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POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITES BASED ON IONIC LIQUID MODIFIED CATIONIC AND ANIONIC CLAYS
J.U. Ha , M. Xanthos, May 2008
Hydrotalcite anionic clays were reacted with phosphonium ionic liquids containing different anions. Montmorillonite cationic clays were also reacted with the residual cation of the ILs after modification of the anionic clay. The clays were analyzed by FTIR, thermal analysis, EDX and X-ray diffraction in order to determine the extent and type of intercalation of the IL anions/cations at the clay interlayers. The modified cationic and anionic clays and their mixtures were then melt compounded with polylactic acid and their effects on the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting micro- and nano-composites were investigated.
EFFECTS OF PROPERTY MODIFIERS ON THE DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYLACTIC ACID
K. Park , Q. Zhou , M. Xanthos, May 2008
The properties of polylactic acid (PLA) may be modified by the addition of clays or the incorporation of ionic liquids (IL). The effects of clays depend on degree of polymer intercalation and the presence of clay organomodifiers. Some ionic liquids act as plasticizers and lubricants reducing glass transition temperature (Tg) and melt viscosity the effects depending on the IL structure and its polymer miscibility. This article compares the effects of different cationic or anionic clays and different ILs on the thermal hydrolytic and soil degradation of PLA as measured by molecular weight (MW) changes and relates to the structure of the additives and their degree of dispersion/dissolution in the polymer melt.
EFFECTS OF PROPERTY MODIFIERS ON THE DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYLACTIC ACID
K. Park , Q. Zhou , M. Xanthos, May 2008
The properties of polylactic acid (PLA) may be modified by the addition of clays or the incorporation of ionic liquids (IL). The effects of clays depend on degree of polymer intercalation and the presence of clay organomodifiers. Some ionic liquids act as plasticizers and lubricants reducing glass transition temperature (Tg) and melt viscosity, the effects depending on the IL structure and its polymer miscibility. This article compares the effects of different cationic or anionic clays and different ILs on the thermal, hydrolytic and soil degradation of PLA as measured by molecular weight (MW) changes and relates to the structure of the additives and their degree of dispersion/dissolution in the polymer melt.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED RUNNER-VALVE SYSTEM FOR THE FILLING BALANCE IN MULTI-CAVITY MOLDS
B. O. Rhee , E. J. Lee , Y. J. Lee , H. P. Park , B. S. Cha, May 2008
Since the runner-valve system (RVS) was proposed by the authors for the filling balance in multi-cavity molds its balancing capability has been proved in many experiments. However it is not practical to adjust the valve manually during the molding process. Therefore authors developed an automated RVS. A motorized actuator with a small installation area was designed and built. An experimental mold with 4 cavities was machined and the actuators were installed. In order to reliably determine the resin-arrival-time in the automated RVS a new method based on the sigmoid function approximation was developed and optimum sampling range was obtained in terms of a characteristic time. The data processing program for the approximation was designed by the LabVIEW. This work is ongoing project so that experiment using the automated RVS is going to be done.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED RUNNER-VALVE SYSTEM FOR THE FILLING BALANCE IN MULTI-CAVITY MOLDS
B. O. Rhee , E. J. Lee , Y. J. Lee , H. P. Park , B. S. Cha, May 2008
Since the runner-valve system (RVS) was proposed by the authors for the filling balance in multi-cavity molds, its balancing capability has been proved in many experiments. However, it is not practical to adjust the valve manually during the molding process. Therefore, authors developed an automated RVS. A motorized actuator with a small installation area was designed and built. An experimental mold with 4 cavities was machined and the actuators were installed. In order to reliably determine the resin-arrival-time in the automated RVS, a new method based on the sigmoid function approximation was developed, and optimum sampling range was obtained in terms of a characteristic time. The data processing program for the approximation was designed by the LabVIEW. This work is ongoing project so that experiment using the automated RVS is going to be done.
EFFECT OF POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE ON COPOLYMER-POLYPROPYLENE FOAMS IN BATCH AND EXTRUSION PROCESSING
Qingfeng Wu , Chul B. Park , Nanqiao Zhou, May 2008
Both batch and continuous foaming processes were employed to prepare plastic foams from polypropylene (PP) / polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) blends. The blends were batch foamed at different saturation pressures using carbon dioxide (CO2) as the blowing agent. Ultimately the blend foams exhibited better cell morphologies and higher cell densities in comparison to those prepared from PP alone. The increased solubility of CO2 in PDMS made it as a CO2 reservoir to induce more nucleation. It was also noted that the addition of PDMS to the PP matrix generated a bi-cellular structure i.e. very small cells in the larger cell walls. In the case of extrusion foaming the addition of PDMS had a pronounced effect on both the expansion ratio and the cell density. At 5% CO2 content the maximum expansion ratio of the blend foams increased to as much as twenty-five-fold whereas the maximum expansion ratio of neat PP was below 10-fold with the same die.
EFFECT OF POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE ON COPOLYMER-POLYPROPYLENE FOAMS IN BATCH AND EXTRUSION PROCESSING
Qingfeng Wu , Chul B. Park , Nanqiao Zhou, May 2008
Both batch and continuous foaming processes were employed to prepare plastic foams from polypropylene (PP) / polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) blends. The blends were batch foamed at different saturation pressures using carbon dioxide (CO2) as the blowing agent. Ultimately, the blend foams exhibited better cell morphologies and higher cell densities in comparison to those prepared from PP alone. The increased solubility of CO2 in PDMS made it as a CO2 reservoir to induce more nucleation. It was also noted that the addition of PDMS to the PP matrix generated a bi-cellular structure, i.e., very small cells in the larger cell walls. In the case of extrusion foaming, the addition of PDMS had a pronounced effect on both the expansion ratio and the cell density. At 5% CO2 content, the maximum expansion ratio of the blend foams increased to as much as twenty-five-fold whereas the maximum expansion ratio of neat PP was below 10-fold with the same die.
HIGH-PERFORMANCE-TIE-LAYER RESINS IN FLEXIBLE PACKAGING APPLICATIONS: STRUCTURE–PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS
Chun Lee , William Podborny , Tim Schloemer, May 2008
Interlayer adhesion between tie and barrier layers in blown and cast film plays a major role in determining the performance of tie layer resins in barrier applications. In general tie-layer adhesion increases and film clarity decreases with increased maleic anhydride functionality (MAF). The tie resin employed for this investigation showed reduced adhesion to EVOH even with increased MAF. Understanding such unusual behavior is an important aspect of the structure of tie-layer resins to be used in industrial barrier packaging applications. We investigated structural factors of the tie resins using rheological measurements. It was found that dynamic shear rheological data does not provide useful information to understand tie layer performance. However extensional rheological data showed useful information to understand tie resin performance. The strain-hardening behavior of the tie-layer resin during the melt extensional process plays a major role in determining the interfacial adhesion between tie and EVOH layers and clarity regardless of a given range of MAF levels.
HIGH-PERFORMANCE TIE LAYER RESINS IN FLEXIBLE PACKAGING APPLICATIONS: STRUCTURE-PEROFRMANCE RELATIONSHIPS
Chun Lee , William Podborny , Tim Schloemer, May 2008
Interlayer adhesion between tie and barrier layers in blown and cast film plays a major role in determining the performance of tie layer resins in barrier applications. In general, tie-layer adhesion increases and film clarity decreases with increased maleic anhydride functionality (MAF). The tie resin employed for this investigation showed reduced adhesion to EVOH even with increased MAF. Understanding such unusual behavior is an important aspect of the structure of tie-layer resins to be used in industrial barrier packaging applications. We investigated structural factors of the tie resins using rheological measurements. It was found that dynamic shear rheological data does not provide useful information to understand tie layer performance. However, extensional rheological data showed useful information to understand tie resin performance. The strain-hardening behavior of the tie-layer resin during the melt extensional process plays a major role in determining the interfacial adhesion between tie and EVOH layers and clarity, regardless of a given range of MAF levels.
DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES
I. Sedat Gunes , Guillermo A. Jimenez , Feina Cao , Sadhan C. Jana, May 2008
Design and performance criteria for multifunctional shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposites were studied. A comparative analysis of nanocomposites with augmented recovery stress and ability to respond to the application of electrical voltage and light were investigated. The role of filler type filler-matrix interactions synthesis/processing conditions and thermal expansion were investigated. It was found that the presence of exfoliated organoclay significantly augmented the recovery stress. The presence of carbonaceous fillers such as carbon nanofiber and carbon black in SMP composites was used to generate shape memory response from the application of electrical voltage and light.
DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES
I. Sedat Gunes , Guillermo A. Jimenez , Feina Cao , Sadhan C. Jana, May 2008
Design and performance criteria for multifunctional shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposites were studied. A comparative analysis of nanocomposites with augmented recovery stress and ability to respond to the application of electrical voltage and light were investigated. The role of filler type, filler-matrix interactions, synthesis/processing conditions, and thermal expansion were investigated. It was found that the presence of exfoliated organoclay significantly augmented the recovery stress. The presence of carbonaceous fillers, such as carbon nanofiber and carbon black in SMP composites was used to generate shape memory response from the application of electrical voltage and light.
A NEW CLASS OF POLYVINYLCLORIDE NANOCOMPOSITE BASED ON MAGNETIC NANOFILLERS AND PLASTISOLS
O.S. Rodríguez Fernández , F. Y. Castellanos , R. Betancourt Galindo , I.G. Yáñez-Flores, May 2008
Two different magnetic nanocomposites of plasticized poly(vinylchoride) (PVC) were prepared using ? Fe2O3 (magnetite). In one case the PVC was uncrosslinked; in the second case the magnetite particles were modified with 3-aminopropyl-trietoxysilane (ATES) which successfully induced crosslinking. Plastisols of both systems were prepared by mixing DOP PVC and nanoparticles. Films were prepared by static casting and gelling of the plastisols at 180°C. The nanocomposite films thus obtained were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry. Both samples showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature with an expected decrease in saturation magnetization due to surface effects. Stress strain curves were obtained with the crosslinked system showing a higher modulus. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of both systems. The crosslinked system showed an extension of the elastic region. After Soxhlet extraction the crosslinked system showed 5 to 7% gel as insoluble material further supporting the effective crosslinking.
A NEW CLASS OF POLYVINYLCLORIDE NANOCOMPOSITE BASED ON MAGNETIC NANOFILLERS AND PLASTISOLS
O.S. Rodríguez Fernández , F. Y. Castellanos , R. Betancourt Galindo , I.G. Yáñez-Flores, May 2008
Two different magnetic nanocomposites of plasticizedpoly(vinylchoride) (PVC) were prepared using ?? Fe2O3(magnetite). In one case the PVC was uncrosslinked; in the second case the magnetite particles were modified with 3-aminopropyl-trietoxysilane (ATES), which successfully induced crosslinking. Plastisols of both systems were prepared by mixing DOP, PVC and nanoparticles. Films were prepared by static casting and gelling of the plastisols at 180?øC. The nanocomposite films thus obtained were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry. Both samples showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature with an expected decrease in saturation magnetization due to surface effects. Stress strain curves were obtained with the crosslinked system showing a higher modulus. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of both systems. The crosslinked system showed an extension of the elastic region. After Soxhlet extraction, the crosslinked system showed 5 to 7% gel as insolublematerial further supporting the effective crosslinking.
TOUGHENING OF EPOXY USING PEP-PEO BLOCK COPOLYMER NANOPARTICLES
Jia (Daniel) Liu , Hung-Jue Sue , Zachary J. Thompson , Frank S. Bates, May 2008
A block copolymer (BCP) toughening agent which forms self-assembled spherical micelle particles (15 nm) was utilized to toughen epoxy. The nano-sized BCP at 5 wt% concentration can significantly improve the fracture toughness of epoxy without deterioration in modulus and with only a slight reduction in glass transition temperature (Tg). The major toughening mechanisms are found to be BCP nanoparticle cavitation-induced matrix shear banding. Possible reasons responsible for the remarkable mechanical property improvements due to the BCP modification are discussed.
TOUGHENING OF EPOXY USING PEP-PEO BLOCK COPOLYMER NANOPARTICLES
Jia (Daniel) Liu , Hung-Jue Sue , Zachary J. Thompson , Frank S. Bates , Marv Dettloff , George Jacob , Nikhil Verghese , Ha Pham, May 2008
A block copolymer (BCP) toughening agent, which forms self-assembled spherical micelle particles (15 nm), was utilized to toughen epoxy. The nano-sized BCP at 5 wt% concentration can significantly improve the fracture toughness of epoxy without deterioration in modulus and with only a slight reduction in glass transition temperature (Tg). The major toughening mechanisms are found to be BCP nanoparticle cavitation-induced matrix shear banding. Possible reasons responsible for the remarkable mechanical property improvements due to the BCP modification are discussed.
CHARACTERIZATION OF PROCESSING EFFECTS IN HIPS-CNF COMPOSITES USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
Arun K. Kota , Rachel Kerzner , David Bigio , Hugh Bruck, May 2008
Using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) the effectof solvent processing and twin-screw extrusion (TSE) onthe weight loss rates and the corresponding temperatureswas investigated. Extruded composites exhibited higherthermal stability than the solvent processing ones. Highershear rates in extrusion also led to higher thermalstability. Furthermore it was observed that thenormalized weight loss of CNFs can provide a means ofcharacterizing the degree of dispersion resulting from theprocessing of the composites that complementsconventional microscopy techniques.
AN ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-SCREW MELTING
Gregory A. Campbell , Mark A. Spalding , Zirong Tang, May 2008
The focus of this investigation was to develop a new alternative model for the melting dynamics of the solid bed in single-screw extruders. Re-analysis of literature single-screw melting data has determined the rate of loss of material in the cross channel (x) direction and the solid bed thickness direction (y) of several melting data sets. The new analysis demonstrates that the polymer solid bed goes to zero dimension in the thickness direction well before the solid bed width is consumed. This observation is contrary to the historical assumption that the crosschannel width of the solid bed dominates the melting rate. In this paper we present a new physical concept for melting in single-screw extruders that is consistent with the new data analysis. We developed a dynamic melting model and then simulated this first-order theory. The simulation qualitatively fits the literature observations for melting.
AN ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-SCREW MELTING
Gregory A. Campbell , Mark A. Spalding , Zirong Tang, May 2008
The focus of this investigation was to develop a new alternative model for the melting dynamics of the solid bed in single-screw extruders. Re-analysis of literature single-screw melting data has determined the rate of loss of material in the cross channel (x) direction and the solid bed thickness direction (y) of several melting data sets. The new analysis demonstrates that the polymer solid bed goes to zero dimension in the thickness direction well before the solid bed width is consumed. This observation is contrary to the historical assumption that the crosschannel width of the solid bed dominates the melting rate. In this paper we present a new physical concept for melting in single-screw extruders that is consistent with the new data analysis. We developed a dynamic melting model and then simulated this first-order theory. The simulation qualitatively fits the literature observations for melting.
IMPROVED IMPACT PROPERTIES OF TPO/TPE SYSTEMS CONTAINING SCRATCH AND MAR ADDITIVES; EFFECT OF THE RESIN COMPOSITION ON THE EFFICACY OF THE ADDITIVES
Nikolas Kaprinidis , Johanne Wilson, May 2008
Very often plastics manufacturers utilize scratch and maradditives to reduce the occurrence of surface defects. Theefficacy and performance of these anti-scratch additivesmay vary based upon the composition and type of theresin. In this study the effect of elastomer and fillercontent of the TPO resin was investigated in relationshipto scratch and mar additive SM1 (Ciba Irgasurf SR 100).It was found that at 19-30% elastomer content the effectof SM1 on increasing the impact strength is maximizedand in some cases could exceed the 50% mark.Consequently the scratch resistance at this particularrange was also found to be optimized. Fillers such talcare known to affect negatively the scratch resistance ofTPOs based upon their increasing content typically inthe range of 20-30%. The substantially increased scratchresistance of the resin at this range due to the presence ofSM1 will be discussed herein.
A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON AND VALIDATION OF CAE SOFTWARES SIMULATION THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Brendan A. Zarechian, May 2008
This paper investigates two well known Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) softwares that simulate the plastics injection molding process. All aspects of the simulation were taken into account from mesh to material data and feed system design. For validation purposes two different parts with varying geometries and with two different materials were used to reach further into the spectrum of the simulations. Typical results were examined such as fill time and part temperature but also flow patterns flow leading behavior and other special interest results. Although the approach was quite different for each software results showed very similar outcomes. One software had more accurate results whereas the other having a less average variance from experimentally found results.


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