The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Structure-Property Relationships in Coextruded Foam/Film Microlayers
It has been demonstrated for the first time that microcellular foam structures can be produced using the microlayer coextrusion technology. Cell size can be reduced considerably by increasing the number of layers without adversely affecting the density. Unique mechanical properties can be achieved through material choice and layer structure. The cell morphology and the compressive response of these multilayered foam/film structures are similar to that of cork.
Simulation of Polymeric Flow in a Twin Screw Extruder: An Analysis of Elongational Viscosity Effects
Flow of a polymer in an intermeshing co-rotating twin-screw extruder is simulated. Effect of elongational viscosity on the flow is analyzed using independent power-law models for the shear and elongational viscosities. Axial component of the velocity is found to be maximum in the intermeshing region of the extruder. Axial component of velocity, which determines the throughput of the extruder, decreased as the elongational viscosity of the polymer used for the flow simulation was increased. The pressure in the extruder decreased from a very high positive value on the leading edge to a very large negative value on the trailing edge of the screw. For the same rotational speed the pressure build-up in the twin-screw extruder increased as the elongational viscosity of the polymer was increased.
Plastic Energy Dissipation (PED) of Uncompatibilized and Compatibilized Polymer Blend Systems
It has been demonstrated experimentally, that Plastic Energy Dissipation (PED) is the most important heating/melting mechanism, especially in the initial stage of heating of compacted solid polymer particulates in polymer compounding equipment, where forced particulate deformation takes place. Our previous work has also found that the melting of multi-component polymer blends is totally different from that of the individual blend component. The difference has been correlated to the different PED response of individual blend components in the deformation of polymer blends. In this work, we study the PED behavior of model polymer blends (PE/PS) at different compositions as well as the effect of a compatibilizer on the blend PED. The Specific Mechanical Energy (SME) input associated with PED of both uncompatibilized polymer blends and compatibilized polymer blends during uniaxial compressive deformation is calculated and compared.
Simulation of the Fluid Flow of Deeper Screw Flights for Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
Co-rotating twin-screw extruders are frequently used in the field of polymer compounding processes. The extruders are build in a modular design with different conveying and mixing elements to be adapted of specific processes. The user operating the machines often has an optimization problem: On the one hand a gentle mechanical treatment during the flow through the extruder are required. Otherwise there is the desire for a flow rate as much as possible. Therefore Coperion Werner & Pfleiderer has developed a new model series with deeper screw flights, because the ratio of outer versus root diameter is one of the characteristic dimensions of a screw extruder.To estimate and evaluate the success of the new model series, numerical simulations have been carried out of the three dimensional fluid flow in such twin-screw extruders. The approximation based on a finite volume method with contour-adapted meshes. The calculations are made in a relative system, where the flow appears in a steady state.In this paper we present results of numerical investigations of single- and double-flighted screw elements and compare these with calculated values of an old model range with smaller diameter ratio. We discuss not only the conveying- and power-characteristics for Newtonian and nonnewtonian highly viscous materials but also the distribution of shear rate and shear stress. It is shown that the deeper screw flights are a good choice to take care of the polymer material and reduce the energy consumption of many processes.
Development and Verification of a Method to Optimize Individual Screw Elements for Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
Tightly Intermeshing, co-rotating twin screw extruders are commonly employed for tasks requiring good mixing. The modular constitution of both barrel and screw makes it possible to optimize the extruder configuration for a given task. This research focuses on the optimization of individual screw elements, thus the development of an optimized geometry for different materials and operating conditions.We calculated the pressure profile, the temperature development and the power consumption using one-dimensional models. A non-linear optimization algorithm was used to vary the geometrical data of the screw elements of interest. The goal was to find a geometry that shows an optimum between the contradicting goals of a minimum temperature increase, a minimum power consumption and a capability to build up a certain pressure with in a minimum distance (i.e. maximum pressure gradient). The quality of the geometry was characterized and evaluated by quality functions. We verified the optimization method by systematic experimental investigations.
Processing and Properties of Foamed HDPE/PP Blends by Extrusion
This paper presents a study on the processing condition and characterization of foamed HDPE/PP blends. The blends were foamed with different blowing agent concentrations using a twin-screw extruder. A chemical blowing agent (azodicarbonamide) and activator agent (ZnO) were selected and the morphological, rheological and mechanical properties of the resulting foams are presented.
Effect of the Filler Content on the Specific Properties of Syntatic Foam
In this study we assessed the specific properties including tensile, compression and flexure strengths and moduli for syntactic foam as a function of various microstructures. Preliminary results revealed that the specific compressive strength and the specific tensile, compressive and flexural moduli depended on the type of microsphere, which varied in density. Mechanical properties are critically evaluated in light of their microstructures.
Capillary Rheometry Studies on Wall Slip Flow of Ceramic Pastes
The extrusion behavior of ?–aluminium oxide– silicone oil pastes were investigated via capillary rheometry. Several parameters affecting the paste behavior were considered, including the viscosity of the fluid phase, the solids concentration (35 to 55 Vol. %), the extrusion rate (10-2 to 103 mm/s) and the addition of pigment. The flow curves and wall slip behavior were determined under the extrusion conditions.
Synthesis of Blocky Copolymers via Ring-Opening Polymerization Using L,L-Lactide and MBC
A semi-crystalline copolymer was synthesized with block-like structures by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) using L,L-lactide (LLA) and 5-methyl-5- benzyloxycarbonyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one (MBC). Analysis of the copolymer revealed retention of crystallinity and melting transition temperatures. The copolymer exhibited an upper limit to compositional incorporation of MBC before crystallinity was disrupted. The physical properties (Tg, Tc, Tm) were increased after hydrogenation.
Effects of Molecular Structure of Polyethylenes on Their Processabilities in Film Blowing Extrusion Process
In this work, bubble instabilities of metallocene and Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polyethylenes (PEs) were studied by using an in-line scanning camera. Levels of long chain branching (LCB) and breadth of molecular weight distribution (MWD) of PEs were systematically varied to study their effects on bubble instabilities. Gel permeation chromatograph traces and small amplitude oscillatory shear data were used to verify the molecular structure of PEs. In addition, tensile stress growth coefficients and apparent uniaxial extensional viscosities were also determined by using Meissner type rheometer and converging die techniques. It was found that LDPE shows the most stable working windows confirming the previous arguments that the polymer showing strong strain hardening has the broader working window. It was also found that two branched metallocene catalyzed PEs show better bubble stability than PEs with broad MWDs implying that the presence of LCB plays a much more important role than the broadening of the MWD. The order of bubble instabilities can be properly evaluated based on a plot of normalized tensile stress growth coefficient vs Hencky strain or normalized extensional viscosities vs extensional stress.
Cluster Computing in Numerical Simulation of Extrusion Flow
In this research, a parallel finite volume method was developed to simulate non-isothermal non-Newtonian steady flow in a coat-hanger extrusion die on PC clusters. We implemented the algorithm by domain decomposition methods that distribute the computational parts equally among the PCs and balance the loading of each PC to the utmost. Each PC exchanged data and information according to MPI (message passing interface) standard, and the governing equations were solved by using the three-dimensional collocated cell-centered finite volume method. In this approach, the extrusion flow can be predicted efficiently and accurately. Moreover, the effects of interconnect network were also discussed in this paper. The present numerical approach proved to be a promising solution for complicated extrusion problems.
Evaluation of Variability in Injection Molding (IM) Molds
The use of injection molding (IM) in high precision manufacturing relies upon the capability of the process to deliver parts consistently conforming to specifications. Characterizing such capability is a matter of understanding the most important sources of variation in IM and to find ways to provide robustness to the process. In this study, a statistical analysis of several sources of variability in IM is presented to precede a future optimization task in which the aim will be to find variable settings that provide the balance between high performance in selected measures as well as low variability around these indicators. The results presented here are meant to be an evaluation of IM molds for use in high precision manufacturing. A method that capitalizes on the strengths of statistical analysis is demonstrated here through two case studies where the variability in parts produced by different molds is assessed. The adequacy of these molds for high-precision manufacturing is determined.
Identifying the Best Compromises between Multiple Performance Measures in Injection Molding (IM) Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): Preliminary Results
Injection molding (IM) is considered to be the most important mass production process for plastic products. A substantial amount of research has been directed towards finding settings for the IM process variables as well as the optimal location of the injection gates. These objectives have been mostly approached through the optimization of performance measures (PMs) as functions of the process’ variables. The use of computer-aided engineering (CAE) has played a pivotal role in trying to achieve these objectives. The aim of this work is to demonstrate a method based on CAE, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the optimal compromises between multiple PMs to prescribe the settings of IM process variables and the location of the injection gate. Two case studies are presented for this purpose. The first case refers to the production of a cylindrical canister where part shrinkage plays an important role for an effective mold release. The second case analyzes the production of a generic part with cut-outs such as a window frame where the location of weld-lines is critical. Also in this second case flatness is considered an important measure.
Novel Impact Modification in Olefin Systems
Unique additives enable increases in the Gardner impact strength of polyolefins by a factor of 10 while maintaining up to 90% of the material flexural modulus. The effects of resin and additive loading level are addressed in a statistically designed experiment. Physical performance, rheological effects, thermal characterization, and morphological characterization are reported.
Dynamic Rheological Properties of Polypropylene Containing Thermoplastic Elastomer Compounds
The dynamic rheological properties of two types of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) compounds were studied at ambient and processing temperatures. The linear viscoelastic properties of Thermoplastic Vulcanisates (TPV) and PP/SEBS compounds can be described using models based on mechanical mixing rules. The results were evaluated as a function of composition.
The Comparasion of a Short-Term and Long-Term Capital Market Investment Tools
The article discuss the evaluation of ways of investment occasions on a capital market, taking under consideration the availability and cost of investment money. It is considering the time-factor related to the actual market environment an describing the specific possibilities of the trading tools as the technological conciliator of the investment in the chemical and plastic industry.
The Genealogy of Polymers
The supply chain for polymeric materials is a drastically changing environment. This paper will focus on the types of trade names used. Changes of ownership along with historic trade names will be discussed. Predictions of future uses and types of trade names will be made.
Thermal Control of Melt Flow in Cylindrical Geometries
The control of plastic freeze-off and melt flow through a cylindrical nozzle is studied. Analysis of the temperature distribution of a nozzle contacting the mold shows a significant temperature distribution as a function of the axial and radial position in the metal and plastic. The temperature of the plastic melt determines the viscosity and subsequent flow through the nozzle. Experimental investigation validates the analysis by characterizing the pressure needed to induce flow as a function of nozzle and mold temperature. Control of the polymer freeze-off and melt flow is necessary for fully automatic production, as well as development of advanced molding processes.
Concept and Preliminary Result of a Nozzle Pressure Virtual Sensor of Injection Molding Process
This paper proposes a new virtual sensing approach for on-line monitoring process variables of injection molding process. In particular, a nozzle pressure virtual sensor has been developed. Exploiting the dynamic interaction between the machine and process variables, the virtual sensor utilizes the screw velocity data (a machine variable) to predict behavior of the nozzle pressure (a process variable). The virtual sensor was designed based on nonlinear observer theory. Experiment evaluation on a commercial injection molding machine was carried out, confirming the effectiveness of the virtual sensor.
Water-Assist Injection Molding – An Innovative Process Technology for Productivity Improvement - Developments in Processing, Equipment and Materials
Although water-assist injection molding is still in its infancy, this enabling technology promises productivity improvements for applications that may otherwise be cost prohibitive with gas-assist injection molding. Cycle times are reduced through cooling time reductions and the utilization of water as a cost-effective cooling medium when compared to nitrogen. For example, automotive suppliers have the potential for a broad range of cost savings with the production of conduits like cooling pipes or oil pipes. Other parts with large cross sections may also be produced in a cost-effective manner with water-assist injection molding. In fact, production parts in Europe are now beginning.Compared to the gas-assist injection molding details of the process, equipment, and the special material developments will be examined in this paper.
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