The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Renewable Resource-Based Composites for the Automotive Industry
The incorporation of renewable resources in composite materials is a viable means to reduce environmental impact and support sustainability efforts in the composites industry. This paper will focus on unsaturatedpolyester resins prepared from renewable resources and their use in composite materials. Applications of these resins in the automotive industry will be described including a comparison of properties and performance vs. typical petroleum-based resins.
Development of Injection Moldable Composites Utilizing Annually Renewable Natural Fibers
In order to advance the commercialization of natural fiber reinforced plastics for automotive use a partnership was formed between academia natural fiber processor material supplier and OEM. This partnership improved the communication along the supply chain and resulted in optimized material properties to meet OEM specifications and application part performance. Several products have been developed that meet current material specifications offer significant weight savings over conventional mineral- and glass-reinforced composites and are competitively priced.
Economical Preform Production for Conventional & Natural Fiber Composites
This paper presents an independent cost analysis for a novel slurrybased preform technology in order to understand its potential benefits across a range of component and reinforcement scenarios. Specifically the economics for small medium and large automotive composites reinforced with glass carbon and natural fibers through the use of manual sprayup automated P-4 and slurry preforming are examined and compared through technical cost analysis. The molding economics of SMC RTM and SRIM are also addressed in detail.
Renewably Sourced Engineering Polymers for High-Performance End-Use Applications
External trends have continued to drive end users in consumer and industrial applications to seek renewably sourced and sustainable solutions to use in more and more demanding applications. To meet this need a portfolio of renewably sourced engineering materials was developed. The products are designed to provide performance and functionality equivalent to or better than today’s petroleumbased materials while reducing the environmental footprint. The portfolio includes glass-reinforced thermoplastic grades for high strength and stiffness.
Improved Matrix Materials for High-Performance Carbon Fiber Aromatic Thermosetting Copolyester
The use of new aromatic thermosetting copolyester (ATSP) is described and compared to the best available epoxies for high performance composites. ATSP oligomers display liquid crystalline behavior which was identified using optical microscopy with cross-polarizers.ATSP tailored to have a liquid crystalline structure has reduced stresses at the fiber/matrix interface and better thermal fatigue resistance compared to epoxy.
Low Temperature Cure Polyurethane Adhesive for Primerless" Composite Bonding "
A new polyurethane adhesive has been developed that provides excellent adhesion to SMC HSU and RTM without surface preparation and requiring only a room-temperature cure or greatly reduced postbake temperatures. This presentation will review where such an adhesive will find application its general chemistry and supporting data.
Bentley Motors Develops Unique Directional Carbon Fibre Preforming Process for Chassis Rails
Details are presented on an automated process for manufacturing net-shape charges for compression moulding using a spray-deposition technique. The novel process uses a resin-spray technique and magnetic fibre to position and hold fibres onto the tool face. The process is intended for producing structural components using discontinuous bundles for medium-volume applications.
Reducing Setup Costs: Tooling Force Prediction in Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) & Compression RTM
Mould tools used for processes such as RTM and compression RTM must withstand significant forces generated by the fluid resin and the fibrous reinforcement. Prediction of these forces will allow for optimizations in setup costs and time and maximize the usage of the capabilities of peripheral equipment (such as presses). SimLCM is being developed at the University of Auckland as a simulation package with the capability to predict clamping forces and stress distributions during complete moulding cycles for RTM and CRTM.
Pushtrusion™ Direct In-Line (D-LFT) Compounding Technology versus LFT Pellets & GMT Sheet
PlastiComp’s direct in-line (D-LFT) compounding process provides processors of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics a simple and affordable alternative to pre-compounded pellets and GMT sheet while yielding equivalent and in some cases slightly higher mechanical properties. This paper summarizes a comparative study of the properties of D-LFT vs. traditional LFT pellets in an injection-molding process as well as D-LFT vs. GMT sheet in a compression-molding process.
A Formulation Study of Long Fiber Thermoplastic Polypropylene (Part 1): The Effects of Coupling Agent Type & Properties
The relationship between the resin and fiber properties in polypropylene long fiber thermoplastics is further analyzed in the second part of this work. The properties of the maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene additives (coupling agents) are studied and correlations between the maleic anhydride content melt flow and base polymer used is presented. Polypropylene long fiber thermoplastics pellets were compounded with various coupling agents. The materials were then molded and tested. The results of the study are presented.
High Performance Reinforcement: A Pathway to Density Reduction while Maintaining Physical Properties of Polyolefin Composites
To achieve significant part weight reductions of 15-20% Milliken Chemical's high performance reinforcing (HPR) additive may be an excellent choice for the replacement of talc and other mineral fillers in polypropylene composites. For instance vs. talc HPR will typically provide comparable or superior performance with only about one-third of conventional talc concentrations. Furthermore these improvements may be realized without any detrimental effects on aesthetic properties.
Innovative PPS Blow-Molded Air Duct for Turbocharged Diesel Engine
A new patented in-mold assembly process forms an optimized assembly using a combination of blow molding and injection molding for a turbo-charged diesel charge air duct. The process incorporates a 15%-GF-reinforced blow-molding grade and a 30%-GF-reinforced injection molding grade of polyphenylene sulfide. PPS was the material of choice due to its superior heat and chemical resistance.
Advances in Thermoplastic Composites Using CBT
The use of cyclic-polybutylene terephthalate (C-PBT) for manufacturing high-performance composites is taking on new roles. Advances in injection molding RTM molding pultrusion and composite tooling are benefiting from the use C-PBT thermoplastic resins leading to the development of new C-PBT technologies and applications.
Alternative Methods to Enable the Powder Priming of SMC
Previous work has shown that the newly developed SMC systems are powder-primer ready in straight-through operations. However after an extended stoppage in the operation – such as July shutdown – the success of the powder application depends on the severity of temperature ramp in the oven. To overcome this issue alternative methods are proposed such as 4 min. of preheating in the oven at 180°C or 3 min. of IR exposure.
The Influence of SMC Formulation Inner Panel Thickness & Bond Stand-Offs on Bond-Line Read-Through Severity
Two experiments designed to understand the relationship between material and process factors and bond-line read-through (BLRT) severity will be discussed. Regression analyses of the data collected in these experiments were able to establish relationships between the experimental factors and BLRT severity with at least 80% correlation.
Flexibility in the Direct Strand Moulding Compound (D-SMC) Process
Recent Advances in Class A Polyurethane Long Fiber Injection (LFI) Composites
Recent advances in related polyurethane chemistry have increased the commercial viability of the long fiber injection (LFI) process for producing very-large composite parts such as entry-door skins truck body and spa panels and recreational boat hulls. These advances enable the LFI process to achieve previously unattainable extended gel times on an open hot mold retain a relatively short demold time and form defect-free surfaces that can lead to the Class A surfaces required for large automotive body panels.
Composite Power-Train Components: Reducing Warranty Costs & Improving Part Quality
Sheet-molding compound has been used in underhood applications and is extending its reach to drivetrain components. This presentation will show how vehicle manufacturers have reduced costs and improved quality through product designs that eliminate hardware enhance capability and improve system performance.
Automotive Composites Consortium Structural Composite Underbody
The Automotive Composites Consortium Focal Project 4 (ACC FP4) is a joint program between GM Ford and Chrysler to develop structural automotive components from composite materials. Part of this project is a structural composite underbody capable of carrying crash loads. Phase 2 of the project involves a full design of the underbody including design for durability and feasible component manufacturing and vehicle assembly scenarios.
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