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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
OPTIMIZATION OF A PET PREFORM DESIGN FOR BETTER BOTTLE BARRIER PROPERTIES
Dinu Chettiar , S.H. Masood , D.U. Erbulut, May 2008
This paper presents an investigation on the optimization of the preform design to produce PET bottles with uniform thickness distribution and better barrier properties using a blow moulding simulation software. The barrier properties were studied by calculating the blow up ratio (BUR) of the initial and the final bottles. The bottle blown up using the new preform design had a higher value of BUR indicating that it had better barrier properties due to increased molecular orientation. Results from the simulation were also used to study the mechanical strength and the internal pressure variations on the bottle using the Pro/Mechanica finite element analysis (FEA).
POLYMER ORIENTATION IN POLYPROPYLENE-TALC COMPOSITES STRETCHED BELOW THE MELTING TEMPERATURE
Rahul H. Rane , K. Jayaraman , T. R. Bieler , K. L. Nichols , M. H. Mazor, May 2008
Solid-phase die-drawing of composites with semicrystalline polyolefins and particulate filler is a new process for producing expanded and oriented structural materials1-2. The objective of this work was to investigate the maximum draw ratio attained with composites of isotactic polypropylene and talc and the polymer chainaxis orientation obtained over various draw ratios at 10°C below the melting temperature. The maximum attainable draw ratio with the PP-talc composite was considerably greater than with the neat PP. The extent of debonding and void growth was well advanced before significant orientation was developed in the crystalline lamellae of the polypropylene matrix.
POLYMER ORIENTATION IN POLYPROPYLENE-TALC COMPOSITES STRETCHED BELOW THE MELTING TEMPERATURE
Rahul H. Rane , K. Jayaraman , T. R. Bieler , K. L. Nichols , M. H. Mazor, May 2008
Solid-phase die-drawing of composites with semicrystalline polyolefins and particulate filler is a new process for producing expanded and oriented structural materials1-2. The objective of this work was to investigate the maximum draw ratio attained with composites of isotactic polypropylene and talc and the polymer chainaxis orientation obtained over various draw ratios at 10?øC below the melting temperature. The maximum attainable draw ratio with the PP-talc composite was considerably greater than with the neat PP. The extent of debonding and void growth was well advanced before significant orientation was developed in the crystalline lamellae of the polypropylene matrix.
THE INJECTION MOLDING OF NANOSTRUCTURED POLYSTYRENE TEMPLATES TO INVESTIGATE THE CONTROL OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
Israd H. Jaafar , John. P. Coulter , Sabrina S. Jedlicka, May 2008
The injection molding of nano-structured polystyrene (PS) surfaces and its application in the stimulation of stem cell differentiation is described. PS was selected as a base substrate for in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) culturing due to its bio-compatibility and wide use as a cell culturing medium. The approach was adopted to improve upon current biochemical differentiation methods. A customized mold was designed where a nanopatterned silicon wafer served as the insert for injection molding. The effect of a nano-pillared PS surface in comparison to planar control on hMSC cell response was observed.
THE INJECTION MOLDING OF NANOSTRUCTURED POLYSTYRENE TEMPLATES TO INVESTIGATE THE CONTROL OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
Israd H. Jaafar , John. P. Coulter , Sabrina S. Jedlicka, May 2008
The injection molding of nano-structured polystyrene (PS) surfaces and its application in the stimulation of stem cell differentiation is described. PS was selected as a base substrate for in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) culturing due to its bio-compatibility and wide use as a cell culturing medium. The approach was adopted to improve upon current biochemical differentiation methods. A customized mold was designed where a nanopatterned silicon wafer served as the insert for injection molding. The effect of a nano-pillared PS surface in comparison to planar control on hMSC cell response was observed.
REACTION KINETICS STUDYUSING SPECIALIZED BATCH MIXER
Marios Avgousti , Mark D. Wetzel , Fred Best, May 2008
Although reactive extrusion is an important process component in many industrial applications no convenient method to determine reaction kinetics exists in extrusion literature. Batch mixer torque versus time" relationship reflecting reaction kinetic contributions at various melt tem- peratures and shear rates can be used to study reactive sys- tems. This work aims at developing a rapid batch mixer test to differentiate reaction kinetic mechanisms. In order to demonstrate the validity of the test we will be presenting experimental studies of PET polymer degradation model system. Reaction kinetic information obtained from batch system will be linked to previously-reported continuous extrusion process characterization studies."
INTEGRATION OF FORMING AND INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSES ON IN-MOLD DECORATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Chao-Chang Tang , Jian-Hong Lin , Kin-Fu Lu , Meng-Chih Chen , Chao-Tsai Huang , Chau-Kai Yu, May 2008
Decoration processing for injection molded parts such as painting printing hot stamping electroplating and so on is commonly applied to enhance the surface quality and product value. Due to extra processes cost and pollution problems increase. One of great solutions which is performed in-mold decoration has been utilized to minimize the processes for years. However since it is so complicated from film forming to injection molding how to realize the process mechanism is the crucial factor. In this study the integration of forming and injection molding processes is proposed and performed both experimentally and numerically.
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE/THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE NANOCOMPOSITES
Hyunwoo Kim , Christopher Macosko, May 2008
Functionalized graphite sheets (FGS) and isocyanate treated graphite oxide (iGO) were incorporated into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via melt compounding solvent blending and in-situ polymerization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that FGS is exfoliated while iGO forms mixed morphology of partial intercalation and exfoliation. Their dispersion into TPU resulted in noticeable enhancements in electrical conductivity stiffness and gas barrier. Average aspect ratios of graphitic additives determined by fitting properties with composite theories agree well with values from direct TEM imaging.
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE/THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE NANOCOMPOSITES
Hyunwoo Kim , Christopher Macosko, May 2008
Functionalized graphite sheets (FGS) and isocyanatetreated graphite oxide (iGO) were incorporated intothermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via melt compounding,solvent blending and in-situ polymerization. Transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM) indicated that FGS isexfoliated while iGO forms mixed morphology of partialintercalation and exfoliation. Their dispersion into TPUresulted in noticeable enhancements in electricalconductivity, stiffness and gas barrier. Average aspectratios of graphitic additives determined by fittingproperties with composite theories agree well with values from direct TEM imaging.
ADVANCED RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON FLEXIBLE PLASTIC PACKAGING IN ANDEAN COUNTRIES: SCENARIOS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE PERIOD 2003 ƒ?? 2013
María del Pilar Noriega , Juan Diego Sierra, May 2008
A prospective study on flexible plastic packaging was carried out in Andean Countries with the participation of two plastic research institutes and 20 companies including raw material manufacturers processors converters and end users.The inputs of this prospective study were a review of the state of the art on flexible packaging a benchmarking study considering the 10 most important companies a study using the Delphi method with national and international experts who identified the key variables to the development and progress of the flexible packaging in the region and workshops.This study generated new projects and products on the field of barrier smart and active packaging biodegradable materials among others; it shows that the Andean region is applying R&D and technological alliances in its industrial processes.
TRITAN™ COPOLYESTERS
Emmett Crawford, May 2008
Tritan™ copolyesters are tough transparent copolyesters recently developed by Eastman Chemical Company. These new copolyesters have higher glass transition temperatures than Eastman’s heritage copolyesters of PETG PCTG and PCTA. The properties of Tritan™ copolyesters allow it to be used in applications in a variety of markets from housewares to signs. The unique properties of Tritan™ copolyesters are achieved by modifying poly(1 4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) or PCT with 2 2 4 4-tetramethyl-1 3- cyclobutanediol (TMCD) . The properties of Tritan™ copolyesters can be tuned to meet the demands of applications by changing the level of TMCD modification. This paper describes the basic chemistry and structureproperty relationships of Tritan™ copolyesters. In addition this paper describes the properties for some of the commercial Tritan™ copolyesters grades available.
TRITAN COPOLYESTERS
Emmett Crawford, May 2008
Tritan copolyesters are tough, transparent copolyesters recently developed by Eastman Chemical Company. These new copolyesters have higher glass transition temperatures than Eastmanƒ??s heritage copolyesters of PETG, PCTG, and PCTA. The properties of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters allow it to be used in applications in a variety of markets from housewares to signs. The unique properties of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters are achieved by modifying poly(1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate), or PCT, with 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3- cyclobutanediol (TMCD) . The properties of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters can be tuned to meet the demands of applications by changing the level of TMCD modification.This paper describes the basic chemistry and structure-property relationships of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters. In addition, this paper describes the properties for some of the commercial Tritanƒ?› copolyesters grades available.
EVALUATION OF MOLECULAR ORIENTATION OF WELDLINE BY POLARIZED LASER-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
Koji Yamada , Kiyotaka Tomari, May 2008
Molecular orientation in weldline region of injection molded polypropylene was investigated by polarized laser-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of two intrinsic peaks in a Raman spectrum of weldline was considered to be a molecular orientation index. By setting the angle of incident laser beam in two ways so as to be parallel and perpendicular to the weldline the molecular orientation around the weldline was able to be clarified in detail. It was found that the molecules in weldline region oriented along the interface of the weldline even inside the moldings. Moreover the orientation degree of the area 0.3 mm away from the interface was higher than that of the interface itself. These findings are much different from our expectation obtained from the former experiments using polystyrene moldings in a similar method which suggests that the orientation parallel to the weldline is limited to the area beneath the surface. Although the cause of this difference has yet to be identified there is little doubt that crystallinity of polypropylene deeply plays an important role on it.
EVALUATION OF MOLECULAR ORIENTATION OF WELDLINE BY POLARIZED LASER-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
Koji Yamada , Kiyotaka Tomari , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2008
Molecular orientation in weldline region of injection molded polypropylene was investigated by polarized laser-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of two intrinsic peaks in a Raman spectrum of weldline was considered to be a molecular orientation index. By setting the angle of incident laser beam in two ways so as to be parallel and perpendicular to the weldline, the molecular orientation around the weldline was able to be clarified in detail. It was found that the molecules in weldline region oriented along the interface of the weldline even inside the moldings. Moreover, the orientation degree of the area 0.3 mm away from the interface was higher than that of the interface itself. These findings are much different from our expectation obtained from the former experiments using polystyrene moldings in a similar method which suggests that the orientation parallel to the weldline is limited to the area beneath the surface. Although the cause of this difference has yet to be identified, there is little doubt that crystallinity of polypropylene deeply plays an important role on it.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROCESSING-THERMOMECHANICAL ENVIRONMENT AND STRUCTURE ON INJECTED FLAT PARTS
S.L. Villarroel , R.A. Morales , A. Gordillo , M. Sánchez-Soto, May 2008
The microstructure of an injection moulding polypropylene part has been varied through systematic changes on the process conditions. The specimens were mouldedmodifying the holding pressure mass caudaland gate design. The skin-core structure was characterized by polarized light microscopy. The thermo mechanical environment imposed during processing was characterized using simulation commercial software.From the mould filling stage two thermo mechanical indices were calculated. The results show the relationship between these indexes and the micro structural features obtained in the moulded specimens
TOWARDS QUALITY PRODUCTS FROM BIO-BASED PLASTICS
Rolf Koster, May 2008
The importance of three inter-dependent factors i.e. (1) materials (2) manufacturing and (3) design and engineering is generally recognized. All factors are indispensable and equally important for product development. Manufacturing is often the least structured factor and many designers and materials experts do not consider themselves capable to deal with it. Fortunately expertise is sufficiently available and the best professionals are able to utilize plastics expertise properly in collaborative product development. For bio-based plastics which are rapidly emerging in some specific markets it is already clear that the relation between the three factors is different and more varied than for the currently well-known plastics. Critical factors for increased successful application of bio-based plastics will be product manufacturing and the expectations of applicators and consumers. From interviewing a variety of professionals it was found that clear true and complete information is currently not accessible for most whereas some assumptions are not realistic or not correct particularly the ones related to degradability and to environmental effects. Better and well-structured information will be needed resulting in fulfillment of elementary consumer expectations.
EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS OF CAE PREDICTIONSONBIREFRINGENCE OF INJECTION MOLDED LENSES
Huai En Lai , Pei Jen Wang, May 2008
Injection-molded lenses have been widely employed for portable consumer products nowadays. A 3D CAE flow analysis program coupled with Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF) models based upon polymer melts and measurements of residual birefringence have been conducted for investigation on effects of prominent processing conditions. Furthermore experimental verifications of the predictions on residual stresses are investigated with two example cases of plastic lenses molded by cyclic-olefin-copolymers. Final results have shown that frozen-in shear stresses in terms of residual birefringence levels are mainly contributed by melt temperature and injection speed during the filling stage.The predictions agree well to the experimental measurements.
SIMULATION OF MULTIFILAMENT FIBER SPINNING
Christopher L. Cox , Young-Pyo Jeon, May 2008
We present a nonisothermal multifilament spinning model applied to a variety of polymer and process conditions.The model combines the flow-enhanced crystallization fiber spinning model of McHugh et al. with a generalization of Dutta's multifilament model. The model predicts fiber and quench air properties throughout the fiber bundle. The McHugh FEC model for a single fiber which includes effects of viscoelastic flow and crystallization has been experimentally validated. We compare the multifilament simulation results to experimental measurements. A secondary goal of the current effort is to develop a model which can be executed on a desktop in 2 to 3 hours or lesscontinuing work.
THE EFFECT OF SCREW DESIGN ON THE QUALITY OF INJECTION MOLDING PRODUCTS
Shai Barkai , Samuel Kenig, May 2008
The melt quality and its effect on the final product quality is one of the least studied subjects in the process of injection molding. Consequently the present study is aimed at investigating the plastification stage in injection molding. A general-purpose screw and a barrier type screw were studied with respect to the effect of melt temperature back pressure and screw rotation speed on product quality. Results indicated that the melt temperature and the back pressure are the decisive factor in the case of the general-purpose screw and the barrier screw respectively. Due to the longer residence times in barrier type screws lower temperatures should be used to avoid melt degradation and inferior mechanical properties.
THE EFFECT OF SCREW DESIGN ON THE QUALITY OF INJECTION MOLDING PRODUCTS
Shai Barkai , Samuel Kenig, May 2008
The melt quality and its effect on the final product quality is one of the least studied subjects in the process of injection molding. Consequently, the present study is aimed at investigating the plastification stage in injection molding. A general-purpose screw and a barrier type screw were studied with respect to the effect of melt temperature, back pressure and screw rotation speed on product quality. Results indicated that the melt temperature and the back pressure are the decisive factor in the case of the general-purpose screw and the barrier screw, respectively. Due to the longer residence times in barrier type screws, lower temperatures should be used to avoid melt degradation and inferior mechanical properties.


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