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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
THE DIFFERENT USES OF THE MELT FLOW INDEX EQUIPMENT
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2008
The Melt Flow Index (MFI) of a polymer could be measured using MFI equipment and following ASTM D1238. Although, MFI is a single point, it is the most known test that uses MFI equipment. However, MFI equipment could yield more information about the polymer. Principally, by changing the heating temperature, the dwell time, and the load a whole set of information could be obtained from the MFI equipment. This paper sheds some light on some of the possible information that could be gained from MFI equipment by changing temperature, time, and load.
THE FUTURE OF THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY: DECLINE OR GROWTH?
Roger F. Jones, May 2008
In 2006-2007 General Electric decided to divest its plastics operations as insufficiently profitable. Since GE has been a pioneer in the plastics industry for close to a century one has to ask ƒ??just what does the future hold for the rest of us?ƒ? Will plastics continue to growth faster than the overall economy or is this now all in the past? This paper will examine the question from both a national and a global view.
WATER AND ION TRANSPORT THROUGH SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS APPLICATIONS
Geoffrey M. Geise , B. D. Freeman , D. R. Paul, May 2008
Membrane-based desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis are becoming more widely used as global water shortage increases. There is a need to develop improved membrane materials for use in reverse osmosis. One such membrane a sulfonated pentablock copolymer is evaluated here for its water and salt transport properties. The effects of block molecular weight sulfonation fraction and solution-casting technique have been studied in terms of pure water and sodium chloride permeability.
WATER AND ION TRANSPORT THROUGH SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS APPLICATIONS
Geoffrey M. Geise , B. D. Freeman , D. R. Paul, May 2008
Membrane-based desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis are becoming more widely used as global water shortage increases. There is a need to develop improved membrane materials for use in reverse osmosis. One such membrane, a sulfonated pentablock copolymer is evaluated here for its water and salt transport properties. The effects of block molecular weight, sulfonation fraction, and solution-casting technique have been studied in terms of pure water and sodium chloride permeability.
IMPROVED WEATHERING PERFORMANCE IN FLAME RESISTANT PC/ABS BLENDS VIA ADDITION OF TAILORED SILICONE COPOLYMERS
Srinivas Siripurapu , Todd Loehr, May 2008
Flame resistant (FR) PC/ABS blends are commonly used as material of choice for portable computer housings and entertainment consoles. Increased demand for aesthetics and design freedom has resulted in need for improved weathering performance on exposure to indirect ultraviolet (UV) radiation. New flame retardant polycarbonate blends using tailored silicone copolymers fill the gap with providing flame resistance at thin gages without compromising on this weathering requirement.
IMPROVED WEATHERING PERFORMANCE IN FLAME RESISTANT PC/ABS BLENDS VIA ADDITION OF TAILORED SILICONE COPOLYMERS
Srinivas Siripurapu , Todd Loehr, May 2008
Flame resistant (FR) PC/ABS blends are commonly used as material of choice for portable computer housings and entertainment consoles. Increased demand for aesthetics and design freedom has resulted in need for improved weathering performance on exposure to indirect ultraviolet (UV) radiation. New flame retardant polycarbonate blends using tailored silicone copolymers fill the gap with providing flame resistance at thin gages without compromising on this weathering requirement
DESIGN OF BIORESORBABLE SCAFFOLDS FOR TISSUE GROWTH
Vincent M. DiTaranto , Aldo Crugnola , Matthew Mandeville, May 2008
Scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells using the compression molding method. The material used in the scaffold was a mixture of polycaprolactone hydroxyapatite and glycerin. The porosity of the scaffold was obtained by using salt and subsequent leaching with distilled water. Salt retention after soaking was addressed by using ultrasonic leaching.Three major factors in the design of a scaffold: porosity interconnectivity of the pores and distribution of the materials were achieved.
LASER WELDING OF TRANSPARENT PLASTICS BY MEANS OF THE INTERMEDIATE FILM METHOD
Walter Michaeli , Wolf-Martin Hoffmann , Edmund Haberstroh, May 2008
Laser transmission welding is an innovative joining process for plastics. Since one joining part has to be laser absorbing the polymer has to be pigmented with an absorbent material. By this however the material is colored to a certain extent. Reducing the absorbing material to the joining area enables the welding of transparent polymer parts without any pigmentation. The possibilites of this method to expand the laser welding spectrum are presented in this paper.
COUPLED FEA SIMULATION OF THE DEMOULDING PROCEDURE OF INJECTION MOULDED PARTS
Walter Michaeli , Bernhard Helbich, May 2008
A reasonable design of the injection mould has to guarantee that the moulded part can be demoulded without damaging either the ejection system in the mould or the part. In the conventional mould design this damaging occurs at the very end of the development process of the injection mould when it is already assembled. A simulation procedure is presented which enables the mould maker to mechanically layout the demoulding system. It combines a process simulation with a structural analysis and hence maximises the advantage of using CAE.
A PLASTICS EDUCATION OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL AGED GIRLS
Elizabeth Dell, May 2008
This paper describes a plastics education program for middle school girls. The goals of the program were to expose the girls to science and engineering and to educate them about plastics. The program included an overview of plastics and hands-on experimental investigations. Experiments included making a polymer environmental issues and the structure and properties of polymers. In addition to giving detailed descriptions of the program this paper includes recommendations for further improvements of the program.
IMPROVED MICRO-CELLULAR MOLDING OF LONG GLASS FIBER (LGF) REINFORCED THERMOPLASTICS
Frank C. Jaarsma, May 2008
Molding equipment modified for micro-cellular injection molding to address concerns of potential damage to reinforcing glass fibers in molded parts has recently become available. Test data indicates use of this equipment results in a significant improvement in glass fiber length retention and mechanical properties relative to traditional micro-cellular molding when processing LGF reinforced polypropylene and nylon.
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING AGENTS ON FATIGUE AND CREEP OF A MDPE PIPE
R. Ayyer , A. Hiltner , E. Baer, May 2008
The effect of concentration of Igepal CO 630 on slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe was investigated. The kinetics and mechanism of crack propagation in fatigue at R=0.1 and creep at 50 ?øC were compared to those in air. The fatigue and creep behavior followed the same stepwise crack growth mechanism as in air at all the concentrations used. As the concentration increased to 0.01 vol. % the creep lifetime decreased significantly whereas the lifetime in fatigue gradually increased. At higher concentrations the lifetime was similar in creep and fatigue.
POLYMER FOAMS FLEXURAL MODULUS OPTIMAZATION: EFFECT OF DENSITY PROFILE
Denis Rodrigue, May 2008
Several parameters are known to influence the flexural modulus of structural foams. In this paper the effect of density profile in terms of skin thickness transition zone smoothness and core density are discussed in order to predict and optimize the flexural modulus based on the constraints of fixed amount of material and beam thickness. The results obtained under the imposed constraints clearly shows that the I-beam model is not optimum and a smooth transition is needed to maximize flexural stiffness while reducing abrupt changes in the local materialƒ??s properties.
INTELLIGENT PROCESS CONTROL FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Huamin Zhou , Peng Zhao , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2008
An intelligent system combining a simplified simulation model and fuzzy inference has been developed for determining the process parameters of injection molding.First preliminary optimization based on a simplified simulation model was employed for the initial setting. Then a fuzzy inference model based on expert knowledge was used for correcting defects. By communicating with the machine controller the intelligent system was integrated with the injection molding machine to optimize process parameters real time. An experimental study was carried out for verification.
THE EFFECTS OF MATERIAL SELECTION ON RF SYSTEMS INCLUDING RFID
Timothy B. Austin, May 2008
As the electronics industry tends to convergence of voice and data communications wireless networks become ubiquitous and radio frequency identification gains popularity the effects of material selection on RF performance become increasingly important; this paper discusses how electric fields are affected by polymers and polymer composites.
EFFECTS OF THE FOAM MORPHOLOGY IN THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTIC FOAMS
Walter Michaeli , Laura Flórez , Thorsten Krumpholz , Dominik Obeloer, May 2008
The foaming reduces both material and energy consumption in the injection molding while minimizing warpage and shrinkage in the molded part. However until now the design potential of injection molded foams has remained rather unexploited because the relation between foam morphology and resulting mechanical properties is not fully understood. This paper studies the effect of morphological parameters such as cell diameter density distribution and skin thickness on the mechanical properties of injection molded foams.
INJECTION MOLDING CREATES LARGE HOLLOW CHANNELS- THE NEW INNOVATIVE GITBLOWTECHNIQUE
Helmut Potente , Volker Schöppner , Martin Schäfers, May 2008
The new GITBlow specialty injection molding process can be used to produce thick-walled molded parts with adjacent thin-walled zones and extremely large hollow sections inside the thickpart areas. In this way it is possible to achieve parts that were previously made by joining together different parts to create assemblies. This paper presents the technology involved highlights the possibilities and fields of application and sums up the test results obtained so far.
THE EFFECTS OF RADIUSED CORNERS ON MELT FLOW IMBALANCES
Patrick J. Harris , Patrick T. Miller, May 2008
A special case of mold filling shear induced imbalances in a geometrically balanced runner system is studied in a four-flow mold. The case compares and contrasts the detectable differences theoretically attributed to corner effects seen in the two outermost flow channels. Aninety degree corner and a full radius corner are investigated through use of interchangeable mold inserts which create both conditions.
NANOCOMPOSITES ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION
Christopher C. Ibeh , Monika Bubacz, May 2008
A pilot nanocomposites entrepreneurial education course was implemented at Pittsburg State University as part of a proposed nanotechnology entrepreneurship emphasis. This effort is designed to inculcate in our students the role of polymeric materials innovation in product development and commercialization. Course performance was evaluated via studentsƒ?? satisfaction indices as per the CUES (Consortium for Upgrading Educational Standards) Assessment Model. CUES-AM data yield a true satisfaction index of 0.92 indicating very good course performance.
DETERMINATION OF THE PVT PROPERTY OF ASYMMETRIC PS/CO2 DROP AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
Y.G. Li and C.B. Park, May 2008
Due to the high viscosity it is not easy to form an axisymmetric shape out of a PS/CO2 drop. In this study the asymmetric PS/CO2 sessile drops are observed to determine the swelling of a PS melt with dissolved CO2. A rotational device in a high-pressure and high-temperature cell with a visualization window was built. The degree of asymmetry is mathematically defined and an algorithm is developed to integrate the asymmetric profile for determining the PVT (i.e. volume swelling) of the PS/CO2 solution.


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