The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon/Liquid Crystal Polymer Composites for Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates
One emerging market for thermally and electrically conductive resins is for bipolar plates for use in fuel cells. Bipolar plates require high thermal and electrical conductivity. In this study, carbon black and synthetic graphite were added to a liquid crystal polymer and the resulting composites were tested for thermal and electrical conductivity. Single filler composites containing 2.5 to 15 wt% carbon black and 10 to 75 wt% synthetic graphite were tested.
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyacrylamidechitosan Hydrogels
Polyacrylamide/chitosan hydrogels were synthesized in aqueous itaconic acid solution (1% w/w), in order to determine its swelling kinetics at various chitosan concentrations. Analysis of the hydrogel swelling behavior indicated that the network properties of the gel changed depending on the swelling pH, as well as the amount of chitosan, showing a decrease in swelling capacity when the chitosan concentration was increased; this behavior can be explained due to the presence of the chitosan ionic groups.
Techniques to Determine Resistance to Surface Damage on Decorated Plastics
Most consumers believe the price paid for a product is directly related to its inherent level of quality. With decorated plastics, how robust the product finish is before it becomes damaged or worn out" is an essential element of this perceived quality. This paper presents an introduction to the mechanisms of surface wear and scratch damage and the importance of conducting controlled laboratory tests. An overview of several commercially available instruments is offered including suggestions on how to recreate and measure "real-world" damage."
Polyurethane-Carbon Nanofiber Composites for Shape Memory Effects
Thermoplastic polyurethane-carbon nanofiber, TPU-CNF, composites were prepared in situ in a chaotic mixer. Two types of CNF with different levels of surface oxidation were mixed with a shape memory TPU. Electrical conductivity, thermal behavior, and mechanical properties were investigated. Electrical and thermal-induced shape recovery behaviors were evaluated. TPU with treated CNF showed better dispersion, crystallinity, tensile properties, and better shape memory properties such as higher shape recovery force than their counterparts with untreated CNF.
Rotomolding with Micro-Pellets when Using Aluminum Pigments
Rotomolding parts with aluminum pigments has been a challenge, as this process provides limited aesthetic effects. Rotomolding compounds made by fine micro-pelletization provided a good method of aluminum pigment incorporation. Our research was to determine the benefits and limitations of this manufacturing method.
Impact Resistance of Selected Immiscible Polymer Blends
Immiscible polymer blends were prepared by melt extrusion using a single screw extruder in the systems PS/HDPE and PS/PP to assess the effect of composition and morphology on tensile Young's modulus and impact resistance. Results from the work show that tensile modulus nearly follows rule of mixture behavior for both systems, although better performance is shown by the PS/PP blends. With regard to impact resistance, the PS/HDPE system showed poor, incompatible performance, whereas excellent impact resistance was noted in the PS/PP blends.
Modeling and Simulation of the Complex Flows in the Extrusion Process of Plastic Profile with Metal Insert
The extrusion technology of plastic profile with metal insert is recently an advanced plastic processing method. However, its mechanism research work is lagging behind. In this paper, we developed the mathematical model of the extrusion process and simulated the three-dimensional complex flows in the extrusion die by the finite element method based on the CFD theory. The change of the melt rheological properties versus different processing conditions was investigated and some practicable advice on the process operation was accordingly put forward.
Continuous Ultrasonic Process for Preparation of PET/LCP Blends
Wholly aromatic polyester, LCP, was blended with PET to produce self-reinforced composites using an ultrasonically assisted single screw compounding extruder. Ultrasonic intensity was varied to induce in-situ compatibilization in the blends and was found to decrease pressure, and affect morphological, rheological and mechanical properties. PET and LCP homopolymerization, as well as their copolymerization through possible esterification/ transesterification reactions leading to an increase in their viscosities and mechanical properties was observed in the melt state under certain conditions.
The Influence of Different Surface Roughness on Microfluidic Flow Time
With the maturity of MEMS technology, the size in micromachining technology has progressed from millimeter to micrometer. Therefore, the filling behavior, driving principle, flowing control caused by capillarity phenomena become crucial. This study utilizes different processes, in order to make the detailed tangent plane, the precise tangent plane, and the smooth tangent plane of the acrylic microchannel. Results show that as the surface roughness increased, the flow time is decreased, and the flow-front of microfluidic becomes more unsteady.
A Comparison Study of Inorganic Fillers on the Performance of Polypropylene (Part 2)
In part one of this study, we have reported the comparison between EMforceTM calcium carbonate with other inorganic fillers, such as talc and glass fiber in reinforcing polypropylene. In this study, we have investigated the combination between the EMforceTM calcium carbonate with talc for reinforcing polypropylene.
Impact of DIDP on Outdoor Weatherability of Flexible PVC
Recently, market forces have combined to reduce the supply and increase the cost of linear sidechain dialkyl phthalate plasticizers. Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) is, in many ways, an attractive alternative to these linear plasticizers but questions remain about its effects on weathering properties of flexible PVC. This paper looks at the effects of using DIDP or blends of DIDP with linear phthalate in flexible PVC exposed to outdoor weathering. Degradation mechanisms and additive packages to limit weathering damage are also discussed.
Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of MWCNT/Poly (Lactic Acid) Composites
The preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotube/ polylactide (PLA) composites is described. High electrical conductivity can be achieved at a low carbon nanotube loading. The carbon nanotube-induced crystallization can be controlled by the degree of the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the PLA matrix.
Visualization and Modeling of Viscoelastic Drop Deformation and Breakup in Simple Shear Flow
The deformation and breakup of Boger-fluid drops in Newtonian liquids under simple shear flow were investigated by direct visualization using a specially designed Couette apparatus which enables visualization from two different directions (i.e. to get a 3-D image). Four types of breakup modes were observed. Boger-fluid drops can break up in simple shear flows along the flow axis or the vorticity axis. The breakup mode was found to depend on drop size, viscosity ratio, interfacial tension, matrix viscosity and drop phase viscoelasticity.
The Comparisons of IC Packages With/Without Underfill on the Thermo-Mechanical Characteristics
This research uses the validated finite-element analyses to study the thermo-mechanical behaviors of the 96.5Sn-3.5Ag, 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu lead-free solders and the classical 63Sn-37Pb solder bumped wafer level chip scale package on PCB assemblies subjected to a novel temperature cycle test. It can be seen that the same scale to the WLCSP and the WLCSP with underfill, the difference of the equivalent total strain range exceed an order of magnitude for all the three solder joints.
Physics of Amorphous Polymers
Amorphous polymers are of continuing great fundamental and practical interest. From the melt state through the glass transition these materials exhibit highly nonlinear properties that are readily interrogated using methods of both linear and nonlinear rheology and mechanics. Here we examine several novel methods developed by the author to investigate swelling in rubber, nonlinear behavior of polymer glasses and the behavior of materials at the nanoscale
Adhesively Bonded Smart Composite Joints: An Overview
The peel/shear stress concentration is the principal reason to cause the catastrophic failure of adhesively bonded joints. Many traditional enhancement methods have been developed to mechanically improve the joint strength. Comparing to these traditional mechanical enhancement methods, a smart strength improvement concept for adhesive joint has been introduced to adaptively realize the reduction of peel/shear stress concentration by the integrated piezoelectric layers. Here, the current development of adhesively bonded smart joint systems is reviewed and summarized in detail.
Polymag Process; Separate & Recover Co-Molded Resins
The PolyMag Additive & Process enables the automated separation of mixed resin regrind. This innovative system reduces the cost of waste in multimaterial, co-molding operations. This paper will describe the process and applications for post-industrial resin recovery and recycling.
Measurement of the Glass Transition Temperature
The glass transition temperature is an important characterizing parameter for amorphous polymers. However, there is considerable confusion regarding its measurement. In this paper, previous work dealing with measurement of the glass transition and elucidation of its underlying physics performed in collaboration with the PAD Founders' Award winner, Prof. G. B. McKenna, will be highlighted. In addition, recent studies will be discussed which focus on the relationship between the glass transition and the limiting fictive temperature.
Methods to the Smooth Surface of Microcellular Foam in Injection Molding
The microcellular foam of injection molding may focus on two major forming mechanisms of surface roughness: broken bubble from free flow front, and sheared bubble in the interface between mold wall and melt. With these mechanisms, most of the injection molding methods to the smooth surface of microcellular foam can be better understood. The analyses and morphology results of microcellular foams are useful to select the correct methods to the smooth surface of microcellular foam in injection molding.
The Simulation of Residual Stresses of Injection Molded Crystalline Polymers
Based on the theoretical analysis about the morphology and the effect of crystallinity on the development of residual stresses for injection molded crystalline polymers, the residual stresses have been simulated by means of a new four elements viscoelastic mechanical model. Considering the crystalline orientation of injection molded parts, we view the parts as orthotropic solids to simulate the development of residual stresses in both longitudinal and transverse directions of the parts.
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