SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
THE USE OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS IN INTERNAL LAYERS OF MULTILAYER FILM STRUCTURES
David J. Walsh , Andrew Smillie , Christina Troeltzsch, May 2008
When Entira™ antistatic agents are used in the internal layer of a multilayer film structure the measured surface resistivity will be higher than when it is used in a surface layer. However the static decay times of the film are unchanged and the film retains its antistatic properties as evidenced by for example its resistance to dust pick up. This is an attractive solution in applications which are hyper-sensitive to risk of contamination since the contact layer can be a pure polyolefin.
THE USE OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS IN INTERNAL LAYERS OF MULTILAYER FILM STRUCTURES
David J. Walsh , Andrew Smillie , Christina Troeltzsch, May 2008
When Entira antistatic agents are used in the internal layer of a multilayer film structure, the measured surface resistivity will be higher than when it is used in a surface layer. However the static decay times of the film are unchanged, and the film retains its antistatic properties as evidenced by, for example, its resistance to dust pick up. This is an attractive solution in applications which are hyper-sensitive to risk of contamination since the contact layer can be a pure polyolefin.
POLYOXYMETHYLENE (POM) FOR ROTATIONAL MOLDING APPLICATIONS
Michael J. Gehrig, May 2008
Polyoxymethylene (POM) commonlyreferred to as acetal or polyacetal wascommercially introduced to the rotationalmolding markets in 2006. This presentation willprovide an introduction to POM that includesfeatures and properties processing guidelines andmarket applications.
MICROFLUIDIC MIXER FOR POLYMER MELTS
Doyoung Moon , Kalman B. Migler, May 2008
We present a novel microfluidic mixer for high temperature polymer melts based on the platform of the Multi-sample Micro-slit Rheometer (MMR). The device is essentially a static mixer with eight consecutive units of splitting and recombination flow formed by stacking three stainless steel shims (50 ?m thickness). The mixing results show both multilayer and domain/matrix morphologies depending on the channel configuration and blend pair. This mixer will be particularly useful not only as a polymer melt mixer but as a multilayer processor when a limited material quantity (typical sample size ? 20 ?L) is available.
MICROFLUIDIC MIXER FOR POLYMER MELTS
Doyoung Moon , Kalman B. Migler, May 2008
We present a novel microfluidic mixer for high temperature polymer melts based on the platform of the Multi-sample Micro-slit Rheometer (MMR). The device is essentially a static mixer with eight consecutive units of splitting and recombination flow formed by stacking three stainless steel shims (50 ?¬m thickness). The mixing results show both multilayer and domain/matrix morphologies depending on the channel configuration and blend pair. This mixer will be particularly useful not only as a polymer melt mixer but as a multilayer processor when a limited material quantity (typical sample size ƒ?? 20 ?¬L) is available.h
THE EFFECTS OF PLGA COMPOSITION ON MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIOSCAFFOLDS
Linus Leung , Christine Chan , Soo Baek , Hani Naguib, May 2008
In this study bioscaffolds using poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) were studied. The gas foaming/ salt leaching technique in a batch setup was employed. The effects of material composition on the morphology and mechanical properties using this process were investigated. Characterization of scaffolds fabricated with PLGA 85/15 and 50/50 showed that lower relative density was achieved with an increasing poly(DL-lactide) acid content. Furthermore the effect of PLGA composition on modulus of the scaffolds was minor.
A COMPARISON OF BLOWN AND CAST HDPE FILM USING EXPANDABLE MICROSPHERE TECHNOLOGY
Sarah Schirmer , Christopher Thellen , Jo Ann Ratto, May 2008
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) blown and cast films were extruded with 0.5% 0.75% and 1.0% microspheres by weight comparing two different grades of microspheres using two different temperature profiles. All films were analyzed for oxygen and water vapor barrier as well as tensile properties. The blown film samples demonstrated significantly lower oxygen and water vapor permeation rates than the cast films as well as a higher Young’s modulus; however the cast films showed a higher toughness.
A COMPARISON OF BLOWN AND CAST HDPE FILM USING EXPANDABLE MICROSPHERE TECHNOLOGY
Sarah Schirmer , Christopher Thellen , Jo Ann Ratto, May 2008
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) blown and cast films were extruded with 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% microspheres by weight, comparing two different grades of microspheres using two different temperature profiles. All films were analyzed for oxygen and water vapor barrier, as well as tensile properties. The blown film samples demonstrated significantly lower oxygen and water vapor permeation rates than the cast films, as well as a higher Youngƒ??s modulus; however the cast films showed a higher toughness.
NOVEL SINGLE SCREW ELONGATIONAL COMPOUNDER FOR THERMALLY SENSITVE MATERIALS
Keith Luker, May 2008
At Antec 2007 a new single screw compounder(SSE) was introduced. The mixing elements along thescrew had axial flutes with elongational mixing (AFEM).In some process conditions such a mixer can also haveupstream axial flow with additional elongational anddistributive mixing. The Recirculator [1] hereafterAFEM demonstrated effective compounding ofimmiscible blends to 1 micron and particulate mixing tothe 500 nanometer scale. [2]
ACETAL ALLOYS FOR ROTATIONAL MOLDING APPLICATIONS
Michael J. Gehrig, May 2008
In 2007 two new acetal thermoplastic alloyshave been developed for rotational moldingapplications. These alloys provide the molderwith exceptional market opportunities as theyoffer the combined properties of the host andadditive resins. These materials are processorfriendly and moderately priced. This presentationwill provide an introduction to the new alloys processing guidelines and market opportunities.
ACETAL ALLOYS FOR ROTATIONAL MOLDING APPLICATIONS
Michael J. Gehrig, May 2008
In 2007, two new acetal thermoplastic alloys have been developed for rotational molding applications. These alloys provide the molder with exceptional market opportunities as they offer the combined properties of the host and additive resins. These materials are processor friendly and moderately priced. This presentation will provide an introduction to the new alloys, processing guidelines, and market opportunities.
BULK RESIN DENSITY AND PLASTICITY FOR PET AND LDPE
Stephen J. Derezinski, May 2008
The compression of the solid resin feed in the extrusion process increases its density to form the solid feed plug. Laboratory measurements were made of the density of the resin feed as a function of stress for PET and LDPE resins. Also the densities upon release of the stress were recorded and they showed that PET resin remains significantly more compressed than does the LDPE resin. The LDPE resin is more elastic and this difference is postulated to be a factor in the mechanics of the solid plug melting and flow stability. Supportive extruder stability data are cited shown and analyzed.
Bulk Resin Density And Plasticity For PET And LDPE
Stephen J. Derezinski, May 2008
The compression of the solid resin feed in the extrusion process increases its density to form the solid feed plug. Laboratory measurements were made of the density of the resin feed as a function of stress for PET and LDPE resins. Also, the densities upon release of the stress were recorded, and they showed that PET resin remains significantly more compressed than does the LDPE resin. The LDPE resin is more elastic, and this difference is postulated to be a factor in the mechanics of the solid plug, melting, and flow stability. Supportive extruder stability data are cited, shown, and analyzed.
DEVELOPMENT OF ION CONDUCTIVE POLYMER GELS WITH ADDITION OF IONIC LIQUID
Jiao Guo , Kyonsuku Min, May 2008
A new ion gel system consisting ofpolymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate(BMIPF?ÿ6) was developed by in-situ free radical?ÿpolymerization in the presence of crosslinking agent. Iongels were prepared with respect to different weight ratioof MMA to IL. The ion gel films were transparent selfstandingand flexible and exhibit a high ambient ionicconductivity. Thermal analysis and the interactionbetween PMMA matrix and IL were also investigated.
THIN NANOCELLULAR PLASTIC SHEET WITH PATTERNED FOAMING
Junya Kojima , Tomoyuki Takada , Yoshiharu Nishikori , Hiroyasu Tachibana , Fumio Jinno, May 2008
A thin nanocellular plastic sheet with a designed foaming pattern which is difficult to prepare using the supercritical CO2 foaming method has been developed using a photochemical foaming technology. For this purpose a new acrylic polymer with t-butyl ester groups that produce the foaming gas by chemical reaction is introduced. With this technology foaming of the plastic can be controlled by ultraviolet irradiation and heating. A large-format nanocellular sheet can be manufactured in a continuous process.
THIN NANOCELLULAR PLASTIC SHEET WITH PATTERERNED FOAMING
Junya Kojima , Tomoyuki Takada , Yoshiharu Nishikori , Hiroyasu Tachibana , Fumio Jinno, May 2008
A thin nanocellular plastic sheet with a designed foaming pattern, which is difficult to prepare using the supercritical CO2 foaming method, has been developed using a photochemical foaming technology. For this purpose, a new acrylic polymer with t-butyl ester groups that produce the foaming gas by chemical reaction is introduced. With this technology, foaming of the plastic can be controlled by ultraviolet irradiation and heating. A large-format nanocellular sheet can be manufactured in a continuous process.
MEASURING DISTINCTNESS OF IMAGE OF HIGH GLOSS SURFACES
Dieter P. Gruber , Michael Buder-Stroisznigg, May 2008
Human eye-apparatus notices varying distinctness of image (DOI) of glossy surfaces very accurately. Therefore high resolving measuring techniques are required. This paper aims on presenting the Intensity Profile Analysis (IPA) a novel methodology for the measurement of distinctness of surface reflected images. IPA enables measuring fine detail reproduction of glossy surfaces with good correlation to standard DOI measurements while featuring considerably enhanced preciseness. IPA is a non-contact technique and therefore applicable for uncured or hot surfaces.
AN ASSESSMENT ON OPTICAL QUALITY OF MOLDED BACKLITE COMPARED TO THERMOFORMED BACKLITE
Chengtao Li, May 2008
Injection molding and thermoforming are common processes in both plastics and automotive industry. A preliminary study was made comparing the quality of large complex transparent and optical rear window parts (automotive backlite prototypes) produced from an injection-compression molding process and a vacuuming thermoforming process. Optical quality on the parts was evaluated in terms of optical clarity (only the haze is discussed in this paper) optical distortion birefringence and stress shape and dimension. It was demonstrated that overall the molded backlites had much better optical quality than the vacuum thermoformed backlites based on the same shape and dimensions. Process recommendation quality control and improvement for large complex optical application of plastic products such as automotive polycarbonate (PC) glazing are given during the discussion.
AN ASSESSMENT ON OPTICAL QUALITY OF MOLDED BACKLITE COMPARED
Chengtao Li, May 2008
Injection molding and thermoforming are commonprocesses in both plastics and automotive industry. Apreliminary study was made comparing the quality oflarge, complex, transparent, and optical rear window parts(automotive backlite prototypes) produced from aninjection-compression molding process and a vacuumingthermoforming process. Optical quality on the parts wasevaluated in terms of optical clarity (only the haze isdiscussed in this paper), optical distortion, birefringenceand stress, shape and dimension. It was demonstrated thatoverall the molded backlites had much better opticalquality than the vacuum thermoformed backlites based onthe same shape and dimensions. Process recommendation,quality control and improvement for large complex opticalapplication of plastic products, such as automotivepolycarbonate (PC) glazing, are given during thediscussion.
MELT FRACTURE OF LINEAR POLYETHYLENES: MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND DIE GEOMETRY EFFECTS
Mahmoud Ansari , Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos, May 2008
The melt fracture polymer extrusion instabilities are studied primarily as functions of the geometrical details of die (cylindrical slit and annular) and molecular structure of polymers. Experimental observations concerning the flow curves the critical wall shear/extensional stresses for the onset of the instabilities and the effects of geometry and operating conditions are presented for two linear polyethylenes mainly highdensity polyethylenes (HDPEs). It is found that sharkskin and other melt fracture phenomena are sensitive to details of the molecular weight distribution (MWD). It is also found that critical conditions for the onset of various melt fracture phenomena depend significantly on the type of die used for their study. For example sharkskin melt fracture in slit and capillary extrusion was obtained at much smaller critical shear stress values compared to those found in annular extrusion. Such observations explain the lack of correlation between experimental results from the laboratory and the full scale process.


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