SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON WARP OF AN INJECTION MOLDED PART
Shijun Ni, May 2008
The warpage of an injection molded part was predicted by CAE injection molding simulation software using mid-plane, Fusion and true three-dimensional analyses. An Arburg 320S Allrounder 55 ton injection molding machine was used for producing parts. The part deformation was then measured on a CMM. The predicted part warpage among three mesh models was compared to the measurement of part deformation. It was found that the predicted part warp using the true three-dimensional model was in a good agreement with the measurement of the part.
PROCESSING AND BLENDS OF BIOPLASTICS
Stephen P. McCarthy, May 2008
Biopolymers are generally defined as polymers that are found in nature derived from nature or utilized as medical implants. Polymeric biomaterials which are utilized as medical implants are typically characterized for enduse performance as well as processability. While lactic acid is found in the human body polylactic acid is derived from natural resources and utilized as medical implants. This paper will utilize poly(lactic acid) as an example of a bioplastic where the morphological and isomeric structure has an influence on end-use properties such as mechanical properties biodegradability and biocompatibility.
SCREW DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIOBASED POLYMERS
Edward Steward, May 2008
The family of biobased polymers is ever growing in number and in popularity and the extruder/screw manufacturing businesses need to keep abreast of the machinery requirements of these polymers to insure that efficient processing is understood. This paper will look at the extrusion parameters and logic that are important to determining the most efficient screw designs and extrusion operating conditions for processing biopolymers. Vented and non-vented operation will be discussed. PLA data will be used as the basis for the conclusions.
SCREW DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIOBASED POLYMERS
Edward Steward, May 2008
The family of biobased polymers is ever growing in number and in popularity and the extruder/screw manufacturing businesses need to keep abreast of the machinery requirements of these polymers to insure that efficient processing is understood. This paper will look at the extrusion parameters and logic that are important to determining the most efficient screw designs and extrusion operating conditions for processing biopolymers. Vented and non-vented operation will be discussed. PLA data will be used as the basis for the conclusions.
HIGH PERFORMANCES POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES BLENDS OF PEI AND PEEK
Pritesh Patel, May 2008
Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) range 1 3 & 5 wt% were used in the blend of poly (ether imide) and poly (ether ether Ketone). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to investigate the changes in glass transition temperature. The dynamic mechanical behavior of polymer blends was found to be affected by the nanotubes inclusion dispersion and interaction between the compositions. At high filler inclusion nanotubes align anisotropic during injection molding processing possibly due to the high melt viscosity of the final composition.
HIGH PERFORMANCES POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES BLENDS OF PEI AND PEEK
Pritesh Patel, May 2008
Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) range 1, 3 & 5 wt% were used in the blend of poly (ether imide) and poly (ether ether Ketone). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to investigate the changes in glass transition temperature. The dynamic mechanical behavior of polymer blends was found to be affected by the nanotubes inclusion, dispersion and interaction between the compositions. At high filler inclusion, nanotubes align anisotropic during injection molding processing possibly due to the high melt viscosity of the final composition.


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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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