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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
INVESTIGATION OF FIBER ORIENTATION IN FILLING AND PACKING PHASES
Chih-Chung Hsu , Dar-Der Hsieh , Hsian-Sen Chiu , Masashi Yamabe, May 2008
Fiber-reinforced engineering materials are widely used for their superior mechanical properties in lots of plastic parts. And it is truly believed that in the injection molding process the fiber orientation and anisotropy shrinkage are very complex 3D phenomena which may influence the product properties deeply. In this research the fiber orientation is considered both in filling and packing process numerically. The result of fiber orientation shows a good agreement with experimental data. Moreover the investigation illustrates the strength of fiber orientation in filling and packing phases.
ANOMALOUS MECHANICAL ANISOTROPY OF BETA-FORM POLYPROPYLENE OBTAINED BY T-DIE PROCESSING
Masayuki Yamaguchi , Takashi Fukui , Kenzo Okamoto, May 2008
Structure and mechanical properties are studied for extruded sheets of isotactic polypropylene (PP) containing a small amount of N N’-dicyclohexyl-2 6-naphthalenedicarboxamide as a ?-form nucleating agent. It is found that the ? trigonal crystals are predominantly formed in the extruded samples containing the nucleating agent. Since the ?-form crystals are responsible for the marked mechanical toughness the impact strength of the sheet sample containing the nucleating agent is higher than that of the pure PP. Further PP molecules in the extruded sheet are found to orient perpendicular to the applied flow direction. As a result the sheet shows anomalous mechanical anisotropy.
ANOMALOUS MECHANICAL ANISOTROPY OF BETA-FORM POLYPROPYLENE OBTAINED BY T-DIE PROCESSING
Masayuki Yamaguchi , Takashi Fukui , Kenzo Okamoto, May 2008
Structure and mechanical properties are studied for extruded sheets of isotactic polypropylene (PP) containing a small amount of N,Nƒ??-dicyclohexyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxamide, as a ?ý-form nucleating agent. It is found that the ?ý trigonal crystals are predominantly formed in the extruded samples containing the nucleating agent.Since the ?ý-form crystals are responsible for the marked mechanical toughness, the impact strength of the sheet sample containing the nucleating agent is higher than that of the pure PP. Further, PP molecules in the extruded sheet are found to orient perpendicular to the applied flow direction.As a result, the sheet shows anomalous mechanical anisotropy.
LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF USING VIRTUAL MANUFACTURING IN E-LEARNING FOR THE OPERATION TECHNOLOGY OF INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
H. S. Lin , M. C. Jeng , S. C. Chen, May 2008
E-Learning is now a popular learning method and it is a certain relation between e-Learning and Virtual Manufacturing‹¬?VM‹¬?. In the context it designed two experiments to prove the learning efficiency of using the VM technology in e-Learning. Two experiments were carried out including the learning efficiency test (LET) and the reliability test (RT). LET aims to prove whether the learning system provides learning efficiency; and RT aims to test the stability of the operating system. The results of experiments evidence that operation system provides the learner with learning efficiency 30% and reliability value( for operating time) is 0.835 . This hence concludes the usability of this way.
COST EFFECTIVE TiO2 EXTENSION IN WHITE COLOR CONCENTRATES USING ANHYDROUS CALCIUM SULFATE
Susan Dichter , John Hollendonner, May 2008
Anhydrous calcium sulfate is manufactured from high purity naturally occurring gypsum deposits in Oklahoma USA. The final product is a white fine grind powder which is suitable to extend and replace TiO2 in white color concentrate master batches. The material is heat stable in the realm of plastics processing temperatures and it is compatible with the various resins typically used in this application. Due to its low Mohs hardness calcium sulfate is easily processed while providing opacity by acting as an efficient and cost effective TiO2 spacer in the concentrate.
ADVANCED ON-LINE GAUGING SOLUTIONS FOR CONTINUOUS PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL
Tan Srinivasan, May 2008
On-line gauging Systems with advanced Full Spectrum InfraRed sensor technologies and control strategies improve quality of multilayer high barrier films and coatings increase productivity of the manufacturing process and provide timely and valuable insights into the Biax Film and Extrusion Coating manufacturing processes with Process Analytical tools and Process Diagnostics Visualization tools. Diagnostic tools such as FFT Contourview Die mapping Process variables trending etc. pinpoint the process problems in a timely manner. The resultant Process Optimization contributes significantly to improved product quality increased productivity scrap reduction and high material yield.
ADVANCED ON-LINE GAUGING SOLUTIONS FOR CONTINUOUS PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL
Tan Srinivasan, May 2008
On-line gauging Systems with advanced Full Spectrum InfraRed sensor technologies and control strategies improve quality of multilayer high barrier films and coatings, increase productivity of the manufacturing process, and provide timely and valuable insights into the Biax Film and Extrusion Coating manufacturing processes with Process Analytical tools and Process Diagnostics Visualization tools. Diagnostic tools such as FFT, Contourview, Die mapping, Process variables trending etc. pinpoint the process problems in a timely manner. The resultant Process Optimization contributes significantly to improved product quality, increased productivity, scrap reduction and high material yield.
FUNCTIONALIZED POLYOLEFINS THAT DELIVER ROOM TEMPERATURE ADHESION TO POLYURETHANES
Laura Weaver , Ashish Batra , Jose M. Rego , Patricia Ansems , Laura Mergenhagen, May 2008
Maleic anhydride (MAH) modified polymers and ethylene acrylic acid (EAA) copolymers are known to adhere well to polar materials in high temperature processes such as in multi-layer film and sheet extrusion. However these materials have been found to exhibit unacceptable adhesion to polar materials such as polyurethane foams adhesives and coatings in room temperature applications. Three new developmental products are now available for sampling which can be coextruded with either low density polyethylene (LDPE) propylene-ethylene elastomers or ethylene-?-olefin elastomers and provide a high functionality surface layer that enables adhesion to urethanes at room temperature. Each product exhibits 100% cohesive failure from a polyurethane foam applied at room temperature. Examples of applications where these type of films and sheets would be useful are: transportation (head rests consoles seating headliners flooring); building and construction; consumer durables packaging and the like. This paper describes typical process conditions film and sheet properties and adhesion performance of the functionalized polyolefins that can adhere to polyurethane at room temperature.
FUNCTIONALIZED POLYOLEFINS THAT DELIVER ROOM TEMPERATURE ADHESION TO POLYURETHANES
Laura Weaver , Ashish Batra , Jose M. Rego , Patricia Ansems , Laura Mergenhagen, May 2008
Maleic anhydride (MAH) modified polymers and ethylene acrylic acid (EAA) copolymers are known to adhere well to polar materials in high temperature processes such as in multi-layer film and sheet extrusion. However, these materials have been found to exhibit unacceptable adhesion to polar materials such as polyurethane foams, adhesives, and coatings in room temperature applications. Three new developmental products are now available for sampling which can be coextruded with either low density polyethylene (LDPE), propylene-ethylene elastomers, or ethylene-?ñ-olefin elastomers and provide a high functionality surface layer that enables adhesion to urethanes at room temperature. Each product exhibits 100% cohesive failure from a polyurethane foam applied at room temperature. Examples of applications where these type of films and sheets would be useful are: transportation (head rests, consoles, seating, headliners, flooring); building and construction; consumer durables, packaging and the like. This paper describes typical process conditions, film and sheet properties, and adhesion performance of the functionalized polyolefins that can adhere to polyurethane at room temperature.
FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYCARBONATE-PDMS COPOLYMER COMPOSITIONS
Krishna Maruvada , Cristina Cojocariu , Niles Rosenquist, May 2008
Inherent Flame Retardancy (FR) of copolymer compositions of Polycarbonate–Polydimethylsiloxane is presented in this paper. Properties such as limiting oxygen Index char yield surface enrichment characteristics along with UL94 performance are analyzed. Comparison is made with neat polycarbonate. Superior inherent FR coupled with good low temperature impact heat hydroaging characteristics and transparency distinguishes copolymer compositions from neat polycarbonate thereby making these compositions excellent candidates for engineering thermoplastic applications including medical and food contact applications.
FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYCARBONATE-PDMS COPOLYMER COMPOSITIONS
Krishna Maruvada , Cristina Cojocariu , Niles Rosenquist, May 2008
Inherent Flame Retardancy (FR) of copolymer compositions of Polycarbonateƒ??Polydimethylsiloxane is presented in this paper. Properties such as limiting oxygen Index, char yield, surface enrichment characteristics along with UL94 performance are analyzed. Comparison is made with neat polycarbonate. Superior inherent FR coupled with good low temperature impact, heat, hydroaging characteristics, and transparency distinguishes copolymer compositions from neat polycarbonate, thereby making these compositions excellent candidates for engineering thermoplastic applications including medical and food contact applications.
ADVANCED PROCESS DESIGN IN HIGH VOLUME KNEADER REACTORS USING MULTIPLE FEED PORTS TO AVOID CRUST FORMING FOAMING AND LOW HEAT TRANSFER
Daniel U. Witte, May 2008
Kneaders reactors are used for combined unitary processing in the polymer industry for devolatilization compounding or polymerization. Multiple feed ports are used in screw type reactors to allow adding multiple substrates into one product whereas one unitary operation has to get to a certain degree of completion before the next substrate can be added. We have found that even for identical substrates multiple feed ports can be advantageous to avoid specific working points where the product behavior is disadvantageous for efficient processing. Such processes require advanced design simulation tools to predict process behavior. We compare simulation results on pilot and the scale up.
ADVANCED PROCESS DESIGN IN HIGH VOLUME KNEADER REACTORS USING MULTIPLE FEED PORTS TO AVOID CRUST FORMING, FOAMING AND LOW HEAT TRANSFER
Daniel U. Witte, May 2008
Kneaders reactors are used for combined unitary processing in the polymer industry for devolatilization, compounding or polymerization. Multiple feed ports are used in screw type reactors to allow adding multiple substrates into one product whereas one unitary operation has to get to a certain degree of completion before the next substrate can be added. We have found that even for identical substrates multiple feed ports can be advantageous to avoid specific working points, where the product behavior is disadvantageous for efficient processing. Such processes require advanced design simulation tools to predict process behavior. We compare simulation results on pilot and the scale up.
HOW CAN POLYMER RHEOLOGY BE USEFUL TO GUIDE PROCESSING
Shi-Qing Wang , P. E. Boukany , S. Ravindranath , Y. Y. Wang, May 2008
This presentation discusses the latest developments in the field of nonlinear rheology of entangled polymeric liquids resulting from nearly two dozens of publications from the Polymer Dynamics Interface and Rheology Group at Akron. The essential findings are that a) entangled liquids respond to sudden startup flow elastically and undergo cohesive failure or yielding before subsequent flow is possible b) the flow field beyond the yield point is dictated by the characteristics of the yielding process that can be strongly inhomogeneous c) entangled liquids possess finite cohesion that can be overcome after flow cessation by internal elastic restoring forces.
HOW CAN POLYMER RHEOLOGY BE USEFUL TO GUIDE PROCESSING
Shi-Qing Wang , P. E. Boukany , S. Ravindranath , Y. Y. Wang, May 2008
This presentation discusses the latest developments in the field of nonlinear rheology of entangled polymeric liquids, resulting from nearly two dozens of publications from the Polymer Dynamics, Interface and Rheology Group at Akron. The essential findings are that a) entangled liquids respond to sudden startup flow elastically and undergo cohesive failure or yielding before subsequent flow is possible, b) the flow field beyond the yield point is dictated by the characteristics of the yielding process that can be strongly inhomogeneous, c) entangled liquids possess finite cohesion that can be overcome after flow cessation by internal elastic restoring forces.
THE EFFECT OF POST DIE PROCESSING TIME ON ADHESION IN COEXTRUSION BLOWN AND CAST FILM
Barry A. Morris, May 2008
Peel strength between layers in coextruded cast film is found to increase with increasing post die process time. The results suggest that adhesion is limited by the time and temperature available for bonding after new interfacial area is created during drawing. This contrasts with previous work in blown film where increases in peel strength with process time were attributed primarily to stress effects. The results from both processes however were found to collapse onto a single master curve by multiplying the peel strength by the modulus of the tie resin and dividing the process time by the relaxation time of the tie resin.
THE EFFECT OF POST DIE PROCESSING TIME ON ADHESION IN COEXTRUSION BLOWN AND CAST FILM
Barry A. Morris, May 2008
Peel strength between layers in coextruded cast film is found to increase with increasing post die process time.The results suggest that adhesion is limited by the time and temperature available for bonding after new interfacial area is created during drawing. This contrasts with previous work in blown film where increases in peel strength with process time were attributed primarily to stress effects.The results from both processes, however, were found to collapse onto a single master curve by multiplying the peel strength by the modulus of the tie resin and dividing the process time by the relaxation time of the tie resin.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN POLYMER/LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Hassan Eslami , Miroslav Grmela , Mosto Bousmina, May 2008
Poly[butylenes succinate-co-adipate] (PBSA) layered silicate nanocomposite was prepared by melt extrusion of PBSA and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Nanocomposites were prepared at a single clay loading. Before taking rheological measurements the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stress growth experiments were performed for both pure polymer and nanocomposite. Flow reversal experiments were conducted for nanocomposites at different predetermined rest time after cessation of forward flow. The orientation state of silicate layers were also investigated by cooling down the sample in the rheometer before and after the forward flow and then by performing X-ray in the transmission mode.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN POLYMER/LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Hassan Eslami , Miroslav Grmela , Mosto Bousmina, May 2008
Poly[butylenes succinate-co-adipate] (PBSA) layered silicate nanocomposite was prepared by melt extrusion of PBSA and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Nanocomposites were prepared at a single clay loading. Before taking rheological measurements, the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stress growth experiments were performed for both pure polymer and nanocomposite. Flow reversal experiments were conducted for nanocomposites at different predetermined rest time after cessation of forward flow. The orientation state of silicate layers were also investigated by cooling down the sample in the rheometer before and after the forward flow and then by performing X-ray in the transmission mode.
POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITES BASED ON IONIC LIQUID MODIFIED CATIONIC AND ANIONIC CLAYS
J.U. Ha , M. Xanthos, May 2008
Hydrotalcite anionic clays were reacted with phosphonium ionic liquids containing different anions. Montmorillonite cationic clays were also reacted with the residual cation of the ILs after modification of the anionic clay. The clays were analyzed by FTIR thermal analysis EDX and X-ray diffraction in order to determine the extent and type of intercalation of the IL anions/cations at the clay interlayers. The modified cationic and anionic clays and their mixtures were then melt compounded with polylactic acid and their effects on the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting micro- and nano-composites were investigated.


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