SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Bentley Motors Develops Unique Directional Carbon Fibre Preforming Process for Chassis Rails
Antony Dodworth, September 2009

Details are presented on an automated process for manufacturing net-shape charges for compression moulding using a spray-deposition technique. The novel process uses a resin-spray technique and magnetic fibre to position and hold fibres onto the tool face. The process is intended for producing structural components using discontinuous bundles for medium-volume applications.

Reducing Setup Costs: Tooling Force Prediction in Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) & Compression RTM
Andrew Wabran, September 2009

Mould tools used for processes such as RTM and compression RTM must withstand significant forces generated by the fluid resin and the fibrous reinforcement. Prediction of these forces will allow for optimizations in setup costs and time and maximize the usage of the capabilities of peripheral equipment (such as presses). SimLCM is being developed at the University of Auckland as a simulation package with the capability to predict clamping forces and stress distributions during complete moulding cycles for RTM and CRTM.

Pushtrusion™ Direct In-Line (D-LFT) Compounding Technology versus LFT Pellets & GMT Sheet
Eric Wollan, September 2009

PlastiComp’s direct in-line (D-LFT) compounding process provides processors of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics a simple and affordable alternative to pre-compounded pellets and GMT sheet while yielding equivalent and in some cases slightly higher mechanical properties. This paper summarizes a comparative study of the properties of D-LFT vs. traditional LFT pellets in an injection-molding process as well as D-LFT vs. GMT sheet in a compression-molding process.

High Performance Reinforcement: A Pathway to Density Reduction while Maintaining Physical Properties of Polyolefin Composites
David Lake, September 2009

To achieve significant part weight reductions of 15-20% Milliken Chemical's high performance reinforcing (HPR) additive may be an excellent choice for the replacement of talc and other mineral fillers in polypropylene composites. For instance vs. talc HPR will typically provide comparable or superior performance with only about one-third of conventional talc concentrations. Furthermore these improvements may be realized without any detrimental effects on aesthetic properties.

Innovative PPS Blow-Molded Air Duct for Turbocharged Diesel Engine
Duane Emerson, September 2009

A new patented in-mold assembly process forms an optimized assembly using a combination of blow molding and injection molding for a turbo-charged diesel charge air duct. The process incorporates a 15%-GF-reinforced blow-molding grade and a 30%-GF-reinforced injection molding grade of polyphenylene sulfide. PPS was the material of choice due to its superior heat and chemical resistance.

Advances in Thermoplastic Composites Using CBT
Fred Deans, September 2009

The use of cyclic-polybutylene terephthalate (C-PBT) for manufacturing high-performance composites is taking on new roles. Advances in injection molding RTM molding pultrusion and composite tooling are benefiting from the use C-PBT thermoplastic resins leading to the development of new C-PBT technologies and applications.

Alternative Methods to Enable the Powder Priming of SMC
Hamid Kia, September 2009

Previous work has shown that the newly developed SMC systems are powder-primer ready in straight-through operations. However after an extended stoppage in the operation – such as July shutdown – the success of the powder application depends on the severity of temperature ramp in the oven. To overcome this issue alternative methods are proposed such as 4 min. of preheating in the oven at 180°C or 3 min. of IR exposure.

The Influence of SMC Formulation Inner Panel Thickness & Bond Stand-Offs on Bond-Line Read-Through Severity
Kedzie Fernholz, September 2009

Two experiments designed to understand the relationship between material and process factors and bond-line read-through (BLRT) severity will be discussed. Regression analyses of the data collected in these experiments were able to establish relationships between the experimental factors and BLRT severity with at least 80% correlation.

Flexibility in the Direct Strand Moulding Compound (D-SMC) Process
Tobias Potyra, September 2009

In order to improve quality issues as well as to establish an integrated and continuous process for compression-moulded parts a direct processing technology has been developed. This presentation should demonstrate the flexibility of the new direct-SMC technology in terms of use of alternative and new raw materials and formulations.

Recent Advances in Class A Polyurethane Long Fiber Injection (LFI) Composites
Usama Younes, September 2009

Recent advances in related polyurethane chemistry have increased the commercial viability of the long fiber injection (LFI) process for producing very-large composite parts such as entry-door skins truck body and spa panels and recreational boat hulls. These advances enable the LFI process to achieve previously unattainable extended gel times on an open hot mold retain a relatively short demold time and form defect-free surfaces that can lead to the Class A surfaces required for large automotive body panels.

Composite Power-Train Components: Reducing Warranty Costs & Improving Part Quality
Toai Ngo & Mayur Shah, September 2009

Sheet-molding compound has been used in underhood applications and is extending its reach to drivetrain components. This presentation will show how vehicle manufacturers have reduced costs and improved quality through product designs that eliminate hardware enhance capability and improve system performance.

Automotive Composites Consortium Structural Composite Underbody
Libby Berger, September 2009

The Automotive Composites Consortium Focal Project 4 (ACC FP4) is a joint program between GM Ford and Chrysler to develop structural automotive components from composite materials. Part of this project is a structural composite underbody capable of carrying crash loads. Phase 2 of the project involves a full design of the underbody including design for durability and feasible component manufacturing and vehicle assembly scenarios.

BMC Composites: High Value Metal Replacement Material Alternative for Automotive Powertrain Applications
Jim Cederstrom, September 2009

Performance requirements for underhood components are increasing making historically used thermoplastics unsuitable for next-generation engines. The need for higher thermal chemical and mechanical resistance is opening the door to thermoset bulk-molding compounds (BMC) for critical metal-replacement opportunities successful examples of which will be presented.

Application of Digimat Micromechanical Modeling to Polymer Composites
Peter Foss, September 2009

DIGIMAT micromechanics-modeling software was evaluated to predict the nonlinear stiffness and strength properties of glass-filled nylon. In this particular case due to the high aspect ratio of the fibers the properties of reverse engineered effective actual matrix properties were needed to accurately correlate both the matrix" rather than theflow and transverse to flow stress-strain behavior."

Advanced Simulation of Fiber-Reinforced Automotive Radiator End Tanks by Capturing Anisotropic Material Properties
Suresh Shah, September 2009

This study aims to capture realistic anisotropic properties of a plastic material in a structural analysis. Moldflow software has been used to obtain the fiber-orientation details for a plastic radiator tank. This fiberorientation output data have been transferred to the structural analysis software (ABAQUS using commercially available interface software (DIGIMAT). This integrated simulation technique helps in accurate prediction of burst pressure strength of the plastic tank.

Material Characterization & Modelling of Long Glass-Fiber Composites
Matthew Marks, September 2009

Modeling the stiffness of parts injection molded from long-fiber materials is similar to yet different from behavior using short-fiberfilled materials. This work discusses the effects of various modeling assumptions and methods on stiffness predictions using a coupled Moldflow-Digimat-Abaqus analysis methodology.

Fatigue Properties of Injection Molded 33% E-Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide-66
Shivanand Sankaran, September 2009

This paper presents the effects of melt temperature injection pressure hold pressure and injection speed on the tensile and fatigue properties of 33-wt% E-glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-66. It was observed that these process parameters had a greater influence on the fatigue properties than on the tensile properties. Melt temperature had the greatest effect followed by injection pressure. Both hold pressure and injection speed had smaller but significant effects on the fatigue life.

Identification Selection & Development of Composite Test Standards - A Case Study from the Development of a Design Standard for Composites
Ellen Lackey, September 2009

This paper examines the identification selection and development of appropriate composite test methods as required in the composites design process. Examples from the development of a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) standard for pultruded composites are presented. The issues addressed for this case study discussion are applicable to any segment of the composites market that is looking to establish design procedures or develop design standards.

Study of Braided Composites for Energy Absorption
Andy Rich, September 2009

The goal of this research project was to provide data to build FEA tools and to improve the understanding of braiding technology in order to expand predictive abilities for post-yield behavior of carbon fiber products braided with multiple hybrid fibers.

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