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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Computer Predictions of the Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Composites During Molding
Alejandro Londoño-Hurtado, September 2008
Mechanistic Computer simulations of flexible fiber suspensions are developed to study the molding of fiber reinforced composites. Fibers are modeled as chains or rigid beads connected by springs. Parameters such as fiber concentration fiber length and stiffness can be modified to match specific processing conditions. Simulation results include final fiber orientations and fiber distributions within a molded part. Specific applications for this type of simulations are compression molding of Sheet Molding Compound where defects such as Fiber-Jamming and Fiber-Matrix separations are difficult to predict and still not well understood.
Techniques and Results for Fiber Length Distribution Determination as a Function of Thickness in Long Fiber Reinforced Injection Molded Thermoplastics
Vlastimil Kunc, September 2008
A novel measurement technique was developed to obtain unbiased fiber length distribution (FLD) measurements at specified locations in the thickness of the sample. This technique relies on elastic energy stored in long fiber thermoplastics (LFT) which is released during partially constrained burn-off. This release results in an increase of thickness dimension of the sample and partial disentanglement allowing sample selection and subsequent filament separation. Quantitative FLD results and the measurement technique are discussed in detail. The FLD in long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics is shown to vary as a function of thickness.
THE ACCURACY OF STANDARD DRAG FLOW AND PRESSURE GRADIENT CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS
Mark A. Spalding , Greg A. Campbell, May 2008
Simulation and design of single-screw extruder screws using the standard pseudo-Newtonian Tadmor method is known to deviate from measured performance yet many screw designers have used the method successfully for many years. The research provided here shows the conditions when the method can be used for design work and when it deviates to an unacceptable level.
MULTILAYER RHEOLOGY EFFECTS IN COEXTRUDED STRUCTURE DESIGN
Joseph Dooley , Chunxia Costeux , Robert Wrisley , Andrew Schlader, May 2008
Multilayer coextrusion is a process in which two or more polymers are extruded and joined together in a feedblock or die to form a single structure with multiple layers. This paper will discuss techniques for measuring experimental rheology data for monolayer and multilayer structures. These data will then be used to show the effects of multilayer rheology in the design of coextruded structures.
THE EFFECTS OF RUNNING DIFFERENT BARREL TEMPERATURE PROFILES FOR VARIOUS RESINS
Walter S. Smith , Luke A. Miller , Jason Willis , Timothy W. Womer, May 2008
Differences in solids conveying screw pressure profile generation output motor energy required will vary between resins barrel temperature profiles and resin preheat temperatures on a single stage low compression barrier screw design.
THE DIFFERENT USES OF THE MELT FLOW INDEX EQUIPMENT
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2008
The Melt Flow Index (MFI) of a polymer could be measured using MFI equipment and following ASTM D1238. Although MFI is a single point it is the most known test that uses MFI equipment. However MFI equipment could yield more information about the polymer. Principally by changing the heating temperature the dwell time and the load a whole set of information could be obtained from the MFI equipment. This paper sheds some light on some of the possible information that could be gained from MFI equipment by changing temperature time and load.
THE DIFFERENT USES OF THE MELT FLOW INDEX EQUIPMENT
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2008
The Melt Flow Index (MFI) of a polymer could be measured using MFI equipment and following ASTM D1238. Although, MFI is a single point, it is the most known test that uses MFI equipment. However, MFI equipment could yield more information about the polymer. Principally, by changing the heating temperature, the dwell time, and the load a whole set of information could be obtained from the MFI equipment. This paper sheds some light on some of the possible information that could be gained from MFI equipment by changing temperature, time, and load.
THE FUTURE OF THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY: DECLINE OR GROWTH?
Roger F. Jones, May 2008
In 2006-2007 General Electric decided to divest its plastics operations as insufficiently profitable. Since GE has been a pioneer in the plastics industry for close to a century one has to ask ƒ??just what does the future hold for the rest of us?ƒ? Will plastics continue to growth faster than the overall economy or is this now all in the past? This paper will examine the question from both a national and a global view.
WATER AND ION TRANSPORT THROUGH SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS APPLICATIONS
Geoffrey M. Geise , B. D. Freeman , D. R. Paul, May 2008
Membrane-based desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis are becoming more widely used as global water shortage increases. There is a need to develop improved membrane materials for use in reverse osmosis. One such membrane a sulfonated pentablock copolymer is evaluated here for its water and salt transport properties. The effects of block molecular weight sulfonation fraction and solution-casting technique have been studied in terms of pure water and sodium chloride permeability.
WATER AND ION TRANSPORT THROUGH SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS APPLICATIONS
Geoffrey M. Geise , B. D. Freeman , D. R. Paul, May 2008
Membrane-based desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis are becoming more widely used as global water shortage increases. There is a need to develop improved membrane materials for use in reverse osmosis. One such membrane, a sulfonated pentablock copolymer is evaluated here for its water and salt transport properties. The effects of block molecular weight, sulfonation fraction, and solution-casting technique have been studied in terms of pure water and sodium chloride permeability.
IMPROVED WEATHERING PERFORMANCE IN FLAME RESISTANT PC/ABS BLENDS VIA ADDITION OF TAILORED SILICONE COPOLYMERS
Srinivas Siripurapu , Todd Loehr, May 2008
Flame resistant (FR) PC/ABS blends are commonly used as material of choice for portable computer housings and entertainment consoles. Increased demand for aesthetics and design freedom has resulted in need for improved weathering performance on exposure to indirect ultraviolet (UV) radiation. New flame retardant polycarbonate blends using tailored silicone copolymers fill the gap with providing flame resistance at thin gages without compromising on this weathering requirement.
IMPROVED WEATHERING PERFORMANCE IN FLAME RESISTANT PC/ABS BLENDS VIA ADDITION OF TAILORED SILICONE COPOLYMERS
Srinivas Siripurapu , Todd Loehr, May 2008
Flame resistant (FR) PC/ABS blends are commonly used as material of choice for portable computer housings and entertainment consoles. Increased demand for aesthetics and design freedom has resulted in need for improved weathering performance on exposure to indirect ultraviolet (UV) radiation. New flame retardant polycarbonate blends using tailored silicone copolymers fill the gap with providing flame resistance at thin gages without compromising on this weathering requirement
DESIGN OF BIORESORBABLE SCAFFOLDS FOR TISSUE GROWTH
Vincent M. DiTaranto , Aldo Crugnola , Matthew Mandeville, May 2008
Scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells using the compression molding method. The material used in the scaffold was a mixture of polycaprolactone hydroxyapatite and glycerin. The porosity of the scaffold was obtained by using salt and subsequent leaching with distilled water. Salt retention after soaking was addressed by using ultrasonic leaching.Three major factors in the design of a scaffold: porosity interconnectivity of the pores and distribution of the materials were achieved.
LASER WELDING OF TRANSPARENT PLASTICS BY MEANS OF THE INTERMEDIATE FILM METHOD
Walter Michaeli , Wolf-Martin Hoffmann , Edmund Haberstroh, May 2008
Laser transmission welding is an innovative joining process for plastics. Since one joining part has to be laser absorbing the polymer has to be pigmented with an absorbent material. By this however the material is colored to a certain extent. Reducing the absorbing material to the joining area enables the welding of transparent polymer parts without any pigmentation. The possibilites of this method to expand the laser welding spectrum are presented in this paper.
COUPLED FEA SIMULATION OF THE DEMOULDING PROCEDURE OF INJECTION MOULDED PARTS
Walter Michaeli , Bernhard Helbich, May 2008
A reasonable design of the injection mould has to guarantee that the moulded part can be demoulded without damaging either the ejection system in the mould or the part. In the conventional mould design this damaging occurs at the very end of the development process of the injection mould when it is already assembled. A simulation procedure is presented which enables the mould maker to mechanically layout the demoulding system. It combines a process simulation with a structural analysis and hence maximises the advantage of using CAE.
A PLASTICS EDUCATION OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL AGED GIRLS
Elizabeth Dell, May 2008
This paper describes a plastics education program for middle school girls. The goals of the program were to expose the girls to science and engineering and to educate them about plastics. The program included an overview of plastics and hands-on experimental investigations. Experiments included making a polymer environmental issues and the structure and properties of polymers. In addition to giving detailed descriptions of the program this paper includes recommendations for further improvements of the program.
IMPROVED MICRO-CELLULAR MOLDING OF LONG GLASS FIBER (LGF) REINFORCED THERMOPLASTICS
Frank C. Jaarsma, May 2008
Molding equipment modified for micro-cellular injection molding to address concerns of potential damage to reinforcing glass fibers in molded parts has recently become available. Test data indicates use of this equipment results in a significant improvement in glass fiber length retention and mechanical properties relative to traditional micro-cellular molding when processing LGF reinforced polypropylene and nylon.
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING AGENTS ON FATIGUE AND CREEP OF A MDPE PIPE
R. Ayyer , A. Hiltner , E. Baer, May 2008
The effect of concentration of Igepal CO 630 on slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe was investigated. The kinetics and mechanism of crack propagation in fatigue at R=0.1 and creep at 50 ?øC were compared to those in air. The fatigue and creep behavior followed the same stepwise crack growth mechanism as in air at all the concentrations used. As the concentration increased to 0.01 vol. % the creep lifetime decreased significantly whereas the lifetime in fatigue gradually increased. At higher concentrations the lifetime was similar in creep and fatigue.
POLYMER FOAMS FLEXURAL MODULUS OPTIMAZATION: EFFECT OF DENSITY PROFILE
Denis Rodrigue, May 2008
Several parameters are known to influence the flexural modulus of structural foams. In this paper the effect of density profile in terms of skin thickness transition zone smoothness and core density are discussed in order to predict and optimize the flexural modulus based on the constraints of fixed amount of material and beam thickness. The results obtained under the imposed constraints clearly shows that the I-beam model is not optimum and a smooth transition is needed to maximize flexural stiffness while reducing abrupt changes in the local materialƒ??s properties.
INTELLIGENT PROCESS CONTROL FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Huamin Zhou , Peng Zhao , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2008
An intelligent system combining a simplified simulation model and fuzzy inference has been developed for determining the process parameters of injection molding.First preliminary optimization based on a simplified simulation model was employed for the initial setting. Then a fuzzy inference model based on expert knowledge was used for correcting defects. By communicating with the machine controller the intelligent system was integrated with the injection molding machine to optimize process parameters real time. An experimental study was carried out for verification.


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