SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Ultrasonic Sealing of Flexible Pouches through Contaminated Sealing Surfaces
Thomas Herrmann, Bill Lynch, May 2004

Sealing technologies like heat sealing, impulse heat sealing, high frequency welding or hot air welding. Review of the basic principles of Ultrasonic welding, it’s advantages and limitations. Explanation how Ultrasonics can assure hermetic seals, even with contaminated surfaces (fluids, solids or fibers between the sealing surfaces). Sealing of complex multi layer composite foils (laminate foils) with Ultrasonics. sealing of heat sensitive products (no change of the product flavor). Sealing of extremely thin foils (tube bag applications, flow wrappers).

Decision Tools for an Enhanced Supply Chain
Margaret Baumann, Carol Vesier, May 2004

Supply chain management is quickly becoming an important core competency for many companies. Effective supply chain management doesn’t just involve the procurement process but encompasses any function that can improve internal processes used to satisfy customer orders. An actual business case study will be used to illustrate a successful approach to profitable supply chain management.

Speed and Flexibility: A Value Proposition for a New Competitive Plastics Industry Environment
Norman E. Fowler, May 2004

The American plastics industry is at a crossroad created by increased international competitive pressures as well as industry maturation and consolidation. Coming from this crossroad most likely will be a new set of value propositions aimed at battling not just on component price, but adding value to other parts of OEM’s and other customers’ businesses. One such value proposition integrates speed and flexibility to drive lower overall total cost of acquisition.

Injection Molding Product Design and Development Decision Support Technologies
Anne Bernhardt, May 2004

We face increasing sophistication of plastic product development as well as a need to improve competitiveness. To meet these challenges, a large number of computer technologies are being developed, each promising to be the ‘silver bullet’ to success and profitability. This proliferation of new systems includes automation products, optimizations, simulations, monitoring, collaborative tools, etc...This paper explores the injection molded product design and development process and identifies what roll software should play in the process.

Aryl Phosphate Ester FR Additive for Low Smoke Vinyl Applications
Paul Y. Moy, Larry deKleine, May 2004

Additives which act as flame retardants can contribute significantly to smoke generation because they decrease the efficiency of the fuel source and, as a result, create a sooty combustion. Evaluations of various FRs in vinyl compounds will be discussed with information on a new material which shows significant reduced flammability and low levels of smoke evolution.

New Class of Ultraviolet Light Absorbers
Richard F. Grossman, May 2004

DNA bases are found to be effective ultraviolet light absorbers in HDPE and in PVC.

Controlled Rheology Polyolefins- New Concepts in Stabilization
Robert E. Lee, Elisabeth Papazoglou, Cindy Doumen, May 2004

This paper deals with controlled rheology (vis-cracked) polyolefins and new concepts in stabilization to reduce peroxide consumption and retain color and other performance criteria. Recently, non-phenolic stabilizer systems have been introduced for improved gas fade resistance but increased peroxide consumption drove up systems cost. Therefore, new concepts must balance total requirements for rheology control and stabilization.

Enhanced Properties of Polypropylene Using Glass Fiber Masterbatches
Daniel L. Davidson, May 2004

Our research has shown a unique approach to achieving similar physical properties to directly compounded polypropylene-glass fiber composites, using masterbatches with up to 60 percent by weight of chemically coupled glass fibers. The masterbatch compounds were diluted directly with virgin PP in an injection molding process, and are shown to provide nearly equivalent properties to the directly compounded composites.

The Influence of Fillers on the Biodegradation Kinetics of Polymers
J. Lou, K. Schimmel, A. Shahbazi, V. Harinath, C. Rutkoski, May 2004

Filled biodegradable polymer samples were prepared and exposed to simulated composting environment and the degradation kinetics was characterized. Particularly, the influence of the fillers on the biodegradation kinetics was investigrated.

A Dynamic Investigation of Esterification in Biodegradable Starch-Based Polymer
Yi-Fan Wu, Yio-Chih Kao, Ru-Shiamg Kung, Hsiau-Fu Shen, May 2004

Torque, time, and temperature were simply applied to monitor the dynamic esterification of degradable starch-based polymers reacted by different types of acids and catalyst. The formation of C=O double bond and C-O single bond at the region of around 1710cm-1 and 1250cm-1 respectively denotes some successful consequence. SEM was furthermore applied to check the compatibility between modified starch and polymer while TGA for the check of starch before and after modification.

Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Plastics Components – A Systems Approach
Rolf Koster, May 2004

Research objective is to establish manufacturing-related design rules and procedures for engineering design of injection molded thermoplastics parts, and to investigate application of novel materials to support development of design for sustainability. Thorough analysis of a large number of mechanical test results has led to a better understanding of factors influencing mechanical performance in tensile and tensile-impact. Among the noteworthy conclusions is the importance of shear rates and temperature gradients in the surface layers during molding.

Structural Plastics- Design for Function
Stephen B. Ham, May 2004

A methodology in producing highly functional designs is discussed. The family of injection molding processes referred to as Structural Plastics offers product designers more design liberty with net-shape moldings with highly functional and value added features. Functionality determines which process and resin should be specified through cost/benefit analysis.

Hedge Strategies for Plastics Part Design
David Kazmer, Christoph Roser, Robert Malloy, May 2004

Risk is inherent in the production of any molded part stemming from, for example, changes in production quantities, uncertainty in molding behavior, redefined product specifications, failures in equipment, and abandoned supplier relationships, and other causes. This paper provides several strategies for hedging these risks by considering the cost of the changes to correct different failure modes in the design. The objective is to improve product performance while reducing time to market and risk.

The Role of Material Selection in Product Failure
Michael P. Sepe, May 2004

According to one major industry study, 45% of all field failures involving parts fabricated from plastic materials can be attributed, at least in part, to an incorrect material selection. This paper will highlight several case studies involving failures due to improper material specification and will discuss solutions to these failures.

Failures Due to Compositional Factors
Myer Ezrin, Gary Lavigne, May 2004

Failures generally are due to problems of design, composition or processing. In this paper, examples are given in which failure was due primarily to composition. In some cases, components of the known formulation were at fault. In others, contaminants introduced externally were the cause of failure. Among the types of failure were odor, color, materials sticking together unintentionally and other problems resulting from transfer of formulation components to other materials.

Constitutive Model for Non-Linear Behaviour of SMC
M. Oldenbo, J. Varna, May 2004

In the present paper an approach for modelling SMC material as visco-elastic damageable is presented. Damage theory by Chow and Wang is used in combination with linear visco-elasticity. The model is exemplified through application to uniaxial creep test with material of different damage states. Simultaneous testing and simulations on a modern SMC material is performed with good accuracy, especially at moderate damage levels.

Fracture Analysis of Polypropylene Montmorillonite Nanocomposites
A. Hernandez-Luna, Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2004

Samples of polypropylene (PP) and PP nanocomposites with 1, 2, 3, and 5 % of Montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS) were tested in three-point bending conditions. Techniques of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and J-integral are used to determine the influence of MLS on this feature of the material. Fracture toughness was obtained for each one of the systems mentioned. It was found out that the addition of 5 % MLS reported the highest impact on the properties.

Scratch Behaviors of Moldings
Hiromi Kita, Mantaro Ishiki, Makoto Maki, May 2004

Scratch behaviors in several types of plastics have been investigated in order to develop scratch test method for plastics. The effects of scratch conditions such as scratch speed and normal load on the strength reduction have been discussed on the basis of absorbed energy obtained by carrying out the Charpy impact test after scratching (CAS for short). The effect of scratch has been studied by comparing the absorbed energy of CAS with that of Charpy impact test using both notched specimens and un-notched specimens. It is noted that scratches led to strength reduction in several plastics.

High Performance Clear Thermoplastics Elastomer
Jiren Gu, Tom Castile, Krishna Venkataswamy, May 2004

High performance clear TPE products are developed to replace silicone and PVC in various medical and personnel care applications. These are high clarity TPEs with high tensile and tear properties. They retain mechanical properties and dimensional stability after hours of testing in boiling water and repeated dishwasher cleaning cycles. These TPEs have good processability. They can be used in FDA and USP required applications.

New EPDM Rubber Concentrates for Making Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs) by Toll Compounding Process
Yundong Wang, Ryszard Brzoskowski, May 2004

EPDM rubber concentrates have been developed by DSM Thermoplastic Elastomers. This new line of products consists of three low durometer grades. These rubber concentrates are designed for toll compounders to make TPVs of different durometers (medium to high) and different properties by adding various amounts of polyolefin plastics, such as polypropylene (PP) and other ingredients, to the rubber concentrates on a twin screw extruder or on other mixing equipment with sufficient mixing capability.

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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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