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DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF AN INTERBODY FUSION CAGE MOLD
V. Picón , M. Matos , C. Müller-Karger , M. V. Candal , H. Nicola, May 2008
The main goal of this project was to design evaluate and validate an interbody fusion cage (IFC) and its injection mold by means of CAE/CAD and finite elements tools (Pro-ENGINEER C-MOLD and ANSYS). IFC is employed as a supplement in the lumbar fusion. PEEK was chosen for IFC manufacture. Based on the interbody cage design two cavities and a double opening ejection system were used in the mold. Molds with different cooling and feeding systems were designed and evaluated using modelator and simulation software (C-MOLD). Results indicate that the best mold has only one standard lateral gate and four cooling channels in each cavity. The cycle time was less than 36 sec. After a financial study this project represents a feasible solution for Venezuelan patients.
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF AN INTERBODY FUSION CAGE MOLD
V. Picón , M. Matos , C. Müller-Karger , M. V. Candal , H. Nicola, May 2008
The main goal of this project was to design, evaluate and validate an interbody fusion cage (IFC) and its injection mold by means of CAE/CAD and finite elements tools (Pro-ENGINEER, C-MOLD and ANSYS). IFC is employed as a supplement in the lumbar fusion. PEEK was chosen for IFC manufacture. Based on the interbody cage design, two cavities and a double opening ejection system were used in the mold. Molds with different cooling and feeding systems were designed and evaluated using modelator and simulation software (C-MOLD). Results indicate that the best mold has only one standard lateral gate and four cooling channels in each cavity. The cycle time was less than 36 sec. After a financial study, this project represents a feasible solution for Venezuelan patients.
ADVANCES IN PLASTICS JOINING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE ASSEMBLY OF MEDICAL DEVICES
Nitin P. Phadnis, May 2008
With demand for the use of plastics in Medical Devices expected to continue growing there is also a growing demand for improved control and analysis of related assembly processes. Additionally there is a growing demand to use plastics in MEMS and Micro-fluidics for analytical and drug delivery devices. Therefore manufacturers are increasingly looking for joining technologies that are particulate free and will not occlude miniature channels. These trends have led to the introduction of several new methods to control monitor and analyze the assembly process as well as led to the use of new plastics joining technologies such as Laser and Infra Red Welding.
ADVANCES IN PLASTICS JOINING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE ASSEMBLY OF MEDICAL DEVICES
Nitin P. Phadnis, May 2008
With demand for the use of plastics in Medical Devices expected to continue growing, there is also a growing demand for improved control and analysis of related assembly processes. Additionally there is a growing demand to use plastics in MEMS and Micro-fluidics for analytical and drug delivery devices. Therefore manufacturers are increasingly looking for joining technologies that are particulate free and will not occlude miniature channels. These trends have led to the introduction of several new methods to control, monitor and analyze the assembly process as well as led to the use of new plastics joining technologies such as Laser and Infra Red Welding.
HYPERELASTIC MODELING OF ENHANCED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROSPUN POLY(?-CAPROLACTONE) FIBERS
Xiaofan Wei , Shing-Chung Wong , Avinash Baji, May 2008
Little is understood on the deformation of electrospun nanofibers. This study aims to evaluate the electrospun nanofiber deformation in both macroscopic and nanometer length scales using the classical hyperelastic models. The Mooney-Rivlin models are used to evaluate the tensile properties of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) made by the electrospinning technique. The stress-strain relationships of single fibers are reported. This study also provides comparative analyses among Mooney-Rivlin models. Analytical calculations illustrate the importance of understanding crystallinity and molecular orientations of nanofibers.
HYPERELASTIC MODELING OF ENHANCED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROSPUN POLY(?æ-CAPROLACTONE) FIBERS
Xiaofan Wei , Shing-Chung Wong , Avinash Baji, May 2008
Little is understood on the deformation of electrospun nanofibers. This study aims to evaluate the electrospun nanofiber deformation in both macroscopic and nanometer length scales using the classical hyperelastic models. The Mooney-Rivlin models are used to evaluate the tensile properties of poly(?æ-caprolactone) (PCL) made by the electrospinning technique. The stress-strain relationships of single fibers are reported. This study also provides comparative analyses among Mooney-Rivlin models.Analytical calculations illustrate the importance of understanding crystallinity and molecular orientations of nanofibers.
THE EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON MELTING AND CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF POLY(1-BUTENE)
Lubomír Bení?ek , Roman ?ermák , Vincent Verney , Sophie Commereuc , Martin Obadal, May 2008
The work directs attention towards the influence of natural weathering and accelerated UV degradation on thermal behavior and subsequent transformation behavior of isotactic poly(1-butene) (PB-1). For these purposes two different commercial-available grades of PB-1 were chosen. Specimens prepared by compression molding were UV irradiated for 0 to 40 hours and naturally weathered up to 63 days. Significant changes were consequently observed in crystallization and melting behavior as well as in the phase transformation mechanism.
THE EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON MELTING AND CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF POLY(1-BUTENE)
Lubomír Bení?ek , Roman ?ermák , Vincent Verney , Sophie Commereuc , Martin Obadal, May 2008
The work directs attention towards the influence of natural weathering and accelerated UV degradation on thermal behavior and subsequent transformation behavior of isotactic poly(1-butene) (PB-1). For these purposes, two different commercial-available grades of PB-1 were chosen. Specimens prepared by compression molding were UV irradiated for 0 to 40 hours and naturally weathered up to 63 days. Significant changes were consequently observed in crystallization and melting behavior as well as in the phase transformation mechanism.
NEW LOW GLOSS POLYCARBONATE BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Marina Rogunova , Jim Mason , Robyn Francis, May 2008
Automotive original equipment manufacturers are consistently looking for low-gloss materials for interior applications that can stand up to years of wear and tear and environmental exposure yet maintain aesthetic quality without painting. Bayblend® LGX 300 resin is specifically developed for automotive interior applications requiring a material that is inherently low in gloss with extra flowability good weathering and good scratch and mar resistance. Another important attribute of Bayblend LGX 300 is its low-emission characteristic which is particularly important as automotive manufacturers strive to reduce the levels of VOCs in their automobiles to improve the interior environment and meet federal regulations. Because LGX 300 resin is a low gloss high-flow polycarbonate (PC) blend with good heat and impact performance; thin-wall part design can be achieved without painting.
NEW LOW GLOSS POLYCARBONATE BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Marina Rogunova , Jim Mason , Robyn Francis, May 2008
Automotive original equipment manufacturers are consistently looking for low-gloss materials for interior applications that can stand up to years of wear and tear and environmental exposure yet maintain aesthetic quality without painting. Bayblend?? LGX 300 resin is specifically developed for automotive interior applications requiring a material that is inherently low in gloss with extra flowability, good weathering and good scratch and mar resistance. Another important attribute of Bayblend LGX 300 is its low-emission characteristic, which is particularly important as automotive manufacturers strive to reduce the levels of VOCs in their automobiles to improve the interior environment and meet federal regulations. Because LGX 300 resin is a low gloss, high-flow polycarbonate (PC) blend with good heat and impact performance; thin-wall part design can be achieved without painting.
INFRASTAKE – STAKING AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
Scott Beute, May 2008
The practice of forming a molded stud or boss in order to retain another component is nothing new. Long ago engineers recognized the benefits of eliminating glue screws and other fasteners and as a result they developed several different methods of heat staking that have been around for quite some time. Against this backdrop a nonconventional staking process called InfraStake® a relatively new technology in the business has been developed. As the name suggests the energy source is infrared light and the heat transfer mode is radiation (the safe type!). The InfraStake module clamps the parts together heats the boss evenly with precisely directed infrared light and forms the plastic with a non-heated punch driven by a low-force pneumatic cylinder. Figure 1 shows a typical InfraStake module.
INFRASTAKE ƒ?? STAKING AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
Scott Beute, May 2008
The practice of forming a molded stud or boss in order to retain another component is nothing new. Long ago, engineers recognized the benefits of eliminating glue, screws, and other fasteners, and as a result, they developed several different methods of heat staking that have been around for quite some time. Against this backdrop, a nonconventional staking processcalled InfraStake??, a relatively new technology in the business, has been developed. As the name suggests, the energy source is infrared light, and the heat transfer mode is radiation (the safe type!). The InfraStake module clamps the parts together, heats the boss evenly with precisely directed infrared light, and forms the plastic with a non-heated punch driven by a low-force pneumatic cylinder. Figure 1 shows a typical InfraStake module.
A NEW BLOWN FILM DIE FOR CONTROLLABLY FORMING AND EXTRUDING MICRO-LAYERS POLYMER BLENDS AND COMPOSITES
Mike L. Zumbrunnen , David A. Zumbrunnen, May 2008
The variety and quality of blown film products can be greatly increased if two or more polymer components can be arranged into structures other than a few or several layers or if much thinner and more numerous layers are formed. This paper describes a new blown film smart die in which polymer melts are stretched and folded recursively by chaotic advection. Melts become arranged into multi-layers of prescribed thickness and number. Films can have many dozens hundreds and even thousands of layers. Moreover the layers can transform if desired to give particular derivative blend morphologies such as microscopic sponge-like structures interconnected layers platelets or droplets. Solid particles can also be arranged into networks or oriented within discrete layers.
A NEW BLOWN FILM DIE FOR CONTROLLABLY FORMING AND EXTRUDING MICRO-LAYERS, POLYMER BLENDS AND COMPOSITES
Mike L. Zumbrunnen , David A. Zumbrunnen, May 2008
The variety and quality of blown film products can be greatly increased if two or more polymer components can be arranged into structures other than a few or several layers or if much thinner and more numerous layers are formed. This paper describes a new blown film smart die in which polymer melts are stretched and folded recursively by chaotic advection. Melts become arranged into multi-layers of prescribed thickness and number.Films can have many dozens, hundreds, and even thousands of layers. Moreover, the layers can transform if desired to give particular derivative blend morphologies such as microscopic sponge-like structures, interconnected layers, platelets, or droplets. Solid particles can also be arranged into networks or oriented within discrete layers.
INFLUENCE OF POLYPYRROLE ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INJECTION-THERMOPLASTIC-COMPOSITE BIPOLAR PLATES
Rungsima Yeetsorn , Michael Fowler , Costas Tzoganakis, May 2008
Thermoplastic composites are thought to be one of the most promising candidate materials to substitute for conventional materials in bipolar plates for PEM Fuel Cells but it is difficult to meet desirable conductivities when using thermoplastic composite plates while maintaining processability. In this regard introducing small amounts of polypyrrole to the composites enhances electrical conductivity of the composites. Experiments involved both ex-situ tests of bipolar plate materials and in-situ fuel cell tests. From results the conductivity of the material and fuel cell performance increased more than 5% by adding 1.8% of polypyrrole.
INFLUENCE OF POLYPYRROLE ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INJECTION-THERMOPLASTIC-COMPOSITE BIPOLAR PLATES
Rungsima Yeetsorn , Michael Fowler , Costas Tzoganakis, May 2008
Thermoplastic composites are thought to be one of the most promising candidate materials to substitute for conventional materials in bipolar plates for PEM Fuel Cells, but it is difficult to meet desirable conductivities when using thermoplastic composite plates while maintaining processability. In this regard, introducing small amounts of polypyrrole to the composites enhances electrical conductivity of the composites. Experiments involved both ex-situ tests of bipolar plate materials and in-situ fuel cell tests. From results, the conductivity of the material and fuel cell performance increased more than 5% by adding 1.8% of polypyrrole.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN HIGH-GLOSS MOLDED-IN-COLOR ENGINEERED POLYOLEFIN ALLOYS
Mitesh Shah , Kevin Cai , Marta Drewniak , Sudhir Bafna, May 2008
High-gloss molded-in-color (MIC) engineered polyolefin materials have been rapidly gaining acceptance in the automotive industry as an alternative to painted plastic. This is evidenced by the recent commercialization of INDURE® X-76 for exterior trim on the Ford F-250 platform. INDURE® X-76 offers excellent surface durability weatherability processability and part appearance while reducing total system costs. This paper reviews the performance attributes and applicability of this class of high-gloss engineered polymers focusing on new developments that extend the property and performance envelope. High-gloss molded-in-color (MIC) engineeredpolyolefin materials have been rapidly gaining acceptance in the automotive industry as an alternative to painted plastic. This is evidenced by the recent commercialization of INDURE ?? X-76 for exterior trim on the Ford F-250?ÿ platform. INDURE ?? X-76 offers excellent surface ?ÿ ?ÿdurability weatherability processability and part appearance while reducing total system costs. This paper reviews the performance attributes and applicability of this class of high-gloss engineered polymers focusing on new developments that extend the property and performance envelope.
EXTRUSION FOAMING OF HIGH-MELT-STRENGTH PP WITH SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE I: CELL NUCLEATION BEHAVIORS
Taher Azdast , Eung Kee Lee , Kyung-Min. Lee , Chul B. Park , Hani E. Naguib , Amir H. Behravesh , Elke Pachner , Andreas Praller, May 2008
This paper investigates the cell nucleation behaviors ofnon-crosslinked high-melt-strength (HMS) polypropylene (PP)foams blown with supercritical Carbon Dioxide (CO?ÿ2). Varying?ÿ?ÿ2. It was also observed that the effect of CO2on the cell density was more pronounced when low talc contentwas used?ÿ. Regardless of the amount of nucleating and blowing?ÿ?ÿ. It also appeared that?ÿthe die pressure did not affect the cell density significantly.agent the cell density was significantly improved by using a diewith a high pressure-drop-rate geometrythe talc and CO2 content changed the cell density. The effect ofdie pressure and pressure drop rate on cell nucleation behaviorsof HMS PP was also observed by using different die geometries.Three dies were deliberately designed to have either differentpressure drop rates while having the same die pressure or withdifferent die pressures while having same pressure drop rate.Experimental results indicated that regardless of the die theeffect of talc on the cell density was more significant at a lowconcentration of CO
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LONG CHAIN BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE MELTS AT HIGH SHEAR RATE
Jaejwan Kim , Dong Hak Kim , Younggon Son, May 2008
Capillary extrusion experiments involving a number of polyethylenes with emphasis on assessing the effect of long chain branching are performed. None of the metallocene catalyzed linear low density polyethylenes (mLLDPE) produced by Dow Chemicals which are believed to have some level of long chain branching show temperature dependence on the viscosity at the gross melt fracture regime. Furthermore these materials do not show spurt or stick-slip flow in contrast with most linear polyethylenes. LDPE and blends of LDPE with linear polyethylenes also show the absence of stick-slip flow but temperature dependence on the viscosity. From these observations we conclude that the stick-slip flow is very sensitive to the existence of long chain branching and the behavior of the stick-slip flow can be used as an indicator of LCB.
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LONG CHAIN BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE MELTS AT HIGH SHEAR
Jaejwan Kim , Dong Hak Kim , Younggon Son, May 2008
Capillary extrusion experiments involving a number of polyethylenes with emphasis on assessing the effect of long chain branching are performed. None of the metallocene catalyzed linear low density polyethylenes (mLLDPE) produced by Dow Chemicals, which are believed to have some level of long chain branching, show temperature dependence on the viscosity at the gross melt fracture regime. Furthermore, these materials do not show spurt or stick-slip flow, in contrast with most linear polyethylenes. LDPE and blends of LDPE with linear polyethylenes also show the absence of stick-slip flow, but temperature dependence on the viscosity. From these observations, we conclude that the stick-slip flow is very sensitive to the existence of long chain branching, and the behavior of the stick-slip flow can be used as an indicator of LCB.


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